Presentation on theme: "Technological Innovation and Intellectual Capital BUA5FTS – WEEK 1."— Presentation transcript:
Technological Innovation and Intellectual Capital BUA5FTS – WEEK 1
Bontis on Intellectual capital Intellectual capital has been considered by many, defined by some, understood by a select few and formally valued by practically no one. (Bontis, 1998: 622)
Technological innovation is defined as: A unique chronological process involving science, technology, economics, entrepreneurship, and management is the medium that translates scientific knowledge into physical realities that are changing society. This process of technological innovation is the heart of the basic understanding which the competent manager, the effective technologists, the sound government official, and the educated member of society should have in the world of tomorrow James Bright
Could you please identify some industries that have strong technological innovation?
Introduction The dominance of intellectual capital in wealth creation in all industries is highly evident today and some of the technologies are: Superconductivity Virtual Reality Robots Artificial Intelligence High-tech Medicine Biotechnology/Genetic Engineering Telecommunications
Intellectual capital concept First use of the term Intellectual capital in 1969 (Hudson 1993) Not yet agreed on its definition, its decomposition and methods for valuation. The intangible assets of skill, knowledge and information (Wall et al. 2004). "packaged useful knowledge" (Steward 1997:10) "knowledge, applied experience, organizational technology, customer relationships and professional skills" (Edvinsson and Malone 1997)
Intellectual Capital Intellectual Capital is defined as: 'Intellectual material that has been formalized, captured, and leveraged to produce a higher-valued asset.' (Professor David Klein and Laurence Prusak of IBM )
Intellectual Capital Relational capital/customer capital: Who you know and who knows and values you. Intellectual capital Human capital Structural capital Relational capital
Intellectual Property Human Capital Customer Capital Structural Capital R&D Start-Up Expansion
Idea generation Idea generation R&D Final Product Prototype Cash Flows Value Intellectual Capital and Firm Value
Valuation of Intellectual Property CompanyMarket Value Added Microsoft$253 billion Intel $78 billion Merck $62 billion Pfizer$131 billion Cisco Systems $45 billion Bristol-Myers Squibb$119 billion Logitech $2 billion CompanyMarket Value Added Microsoft$253 billion Intel $78 billion Merck $62 billion Pfizer$131 billion Cisco Systems $45 billion Bristol-Myers Squibb$119 billion Logitech $2 billion Source: Yahoo Finance, December 2009 MVA = market value of equity - equity capital supplied Table 2.1 Creators of Wealth
Measuring Intellectual Capital A model was developed by Skandia AFS: Market Value Financial Capital Intellectual Capital Human Capital Structural Capital Customer Capital Organisational Capital Innovation Capital Process Capital
Economic Benefit The primary objective of the firm is to maximise shareholders wealth It is typically accountable to a dispersed group of stakeholders – lenders, customers, investors, governments, employees, community members, suppliers, citizens The value of an intellectual asset is measured by the benefit it generates to the stakeholders and firm Benefit would normally refer to monetary gain or economic value to the shareholders and firm Definition of economic value is the present value of the expected earnings from using the asset
Economic Benefit Strong competition Associated rapid diffusion of innovations reduce the returns to innovation an appropriate framework of intellectual property rights is important to ensure that innovators receive an adequate return on their investment while at the same time encouraging the rapid diffusion of these innovations (OECD 2000). Lehman (1996) suggests that economic growth and competitiveness will be determined by the ability to create, own, preserve and protect intellectual property.
Intellectual Capital Financial Management Framework Involves the process of analysing the financial issues facing a technology start-up In terms of economic trade-offs or financial implications in relation to decisions about business investment, operations or financing The process entails understanding the business environment by evaluating and then developing a proper financial strategy for the venture
Intellectual Capital Financial Management Framework Incorporates the optimal business structure for the venture as well as utilising the appropriate tools for evaluating the financial problem or issue
Free Cash Flows Value of EquityValue of the Firm EBIT/EBT Discount Rate CAPMWACC Traditional DCF - Growth - TV Start-up Project Static Analysis Dynamic Analysis Option-based NPV Model Real Options Valuation Abandon (Put Option) Defer (Call Option) Expand (Call Option) NPV Investment Decision Financing: Venture k Debt IPOs Other Source: Oh (2002) Technology Start-ups Valuation Framework
Alternative Forms of Business Organization for Technology Startups Sole proprietorship Advantages: Ease of formation Subject to few regulations No corporate income taxes Disadvantages: Limited life Unlimited liability Difficult to raise capital
Alternative Forms of Business Organization for Technology Startups Partnership A partnership has roughly the same advantages and disadvantages as a sole proprietorship.
Alternative Forms of Business Organization for Technology Startups Corporation Advantages: Unlimited life Easy transfer of ownership Limited liability Ease of raising capital Disadvantages: Double taxation Cost of set-up and report filing
Goals of the Corporation The primary goal is owner wealth (value) maximization, which translates to maximizing firm s value. The factors that affect value of the firm are: (i) Projected cash flows to owners (ii) Timing of the cash flow stream (iii) Riskiness of the cash flows
(i) Cash Flow Long-term source of funds for the firm Internally generated Net income Retained earnings and depreciation provisions Free cash flows No historical data in most cases and this makes it difficult to forecast cash flow patterns (i.e. economic fundamentals and comparable firms analysis)
(ii) Timing of Cash Flows Implications for the owner wealth A dollar received today is worth more than a dollar received sometime in the future (time value of money) Opportunity cost Discounting and compounding
(iii) Riskiness of Cash Flows Factors that affect the level and riskiness of cash flows: Decisions made by financial managers Investment decisions Financing decisions (the relative use of debt financing) Dividend policy decisions The external environment
New Technology Venture Finance Focuses on how firms, both start-ups and large firms, manage the financial process of new product/technology development from conception to ultimate commercialisation requires managers to understand the balance sheet; valuation; financial tools; financial markets, and related issues and their impact on the financial performance of the firm.
Early-stage Technology Valuation Business Entity and its Value: Generally, comprised of the same basic elements being monetary assets, tangible assets and intangible assets More intangible assets Their aggregate value represents the value of the business enterprise The financing of these assets could come from two basic sources, namely equity and debt
Monetary + Tangible Assets Monetary + Tangible Assets Intangible Assets Internal R&D Processes Culture Knowledge External Customers Supply Chain Others Intangible Assets Internal R&D Processes Culture Knowledge External Customers Supply Chain Others Equity Debts Book Value + Stock Price Premium Book Value + Stock Price Premium = = + Balance Sheet Total Assets Total Capital + Firms Market Value
Financial Statements They are important because they portray the underlying financial performance and position of the project. They are also a tool used for monitoring investment and business activity They are important because they portray the underlying financial performance and position of the project. They are also a tool used for monitoring investment and business activity IAS 38 Intangibles Assets standard - specifies and requires certain disclosure criteria to be met by intangible assets IAS 38 Intangibles Assets standard - specifies and requires certain disclosure criteria to be met by intangible assets
Financial Statements Contentious issues: It specifies that internally generated intangible assets such as goodwill, brands, mastheads, publishing titles, customer base and the likes should not be treated as assets; IAS 38 does not allow an assignment of infinite useful life to an intangible asset; and Many acquired intangible assets will not be allowed to be re-valued upwards because of the absence of an active market for such assets.
Balance Sheet The balance sheet (statement of financial position) attempts to show the financial position of a project at a point in time and shows all the resources controlled by the enterprise and all the obligations due by the project. The balance sheet (statement of financial position) attempts to show the financial position of a project at a point in time and shows all the resources controlled by the enterprise and all the obligations due by the project. The balance sheet equation: The balance sheet equation: Assets = Liabilities + Equity Assets = Liabilities + Equity
Income Statement Statement of financial performance: Sales COGS Other expenses EBITDA Depreciation and amortisation EBIT Interest expense Taxes Net income
Cash Flow Statement Operating activities Net income Add – Sources of cash Increase A/P Increase in accruals Depreciation Less – Uses of cash Increase in A/R Increase in inventory = Net cash provided by operations minus Long-term investing activities Investment in fixed assets plus Financing activities Increase in notes payable Increase in long-term debt Net cash from financing = Net change in cash Add cash at the beginning of the year = Cash at the end of the year
Financial Reporting for IC The economic rationale by the proponents for recognition of intellectual capital in financial reporting focuses on the balance sheet treatment of competitive advantages of the firm, proposals include: broadening of intangible asset recognition criteria (i.e. capitalization of R&D, marketing and human resource expenditures) measurement of contractual positions at fair value new definition of revenue accounting to capture the critical events of the value creation cycle of new economy firms
Technology Valuation Implications of Technological Development for Business: Globalisation: resource allocation, manufacturing, MNCs and comparative advantage/competitive advantage e.g. India in software development Time compression: shortened product life & life cycle of a project e.g. Moores law (i.e. from initiation to completion), decreasing payback periods Technology integration: for development and commercialisation, e.g. IT + Biotech (see core technologies) Costs: better economies of scale and efficiency
Technology Valuation When technology is not mature, more time is needed in the early stages of the project If only incremental technology innovation, or when technology is mature, the early stages may be short and activities are likely to be confined to the execution and implementation of the project The project life cycle
Project Life Cycle Early-stage technology is defined as technology that has not been commercialised or proven beyond laboratory experiments and this broad category includes: Untested ideas Bench-top technology Prototype technology
Project Life Cycle All technology projects evolve over a number of stages, generally from conception to research and development (R&D) to commercialisation. The exact specification of the stages will depend very much on the nature of the project and the industry in which the technology is applied.
Time Cost Conceptual Definition Production Operation Divestment A typical five-phase project life cycle sequence:
Project Life Cycle In the pharmaceutical industry the stages are: Preliminary research (before filing a patent); Preclinical studies (done prior to an initial new drug application - IND), and Clinical trials – Phases 1, 2 and 3. In the aerospace industry the stages are: Concept definition; Concept Development; Implementation, and Launch and operations.
Other IP Valuation Purposes Other than for determining how much money is required for a technology start-up, there are other reasons why intellectual property is valued: Transaction support sale Bankruptcy Licensing Strategic alliances Infringement damages Intercompany transactions Collateral based financing Accounting requirements Regulatory requirements
Preparing resources The focus in FTS is on Financial resources
Financial Strategy Framework The three financial management decision areas common to all business are: I. Investment decisions; II. Financing decisions, and III. Dividend payout decisions (in the case of technology ventures: exit options)
Financial Strategy Framework I. Investment decisions The efficient allocation of resources to develop the new technology for commercialisation They are the source of future cash flows, growth, support for the venture s continued viability and are based on detailed plans (capital budgets) for committing new funds to predominantly three areas of activity: Major spending programs such as R&D and marketing Working capital Physical assets
Financial Strategy Framework II. Financing decisions Form of financing: Debt, equity or convertible securities (Is this a good option? Why?) Optimal capital structure consideration May varies over different stages Owner facing trade-off decision Other potential financiers of the venture, such as venture capital companies Profit allocation decision
Financing the entrepreneur firm Four factors: Uncertainty Asymmetric information The nature of its assets Market conditions
Financial Strategy Framework III. Dividend payout decisions (exit options) For a venture, the relevant decision in this context would be the exit options available to the entrepreneurs and equity funding parties.
Opportunity Business Strategy R&D Operations Growth Financing Marketing Value Creation Financial Strategy Risk Return Real options Sources Debt Equity Strategic Alliance Hybrids Figure 2.5 Financial Strategy
Critical Variables in Fund Raising Gompers et al. (2002) identified four broad categories of factors that influence the source of funds are identified as: Uncertainty: the dispersion of potential outcomes relating to information, competition, marketing etc.; Asymmetric information: moral hazards and adverse selection problems; Market conditions: supply of capital, cost of capital, capital structure, and Monitoring and evaluation: relationship between investors and entrepreneurs
Critical Variables in Fund Raising The following factors determine the nature and type of the financing for the venture: Accomplishments and performance Investor s perceived risk Industry and technology Venture upside potential and anticipated exit timing Venture anticipated growth rate Venture age and stage of development Required rate of return (IRR) Capital required and prior valuation of venture Founders goals regarding growth, control, liquidity and harvesting Relative bargaining position Investor s required terms and covenants
Project Life Cycle & Funding Funds Required Planning DevelopmentImplementation Aeroscape Industry: Concept Development > Development > Building > Launch Pharmaceutical Industry: Basic Research >Phase I & II > Phase III > LT Phase IV > Pre-clinical
Technology Valuation The project life cycle can be used to defined 3 key financial concepts: 1.Funding requirements (timing of funding) 2.Risk-return trade-off (cash flow lag) 3.Financial strategies (debt or equity?)
New Venture/Entrepreneurial Finance State of play in technology finance: Most financial techniques or methodologies are suitable for mature technology contexts, where there is low level of uncertainty. Maturity of Technology Stage of Market Development EarlyLate Low High Difficult to apply Most useful
FOCUS: Technological Entrepreneurial Finance Study the issues relating 1. Technology valuation 2. Valuation of IP/intangibles 3. Project financing 4. Financing strategy
1. Technology Valuation Highly idiosyncratic and depends on maturity of technologies Lower maturity results in higher uncertainty about cash-flows/marketability
2. Valuation of IP/Intangibles Assessing the value of IP Market valuation of IP Valuation of R&D Value of a knowledge intensive firm
3. Project Financing Sources of finance Matching sources to projects at different stages of maturity
4. Financing Strategy Differences b/w start-ups & large firms Business plan Market signalling Relevant financial information How information is factored into the value of a knowledge intensive firm
Lecture summary Technology innovation and Intellectual capital Intellectual capital valuation and firm value Cash flow, timing and risk factor in valuation Financial strategy framework Focus: Technological Entrepreneurial Finance