Presentation on theme: "THE LOGICAL FRAMEWORK APPROACH Keerti Bhusan Pradhan"— Presentation transcript:
THE LOGICAL FRAMEWORK APPROACH Keerti Bhusan Pradhan
What is LFA? LFA is a systematic planning procedure for complete project cycle management It is a problem solving approach which takes into account the views of all stakeholders It also agrees on the criteria for project success and lists the major assumptions
History of LFA Developed in response to poor planning and monitoring of Development projects The first logical framework developed for USAID at the end of 1960’s GTZ was responsible for the development of ZOPP or Zielorientierte Projekt Planung NORAD made a significant contribution in 1990 with their handbook
LOGICAL FRAMEWORK MATRIX
KEY FEATURES OF LOGFRAME MATRIX The LOGFRAME MATRIX is a participatory Planning, Monitoring & Evaluation tool whose power depends on the degree to which it incorporates the full range of views of intended beneficiaries and others who have a stake in the programme design. It is a tool for summarizing the key features of a programme and is best used to help programme designers and stakeholders
Summary of the logical framework Goal –The higher level objective towards which the project is expected to contribute (mention target groups) Purpose –The effect which is expected to be achieved as the result of the project. Outputs –The results that the project management should be able to guarantee (mention target groups) Activities –The activities that have to be undertaken by the project in order to produce outputs. Intervention Logic
Cause-effect relationship among objectives at several levels Inputs Activities Outputs Purpose Goal under full control of project management beyond control of project management
Summary of the logical framework Assumptions –Important events, conditions or decisions outside the control of the project which must prevail the goal. –Important events, conditions or decisions outside control of the project management necessary for the achievement of the purpose. –Important events, conditions or decisions outside control of the project management necessary for the production of outputs. –Important events, conditions, decisions outside control of the project management necessary for the start of the project. Assumptions and Preconditions
Summary of the logical framework Goal –Measures (direct or indirect) to verify to what extent the goal is fulfilled. Purpose –Measures (direct or indirect) to verify to what extent the purpose is fulfilled. Outputs –Measures (direct or indirect) to verify to what extent the outputs are produced. Objectively Verifiable Indicators (OVI) Activities (Inputs) –Goods, people and services necessary to undertake the activities
Summary of the logical framework Goal –The sources of data necessary to verify status of goal level indicators. Purpose –The sources of data necessary to verify status of purpose level indicators. Outputs –The sources of data necessary to verify status of output level indicators. Activities –The sources of data necessary to verify status of activity level indicators. Means of verification (MOV)
Objectively Verifiable Indicators Indicators must be valid, reliable, precise, cost-effective and stated independently from other levels. Indicators should make clear how the target group will benefit from the realisation of outputs. Indicators should be specific in terms of: –Quality (what?)-Q –Quantity (how much?)-Q –Time (when, how long?) - T –Target Group (who?)- T –Place (where?)-P
Objectively Verifiable Indicators The process of defining indicators forces us to clarify our objectives. A good indicator at this level is, a. Plausiblemeasuring what is important in the project b. Attributable measuring changes caused by the project c. Cost-effective involving data that may be collected and analyzed inexpensively d. Independentnot inherent to the project e. Targetedhow much.., what kind of.., by when f. Verifiableto reach agreement
Key Features of Logframe Matrix (cont’d) Develop a common understanding of the expectations of a programme by delineating a hierarchy of aims; Define indicators of success and establish criteria for monitoring and evaluation; Define critical assumptions on which the programme is based; and Identify means of verifying programme accomplishments
LOGICAL FRAMEWORK MATRIX A tool for planning, appraisal, monitoring and evaluation. The framework –Vertical Logic GOAL PURPOSE OUTPUTS ACTIVITIES
Hierarchy of Aims The GOAL is a bottom line condition of well-being of individuals, families, or communities. It is usually described in terms of quality of life improvement towards which the country programme will contribute The PURPOSE is determined by asking the question “how will this goal be achieved” The OUTPUTS are the deliverables through which the purpose will be achieved. The ACTIVITIES are the main elements of component projects through which the outputs are achieved
CORE CONCEPT OF LOGFRAME MATRIX: MEANS AND END LOGIC The main concept underlying the Logical Framework is means and end. The better the means and end linkages between each level of aims, the better the programme design. By definition, each programme has a “if-then” or “means-and-end” logic embedded in it. If we produce certain results under certain conditions, then we can expect to achieve certain other outcomes.
LogFrame-Horizontal logic Aims measured by indicators through information collected and presented in specified means of verification
THE LOGIC OF A PROGRAMME: A SET OF LINKED HYPOTHESES GOAL PURPOSE ACTIVITIES OUTPUTS if then if then if
PLAN DOWNWARDS Goal Assumptions Purpose Assumptions Outputs Assumptions Activities Assumptions Inputs AND THEN THINK UPWARDS
THE LOGICAL FRAMEWORK MATRIX Clear statement of: What we can accomplish (outputs) and The important results we expect in the short to medium-term (purpose) and in the long term (goal)
Making the Programme’s linked hypotheses explicit improves the programme design Goal Contribute to improved Eye Health Purpose Contribute to increased utilization of Eye Health services and knowledge Outputs 1. Increased Access to Eye Health Services 2. Provision of cost-effective, comprehensive and high quality EH services
Outputs (Cont’d) 3. Increased community awareness and support for EH. 4. Enhanced planning and management capacity in MOH. 5. Development of comprehensive eye health policies and standards of practice. 6. Increased capacity to carry out research on EH, and to collect, analyze and utilize data.
Making the Programme’s linked hypotheses explicit improves the programme design (cont’d) Activities 1. Training 2. Procurement of Consumables and equipment 3. Refurbishing clinics/hospitals 4. Organizing seminars for HRD 5. Production of IEC materials 6. Organizing data collection activities and KAP surveys. 7. Development of MIS
OBJECTIVELY VERIFIABLE INDICATORS (OVI) The quantitative, qualitative, and time-bound measures that constitute evidence of the extent to which the aims have been met at the four levels of the hierarchy. OVIs: k Indicate how to recognize success at each level of aim
Objectively Verifiable Indicators (cont’d) kAssist to refine and clarify aims kFacilitate monitoring and take remedial actions if required kFacilitate end of programme evaluation to determine delivery of outputs and progress made in achieving goal and purpose.
How to select indicators Tomorrow????????
Objectively Verifiable Indicators (Quantity & Quality) Indicator -Increase CSR Add Quality -CS with IOL increased from 60% to 90% Add Quality -CS with SICS technique increased from 60% to 80% Add time -CSR increased from 4000 to 6000 by 2005 Add place -in x region/district
Means of verification The specific sources from which the status of each of the indicators can be ascertained
ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS Assumptions and risks are external conditions that are outside the control of the programme. The achievement of aims depends on whether or not assumptions hold true and the risks do not materialize. If cause and effect is the core concept of good programme design, necessary and sufficient conditions are the corollary. The sufficient conditions between the levels in the hierarchy of aims are the Assumptions. This is the external logic of the programme.
Assumptions and Risks (cont’d) When working on a programme, we make assumptions about the degree of uncertainty between different levels of aims. The lower the uncertainty that certain assumptions will hold true, the stronger the programme design. Any experienced manager will agree that the assumptions - the failing assumptions - can derail a programme as often as poorly executed outputs.
Assumptions and Risks (cont’d) Logframe demands that all hypotheses, assumptions and risks relevant to a programme are made explicit. By implication, this then further demands that the appropriate action is considered (and if necessary taken) before problems materialise. –How important are the assumptions –How big are the risks –Should the programme be redesigned? –Should elements of the proposed programme be abandoned?
ALGORITHM TO ASSESS EXTERNAL FACTORS Is the external factor important? Yes No Will it be realised? (e.g. as the result of another project by external donor) Almost certainly Do not include in logical framework Likely Include in logical framework as Assumption (fourth column) Unlikely Is it possible to redesign the country Programme to influence the external factor? Do not include in logical framework yesNo Redesign the programme : add activities and/or results change programme purpose The assumption is a “killer” assumption. From a technical point of view the programme is not feasible, unless the political authority finds a solution to get around the assumption or transform it into an acceptable assumption.
LOGFRAME MATRIX SERVES THE FOLLOWING FUNCTIONS A tool for planning a logical set of interventions A tool for appraising a Programme document A concise summary of the Programme A tool for monitoring progress made with regard to delivery of outputs and activities A tool for evaluating impact of Programme outputs, e.e. progress in achieving purpose and goal.