2What is LFA?LFA is a systematic planning procedure for complete project cycle managementIt is a problem solving approach which takes into account the views of all stakeholdersIt also agrees on the criteria for project success and lists the major assumptions
3History of LFADeveloped in response to poor planning and monitoring of Development projectsThe first logical framework developed for USAID at the end of 1960’sGTZ was responsible for the development of ZOPP or Zielorientierte Projekt PlanungNORAD made a significant contribution in 1990 with their handbook
5KEY FEATURES OF LOGFRAME MATRIX The LOGFRAME MATRIX is a participatory Planning, Monitoring & Evaluation tool whose power depends on the degree to which it incorporates the full range of views of intended beneficiaries and others who have a stake in the programme design. It is a tool for summarizing the key features of a programme and is best used to help programme designers and stakeholders
6Summary of the logical framework Intervention LogicGoalThe higher level objective towards which the project is expected to contribute (mention target groups)PurposeThe effect which is expected to be achieved as the result of the project.OutputsThe results that the project management should be able to guarantee (mention target groups)ActivitiesThe activities that have to be undertaken by the project in order to produce outputs.
7Cause-effect relationship among objectives at several levels GoalPurposeOutputsunder full control of project managementActivitiesbeyond control of project managementInputs
8Summary of the logical framework Assumptions and PreconditionsAssumptionsImportant events, conditions or decisions outside the control of the project which must prevail the goal.Important events, conditions or decisions outside control of the project management necessary for the achievement of the purpose.Important events, conditions or decisions outside control of the project management necessary for the production of outputs.Important events, conditions, decisions outside control of the project management necessary for the start of the project.PreconditionsImportant events, conditions, decisions, outside control of the project management necessary for the start of the project.
9Summary of the logical framework Objectively Verifiable Indicators (OVI)GoalMeasures (direct or indirect) to verify to what extent the goal is fulfilled.PurposeMeasures (direct or indirect) to verify to what extent the purpose is fulfilled.OutputsMeasures (direct or indirect) to verify to what extent the outputs are produced.Activities (Inputs)Goods, people and services necessary to undertake the activities
10Summary of the logical framework Means of verification (MOV)GoalThe sources of data necessary to verify status of goal level indicators.PurposeThe sources of data necessary to verify status of purpose level indicators.OutputsThe sources of data necessary to verify status of output level indicators.ActivitiesThe sources of data necessary to verify status of activity level indicators.
11Objectively Verifiable Indicators Indicators must be valid, reliable, precise, cost-effective and stated independently from other levels.Indicators should make clear how the target group will benefit from the realisation of outputs.Indicators should be specific in terms of:Quality (what?) - QQuantity (how much?) - QTime (when, how long?) - TTarget Group (who?) - TPlace (where?) - P
12Objectively Verifiable Indicators The process of defining indicators forces us to clarify our objectives. A good indicator at this level is,a. Plausible measuring what is important in the projectb. Attributable measuring changes caused by the projectc. Cost-effective involving data that may be collected and analyzed inexpensivelyd. Independent not inherent to the projecte. Targeted how much.., what kind of.., by whenf. Verifiable to reach agreement
13Key Features of Logframe Matrix (cont’d) Develop a common understanding of the expectations of a programme by delineating a hierarchy of aims;Define indicators of success and establish criteria for monitoring and evaluation;Define critical assumptions on which the programme is based; andIdentify means of verifying programme accomplishments
14LOGICAL FRAMEWORK MATRIX A tool for planning, appraisal, monitoring and evaluation. The framework –Vertical LogicGOALPURPOSEOUTPUTSACTIVITIES
15Hierarchy of AimsThe GOAL is a bottom line condition of well-being of individuals, families, or communities. It is usually described in terms of quality of life improvement towards which the country programme will contributeThe PURPOSE is determined by asking the question “how will this goal be achieved”The OUTPUTS are the deliverables through which the purpose will be achieved.The ACTIVITIES are the main elements of component projects through which the outputs are achieved
16CORE CONCEPT OF LOGFRAME MATRIX: MEANS AND END LOGIC The main concept underlying the Logical Framework is means and end. The better the means and end linkages between each level of aims, the better the programme design.By definition, each programme has a “if-then” or “means-and-end” logic embedded in it. If we produce certain results under certain conditions, then we can expect to achieve certain other outcomes.
17LogFrame-Horizontal logic Aims measured by indicators through information collected and presented in specified means of verification
18THE LOGIC OF A PROGRAMME: A SET OF LINKED HYPOTHESES thenGOALthenPURPOSEifthenOUTPUTSifACTIVITIESif
20THE LOGICAL FRAMEWORK MATRIX Clear statement of:What we can accomplish (outputs) andThe important results we expect in the short to medium-term (purpose) and in the long term (goal)
21Making the Programme’s linked hypotheses explicit improves the programme design GoalContribute to improved Eye HealthPurposeContribute to increased utilization of Eye Health services and knowledgeOutputs1. Increased Access to Eye Health Services2. Provision of cost-effective, comprehensive and high quality EH services
22Outputs (Cont’d) 3. Increased community awareness and support for EH. 4. Enhanced planning and management capacity in MOH.5. Development of comprehensive eye health policies and standards of practice.6. Increased capacity to carry out research on EH, and to collect, analyze and utilize data.
23Making the Programme’s linked hypotheses explicit improves the programme design (cont’d) Activities1. Training2. Procurement of Consumables and equipment3. Refurbishing clinics/hospitals4. Organizing seminars for HRD5. Production of IEC materials6. Organizing data collection activities and KAP surveys.7. Development of MIS
24OBJECTIVELY VERIFIABLE INDICATORS (OVI) The quantitative, qualitative, and time-bound measures that constitute evidence of the extent to which the aims have been met at the four levels of the hierarchy.OVIs:Indicate how to recognize success at each level of aim
25Objectively Verifiable Indicators (cont’d) Assist to refine and clarify aimsFacilitate monitoring and take remedial actions if requiredFacilitate end of programme evaluation to determine delivery of outputs and progress made in achieving goal and purpose.
27Objectively Verifiable Indicators (Quantity & Quality) Indicator -Increase CSRAdd Quality -CS with IOL increased from 60% to 90%Add Quality -CS with SICS techniqueincreased from 60% to 80%Add time -CSR increased from 4000 to 6000 by 2005Add place -in x region/district
28Means of verificationThe specific sources from which the status of each of the indicators can be ascertained
29ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKSAssumptions and risks are external conditions that are outside the control of the programme. The achievement of aims depends on whether or not assumptions hold true and the risks do not materialize.If cause and effect is the core concept of good programme design, necessary and sufficient conditions are the corollary. The sufficient conditions between the levels in the hierarchy of aims are the Assumptions. This is the external logic of the programme.
30Assumptions and Risks (cont’d) When working on a programme, we make assumptions about the degree of uncertainty between different levels of aims. The lower the uncertainty that certain assumptions will hold true, the stronger the programme design. Any experienced manager will agree that the assumptions - the failing assumptions - can derail a programme as often as poorly executed outputs.
31Assumptions and Risks (cont’d) Logframe demands that all hypotheses, assumptions and risks relevant to a programme are made explicit.By implication, this then further demands that the appropriate action is considered (and if necessary taken) before problems materialise.How important are the assumptionsHow big are the risksShould the programme be redesigned?Should elements of the proposed programme be abandoned?
32ALGORITHM TO ASSESS EXTERNAL FACTORS Is the external factor important?NoYesWill it be realised?Do not include in logical framework(e.g. as the result of another project by external donor)Almost certainly Do not include in logical frameworkLikely Include in logical framework as Assumption(fourth column)Unlikely Is it possible to redesign the country Programme to influence the external factor?yesNoThe assumption is a “killer” assumption. From a technical point of view the programme is not feasible, unless the political authority finds a solution to get around the assumption or transform it into an acceptable assumption.Redesign the programme :add activities and/or resultschange programme purpose
33LOGFRAME MATRIX SERVES THE FOLLOWING FUNCTIONS A tool for planning a logical set of interventionsA tool for appraising a Programme documentA concise summary of the ProgrammeA tool for monitoring progress made with regard to delivery of outputs and activitiesA tool for evaluating impact of Programme outputs, e.e. progress in achieving purpose and goal.