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Wildman Harrold | 225 West Wacker Drive | Chicago, IL 60606 | (312) 201-2000 | wildman.com Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP What Is an Identity Trust.

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Presentation on theme: "Wildman Harrold | 225 West Wacker Drive | Chicago, IL 60606 | (312) 201-2000 | wildman.com Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP What Is an Identity Trust."— Presentation transcript:

1 Wildman Harrold | 225 West Wacker Drive | Chicago, IL | (312) | wildman.com Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP What Is an Identity Trust Framework? Addressing the Legal and Structural Challenges Thomas J. Smedinghoff Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP Chicago Chair, ABA Identity Management Legal Task Force

2 Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP. Many Transactions Involve Trust Frameworks Credit card trust framework ACH electronic funds transfer trust framework Privacy (e.g., TRUSTe trustmark) The are a set of specs and rules and legal obligations that address a specific element or issue of importance to the transaction We are addressing an identity trust framework

3 Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP. The Threshold Problem We’re not all talking about the same thing What does “identity trust framework” mean to you? Consider some examples of definitions...

4 Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP. 4 Much Disagreement Re What a Trust Framework Is FICAM: processes and controls for determining an identity provider’s compliance to OMB M Levels of Assurance ISO Draft: a set of requirements and enforcement mechanisms for parties exchanging identity information Kantara: a complete set of contracts, regulations or commitments that enable participating actors to rely on certain assertions by other actors to fulfill their information security requirements OIX: a certification program that enables a party who accepts a digital identity credential (called the relying party) to trust the identity, security, and privacy policies of the party who issues the credential (called the identity service provider) and vice versa. OITF Model: a set of technical, operational, and legal requirements and enforcement mechanisms for parties exchanging identity information

5 Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP. 5 Much Disagreement Re What a Trust Framework Is NSTIC 4/15/2011 Final: The Identity Ecosystem Framework is the overarching set of interoperability standards, risk models, privacy and liability policies, requirements, and accountability mechanisms that structure the Identity Ecosystem. A Trust Framework is developed by a community whose members have similar goals and perspectives. It defines the rights and responsibilities of that community’s participants in the Identity Ecosystem; specifies the policies and standards specific to the community; and defines the community-specific processes and procedures that provide assurance.... In order to be a part of the Identity Ecosystem, all trust frameworks must still meet the baseline standards established by the Identity Ecosystem Framework.

6 Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP. 6 But In All Cases, the Goal Is... Building an identity system that actually works E.g., the plane actually flies Building an identity system that participants trust – i.e., are willing to participate in and rely on E.g., we are all willing to fly on the plane – we’re confident that it will get us there safely, comfortably, on-time, etc. For both of these goals, we need to address all of the relevant risks in an acceptable manner

7 Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP. 7 All Trust Frameworks Consists of Two Parts Technical and Operational Specifications Content Technical specifications, process standards, policies, procedures, performance rules and requirements, assessment criteria, etc. Goals Make it work Make it trustworthy Legal Rules Content Existing law Contractual obligations Goals Regulate Technical and Operational Specifications Make Technical and Operational Specifications legally binding on the participants Define and govern the legal rights and responsibilities of the participants

8 Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP. 8 Note How the Operational Specs and Legal Rules Relate The Technical and Operational Specifications are designed to “make it work” from a functional perspective The Legal Rules – Regulate the content and implementation of the Technical and Operational Specifications, Make the Technical and Operational Specifications enforceable, and Address rights and obligations of the parties But note that: Some legal rules come from existing law Other legal rules are made up by the parties

9 Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP. 9 As An Analogy -- Consider a Construction Contract There will be many requirements and specifications Blueprints Electrical specification Plumbing specifications HVAC specifications The specifications reflect much personal choice, but are also subject to regulation by existing law The specs are attached to a contract whereby – The builder agrees to build the building in accordance with the specifications, and the buyer agrees to pay for it Both parties agree to numerous rules regarding price, schedule, warranties, limits on liability, insurance, applicable law, remedies for breach by the other, etc. Existing law supplies legal rules not covered in contract

10 Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP. 10 ABA Proposed Definition of Identity Trust Framework A Trust Framework is the governance structure for a specific identity system consisting of: the Technical and Operational Specifications that have been developed – to define requirements for the proper operation of the identity system (i.e., so that it works), to define the roles and operational responsibilities of participants, and to provide adequate assurance regarding the accuracy, integrity, privacy and security of its processes and data (i.e., so that it is trustworthy); and the Legal Rules that govern the identity system and that -- regulate the content of the Technical and Operational Specifications, make the Technical and Operational Specifications legally binding on and enforceable against the participants, and define and govern the legal rights, responsibilities, and liabilities of the participants of the identity system.

11 Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP. 11 Note that... The Trust Framework is NOT LIMITED to the rules and requirements the participants agree upon A Trust Framework is a COMBINATION of – The rules and requirements that the participants (or trust framework provider) write down and agree to, AND Existing law We have to consider the impact of both Both need to work in harmony

12 Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP. 12 Technical and Operational Specifications: Components Necessary to “Make it Work” Partial listing of Technical and Operational Specifications Privacy Standards Credential Issuance Authentication Requirements Reliance Rules Audit & Assessment Oversight Credential Management Security Standards Identity Proofing Technical Specifications Enrolment

13 Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP. 13 Technical and Operational Specifications: Regulated by Existing Law Partial listing of Technical and Operational Specifications NOTE: Must comply with any existing law; Also supplemented by existing law Existing Law Privacy Standards Credential Issuance Authentication Requirements Reliance Rules Audit & Assessment Oversight Credential Management Security Standards Identity Proofing Technical Specifications Enrolment

14 Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP. 14 Legal Rules To Govern Legal Rights of the Parties Existing Law as Supplemented and/or Modified by Contract Existing Law Warranties Dispute Resolution Measure of Damages Enforcement Mechanisms Termination Rights Liability for Losses Partial listing of Legal Rules

15 Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP. The Legal Rules Are a Combination of... Public Law (statutes, regulations, common law) – Existing IdM-specific law, if any Existing generally applicable law Privacy law, warranty law, tort law (negligence), e- transaction law, defamation law, etc. Supplanted / Revised by Private Law (created via) – Contractual agreements among the parties Standards adopted by the parties Self-asserted undertakings

16 Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP. 16 Identity Trust Framework: Putting It All Together Contract: “I Agree” to... Existing Law Warranties Dispute Resolution Measure of Damages Enforcement Mechanisms Termination Rights Liability for Losses Existing Law Privacy Standards Credential Issuance Authentication Requirements Reliance Rules Audit & Assessment Oversight Credential Management Security Standards Identity Proofing Technical Specifications Enrolment Technical and Operational Specifications Legal Rules Enforcement Element

17 Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP. 17 Common Legal Problems to Be Addressed By a Trust Framework Legal Uncertainty (i) Lack of legal rules and (ii) lack of clarity re applicable legal rules Liability Risk / Liability Allocation Uncertainty over potential liability is a key issue! Legal Compliance E.g., privacy law requirements; security law requirements, etc. Legal Barriers Some laws may adversely impact Identity systems; Can they be altered by agreement? Contract Enforceability How can we bind all participants (and affected non-parties) in an enforceable Trust Framework? Cross-Jurisdiction Issues Regulatory law in one jurisdiction may differ from another

18 Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP. 18 Status of Industry Work to Date (1): Limited to Operational Specifications Technical and Operational Specifications Much work being done by many groups and governments Groups: Kantara Initiative, Open Identity Foundation, EURIM, STORK, OIX, WS-Federation, etc. Governmental: Australia, Belgium, Finland, EU, Germany, India, Scotland, Sweden, U.S., etc. Intergovernmental: ITU, OECD, etc. Legal Rules Largely unaddressed! Some private (closed) identity systems such as IdenTrust, SAFE- BioPharma, CertiPath, etc. Some groups, such as OIX and American Bar Association Identity Management Legal Task Force

19 Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP. 19 Status of Industry Work to Date (2): Most Existing Docs Are Just Components Most existing work focuses only on a subset of the of Technical and Operational Specifications, and thus are only components of an Identity Trust Framework, such as: NIST SP , Electronic Authentication Guideline Kantara Privacy Framework (being developed??) FICAM Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) 2.0 Profile NASPO National Identity Proofing and Verification Standards Entity Authentication Assurance Framework, ISO/IEC 29115:2010 (draft) Kantara Identity Assurance Framework: Assurance Assessment FIPS 201, Personal Identity Verification Examples of complete Trust Frameworks might include SAFE-BioPharma, CertiPath, and IdenTrust

20 Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP. 20 A Few Thoughts on Addressing Liability Via a Trust Framework

21 Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP. 21 Three-Part Concern Risk of loss – risk of incurring one’s own losses (that cannot be shifted to someone else) Risk of liability – risk of being held responsible for losses of others Risk of non-compliance – risk of fines or other penalties for regulatory non-compliance

22 Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP. 22 Basic Rule re Liability When a party suffers a loss or damage – That party must bear its own losses UNLESS there is a basis for shifting the loss from the person that suffered it to someone else Approaches often used to shift responsibility for losses – Fault-based approaches Intentional act or omission of 3 rd party caused the loss Negligent act or omission of 3 rd party caused the loss Strict liability approaches 3 rd party did not cause loss, but still held responsible for the loss based on policy reasons

23 Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP. 23 The Default Rule Is Key Starting Point Sources of approaches often used to shift responsibility for losses -- Existing law Contract We need to know the rule under existing law, and then we can determine whether/how to modify it by contract But we can’t address the issue unless we know the source of the duty – e.g., warranty, antitrust, tort, contract, duty to authenticate, etc.

24 Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP. 24 Consider an Example... Assume an Identity Assertion is inaccurate and a Relying Party and/or Subject suffers a loss If negligence law applies – Liability depends on fault of IdP Relative to the standard that applies (by law) Depends on nature of loss, the jurisdiction involved, etc. If warranty law applies – Liability does NOT depend on fault of IdP Depends on nature of warranty that applies (by contract or law) If both apply???

25 Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP. 25 Some Potential Liability Models Warranty model – focus on stated or implied guarantees Tort model – focus on standards of conduct; negligence DMV model – no IdP liability; other roles bear all risk Credit card model – no Subject liability; others bear risk Contractual model – negotiated risk allocation (in theory) Strict liability – regardless of fault Liability caps model EV SSL model – restricts ability of IdP to limit its liability But recognize that -- Liability model unlikely to be a one-size fits all approach Liability is a zero-sum game

26 Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP. 26 The Overall Trust Framework Goal Develop an acceptable Trust Framework that – Provides enforceable rules for a workable and trustworthy identity ecosystem that are binding on all participants Adequately protects the rights of the parties Fairly allocates risk and responsibilities among the parties Provides legal certainty and predictability to the participants Complies with / works in conjunction with existing law Works cross-border (state or country)

27 Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP. 27 The Next Steps Agree on a general Trust Framework definition Identify the topics to be addressed for the Technical Operational Specifications and Legal Rules

28 Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP. 28 Further Information Thomas J. Smedinghoff Wildman, Harrold, Allen & Dixon LLP 225 West Wacker Drive Chicago, Illinois


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