Presentation on theme: "Four Basic Types Of Measurement:"— Presentation transcript:
1Four Basic Types Of Measurement: CategorizingNominalRankingOrdinalDetermination of the size intervalIntervalDetermination of the size of ratiosRatio
2CENTRAL TENDENCY AND VARIABILITY (NOMINAL SCALES) Information: guessing game (ESP experiments)Background:- Transmission of signals- How much is lost in channel?- How to measure the information transmitted in a message?
3CENTRAL TENDENCY AND VARIABILITY (NOMINAL SCALES) One word - no guessesTwo words - one guessFour words - two guessesEight words - three guesses-# of guesses - power to which two needs to be raised to define # of words, or log to base 2 of # of alternatives-Number of guesses called # of bits (binary units)
5Nominal scales:Name of category does not imply rank, even if it is a number.
6Nominal Scales Assignment to categories according to a rule e. g., manic - depressiveparanoid - schizophrenicinvolutional - melancholicStarting point of scienceChemists - elementsPhysicists - atoms and sub-atomic particlesLineaus - biological categoriesFreud - infantile sexuality - neurotic disordersModern Psychologydoes it have reliable units of analysis?Reflexes?short term memory?behavior disorders?
25Examples of Positive, Negative and Minimal Correlation
26Relationship Between r2 and Predicted Variance Example: measures of rainfall and corn heightSuppose that r = 0.8. This means that 64% (0.8)2 of the variance of the height of corn height is accounted for by knowledge of how much rain fell.
27VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY Reliability: To what extent will a test give the same set of results over repeated measurements?Validity: To what extent does a test measures what it purports to measure?Validity and reliability are measured as correlation coefficients.
28Measuring reliability: Odd-even or split-half method: To what extent does one half of the test agree with the items of the second half of the test?Test-retest: Results of test is given on two different occasions are compared. Assumes that there are no practice effectsAlternative form: Where there is a practice effect, an alternative form of the original test is given and the results are compared.A reliable test may not be valid.A valid test must be reliable may not be valid.A valid test must be reliable.
29HERITABILITYHeritability: The proportion of variance of a phenotype that is attributable to genetic variance.Phenotype: Observable traitGenotype: What is transmitted from generation to generationWhat % of a phenotype is genetic?Hertiability is calculated by determining phenotypic variance and the magnitudes of its two components (genetic and environmental variance)
30Calculation of Heritability Heritability: The proportion of variance of a phenotype that is attributable to genetic variance.2p = 2g + 2e22GE1+=22PP2GP=h2(h2 > 0 < 1)Heritability =
33HERITABILITY DOES NOT. APPLY TO INDIVIDUALS. Example: h2 of IQ = 0. 6 HERITABILITY DOES NOT APPLY TO INDIVIDUALS! Example: h2 of IQ = This does not mean that 60% of an individual’s IQ is genetic and 40% is environmental.
35Heritability is Specific to the Population in which it’s Measured
362Minimum & maximum values of h (coefficient of heritability): h = 0.00: None of the observed values of phenotype is due to genes (all of it is due to environmental differences). h =1.00: All of variance is due to genes.__Gh2=(h2 > 0 < 1)2P
37Examples Of Heritability Coefficients:. Piebald Holstein Cow;. h2 = Examples Of Heritability Coefficients: Piebald Holstein Cow; h2 = .95 (color) h2 = .3 (milk production) Pigs: h2 = .55 (body fat) h2 = .15 (litter size) h2 is specific to the environment and population studied.
38HERITABILITY ESTIMATES ARE SPECIFIC TO POPULATIONS AND ENVIRONMENTS IN WHICH THEY ARE MEASURED! Example 1: Heritability of skin color in Norway and the United States. It’s higher in the United States. Why? Because, in Norway the environment contributes more to phenotypic variation than family background. In the United States family background contributes more to variation in skin color then the environment.
39HERITABILITY ESTIMATES ARE SPECIFIC TO POPULATIONS AND ENVIRONMENTS IN WHICH THEY ARE MEASURED! Example 2: Heritability of Tuberculosis. Decreased during the 20th century because of changes in the environment. Up to and during the 19th century, everyone who was exposed to germ got sick if they were susceptible. Improved hygiene made it less likely that genetically disposed individuals will get TB. Thus, heritability of TB decreased as environmental diversity increased.
40How to Reduce h2 1. Interbreed - this reduces 2g 2. Increase 2e How to Reduce h2 1. Interbreed - this reduces 2g 2. Increase 2e. How to Increase h2 1. outcrossing - new genes 2. mutation - new genes 3. select for rare characteristics 4. reduce 2e.