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ECOLOGY! Chapters – 13 and 14.1, 14.2 Read Chapters Thoroughly!!!! Complete section assessments in your notebook Complete Vocabulary words for all of chapter.

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Presentation on theme: "ECOLOGY! Chapters – 13 and 14.1, 14.2 Read Chapters Thoroughly!!!! Complete section assessments in your notebook Complete Vocabulary words for all of chapter."— Presentation transcript:

1 ECOLOGY! Chapters – 13 and 14.1, 14.2 Read Chapters Thoroughly!!!! Complete section assessments in your notebook Complete Vocabulary words for all of chapter 13 and 14.1, 14.2

2 WHAT IS ECOLOGY? The study of the interactions of organisms with their environment.

3 I MPORTANT V OCABULARY W ORDS ! BioticSpecialistAbiotic Generalist BiodiversityTrophic Level Keystone SpeciesFood ChainProducer Food WebAutotrophHydrologic cycle ConsumerHeterotrophChemosynthesis Nitrogen FixationFood ChainBiomass HerbivoreEnergy PyramidCarnivore HabitatOmnivoreNiche Biogechemical CycleDetritivore Decomposer (saprobe) Ecological equivalentCompetitionPredation SymbiosisMutualismCommensalism Competitive ExclusionParasitism Biological Magnification

4 ECOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION Species- A group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring Population- All members of a species in a given area Community- All living things in a given area (Interacting populations)

5 ECOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION Ecosystem- A community and the environment that it interacts with Weather, climate, etc Biosphere- Any portion of Earth where life exists Composed of all ecosystems Biodiversity – The variety of living things in an ecosystem Keystone Species – A species that has a large effect on its ecosystem

6 ECOSYSTEM STRUCTURE & FUNCTION Ecosystems are made up of abiotic and biotic factors Abiotic Factors- physical and chemical factors that affect an organisms ability to survive and reproduce. Non-living factors Ex) soil, precipitation, pH, oxygen, light, minerals Biotic Factors- Living factors that affect an organisms ability to survive and reproduce Ex) Predator, prey... ALL LIVING THINGS!

7 ECOSYSTEM STRUCTURE & FUNCTION Limiting Factor- any abiotic or biotic factor that restricts the ability of an organism to live, survive, and reproduce Predator, prey, disease Tolerance Limit- an organisms limits when withstanding extreme environmental conditions Oysters in brackish water

8 NUTRITIONAL RELATIONSHIPS Nutritional Relationships transfer of nutrients from one organism to another Organisms that make their food are called autotrophs. Photosynthesis- uses sunlight to make food Chemosynthesis- use chemicals to make food Many bacteria (archaebacteria) Hot springs, thermal vents

9 NUTRITIONAL RELATIONSHIPS Heterotrophs organisms that depend on or eat other organisms for food Ex) lions, people, fungi Herbivores plant eaters Cows, sheep, deer, horses Carnivores meat eaters (eat other animals) Lions Omnivores eat both plants and animals Bears, humans Saprobe/Saprophyte decomposers Fungi, bacteria, insects, worms

10 N UTRITIONAL R ELATIONSHIPS Herbivore – voleCarnivore - Wolf

11 N UTRITIONAL R ELATIONSHIPS Omnivore – black bear Decomposer – fungi

12 NUTRITIONAL RELATIONSHIPS Symbiotic Relationship when 2 or more organisms live close together Called symbiosis Mutualism both organisms benefit (+/+) cleaner fish eats/large fish is cleaned Coral releases CO 2 for algae and algae releases O 2 and organic compounds for coral reef survival

13 NUTRITIONAL RELATIONSHIPS Parasitism one organism benefits, and one is harmed (+/-) Tick/dog Tapeworm/human Athletes foot/human Commensalism one organism benefits, the other is unaffected (+/0) Ramora fish/shark Clown fish/sea anemone

14 How does energy flow through the ecosystem?


16 P ATTERNS OF E NERGY T RANSFER producer 1° consumer 2°consumer 3 ° consumer decomposer (primary) (secondary) (tertiary)


18 I NTERACTIONS IN E COSYSTEMS Food Relationships: Producers Consumers Decomposers producer 1° consumer 2° consumer Food chain: not likely Food web: more realistic and more complex! (primary) (secondary) 3 ° consumer decomposer (tertiary)



21 E COLOGICAL P YRAMID The amount of energy in a food web decreases with each higher trophic level (energy level) Why? Where does it go? Passes out in waste Given off as body heat Used to maintain metabolism Only around 10% passes up each trophic level

22 T HREE K INDS OF E COLOGICAL P YRAMIDS Pyramid of Energy Pyramid of Biomass Pyramid of Numbers

23 P YRAMID OF E NERGY Remember, only 10% of energy is passed from each trophic level to the next Less energy = more consumption

24 P YRAMID OF E NERGY 10 calories 100 calories 1,000 calories 10,000 calories

25 Q UESTION ?? Explain why someone would make the following statement. We could feed more of the world if we fed them grain instead of livestock raised on grain

26 BIOLOGICAL MAGNIFICATION As pollutants/ pesticides move through a food chain they become more highly concentrated at each trophic level DDT as an insecticide/peregrine falcon Can possibly cancer in humans


28 HABITAT VS. NICHE The area where an organism lives is its habitat A niche is an organisms habitat AND the role it plays in its environment Competitive Exclusion Principle – When two species are competing for resources, one will be better suited to the niche, and the other will be pushed to another niche or go extinct Example - MacArthurs Warblers He studied 5 species of Warblers that coexisted in the same habitat (coniferous northeast United States) Study revealed that each species feeds in different areas of the same trees they occupy different niches Organisms can share the same habitat, but they dont have to compete for resources if they occupy different nichesniche partitioning

29 MacArthurs Warblers

30 NUTRIENT CYCLES Biogeochemical Cycles Law of Conservation of Mass and Energy Energy Flows through Ecosystem Matter Cycles Water Cycle Carbon/Oxygen Cycle Nitrogen Cycle Phosphorous Cycle

31 H YDROLOGIC (W ATER ) C YCLE Water Cycle Precipitation- rain Condensation Evaporation- water goes from a liquid to a gas and dispersed into the air Transpiration- water evaporated from leaves of green plants




35 NUTRIENT CYCLES The Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen fixation- changing atmospheric nitrates into a usable form Biological: bacteria Legumes- peas, clover, beans Atmospheric: Lightning




39 Nitrogen Cycle ge/Chp29/animations/ch29/1_nitrogen_cycle.sw f ge/Chp29/animations/ch29/1_nitrogen_cycle.sw f are/vis_sim/em05_pg20_nitrogen/em05_pg20_n itrogen.html are/vis_sim/em05_pg20_nitrogen/em05_pg20_n itrogen.html

40 N UTRIENT C YCLES The Carbon/Oxygen Cycle Cell Respiration Photosynthesis C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + ATP glucose + oxygen carbon + water + energy dioxide

41 Carbon Cycle


43 Habitat Disruption Biodiversity and Conservation Algal Blooms (Eutrophication)- large population of algae. As the algae dies/decomposes it chokes the lake of oxygen = fish die Forest fires Floods Human activity/development What is Biodiversity

44 C LASS A SSIGNMENT S TAY T UNED – T O BE DETERMINED Read chapter 16 Complete Chapter 16 Section Assessments Important Terms BiodiversityAcid PrecipitationEndangered Species Habitat DegradationHabitat FragmentationOzone Layer Sustainable UseThreatened SpeciesReintroduction ExtinctionExotic Species

45 Eutrophication

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