Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

ECOLOGY! Chapters – 13 and 14.1, 14.2 Read Chapters Thoroughly!!!!

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "ECOLOGY! Chapters – 13 and 14.1, 14.2 Read Chapters Thoroughly!!!!"— Presentation transcript:

1 ECOLOGY! Chapters – 13 and 14.1, 14.2 Read Chapters Thoroughly!!!!
Complete section assessments in your notebook Complete Vocabulary words for all of chapter 13 and 14.1, 14.2

2 WHAT IS ECOLOGY? The study of the interactions of organisms with their environment.

3 Important Vocabulary Words!
Biotic Specialist Abiotic Generalist Biodiversity Trophic Level Keystone Species Food Chain Producer Food Web Autotroph Hydrologic cycle Consumer Heterotroph Chemosynthesis Nitrogen Fixation Food Chain Biomass Herbivore Energy Pyramid Carnivore Habitat Omnivore Niche Biogechemical Cycle Detritivore Decomposer(saprobe) Ecological equivalent Competition Predation Symbiosis Mutualism Commensalism Competitive Exclusion Parasitism Biological Magnification

4 ECOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION
Species- A group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring Population- All members of a species in a given area Community- All living things in a given area (Interacting populations)

5 ECOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION
Ecosystem- A community and the environment that it interacts with Weather, climate, etc Biosphere- Any portion of Earth where life exists Composed of all ecosystems Biodiversity – The variety of living things in an ecosystem Keystone Species – A species that has a large effect on its ecosystem

6 ECOSYSTEM STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
Ecosystems are made up of abiotic and biotic factors Abiotic Factors- physical and chemical factors that affect an organism’s ability to survive and reproduce. Non-living factors Ex) soil, precipitation, pH, oxygen, light, minerals Biotic Factors- Living factors that affect an organism’s ability to survive and reproduce Ex) Predator, prey ALL LIVING THINGS!

7 ECOSYSTEM STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
Limiting Factor- any abiotic or biotic factor that restricts the ability of an organism to live, survive, and reproduce Predator, prey, disease Tolerance Limit- an organism’s limits when withstanding extreme environmental conditions Oysters in “brackish” water

8 NUTRITIONAL RELATIONSHIPS
Nutritional Relationships— transfer of nutrients from one organism to another Organisms that make their food are called autotrophs. Photosynthesis- uses sunlight to make food Chemosynthesis- use chemicals to make food Many bacteria (archaebacteria) Hot springs, thermal vents

9 NUTRITIONAL RELATIONSHIPS
Heterotrophs— organisms that depend on or eat other organisms for food Ex) lions, people, fungi Herbivores— plant eaters Cows, sheep, deer, horses Carnivores— meat eaters (eat other animals) Lions Omnivores— eat both plants and animals Bears, humans Saprobe/Saprophyte— decomposers Fungi, bacteria , insects, worms

10 Nutritional Relationships
Herbivore – “vole” Carnivore - Wolf

11 Nutritional Relationships
Omnivore – “black bear” Decomposer – “fungi”

12 NUTRITIONAL RELATIONSHIPS
Symbiotic Relationship— when 2 or more organisms live close together Called symbiosis Mutualism— both organisms benefit (+/+) “cleaner fish” eats/large fish is cleaned Coral releases CO2 for algae and algae releases O2 and organic compounds for coral reef survival

13 NUTRITIONAL RELATIONSHIPS
Parasitism— one organism benefits, and one is harmed (+/-) Tick/dog Tapeworm/human Athlete’s foot/human Commensalism— one organism benefits, the other is unaffected (+/0) Ramora fish/shark Clown fish/sea anemone

14 How does energy flow through the ecosystem?

15

16 Patterns of Energy Transfer
producer ° consumer °consumer 3 ° consumer decomposer (primary) (secondary) (tertiary)

17 PATTERNS OF ENERGY TRANSFER…Food Chain

18 Interactions in Ecosystems
Food Relationships: Producers Consumers Decomposers producer ° consumer ° consumer Food chain: not likely Food web: more realistic and more complex! (primary) (secondary) 3 ° consumer decomposer (tertiary)

19 PATTERNS OF ENERGY TRANSFER

20 PATTERNS OF ENERGY TRANSFER

21 Ecological Pyramid The amount of energy in a food web decreases with each higher trophic level (energy level) Why? Where does it go? Passes out in waste Given off as body heat Used to maintain metabolism Only around 10% passes up each trophic level

22 Three Kinds of Ecological Pyramids
Pyramid of Energy Pyramid of Biomass Pyramid of Numbers

23 Pyramid of Energy Remember, only 10% of “energy” is passed from each trophic level to the next Less energy = more consumption

24 Trophic levels Pyramid of Energy 10 calories 100 calories

25 Explain why someone would make the following statement.
Question?? Explain why someone would make the following statement. “We could feed more of the world if we fed them grain instead of livestock raised on grain”

26 BIOLOGICAL MAGNIFICATION
As pollutants/ pesticides move through a food chain they become more highly concentrated at each trophic level DDT as an insecticide/peregrine falcon Can possibly cancer in humans

27 DDT Concentration

28 HABITAT VS. NICHE The area where an organism lives is its habitat
A niche is an organism’s habitat AND the role it plays in its environment Competitive Exclusion Principle – When two species are competing for resources, one will be better suited to the niche, and the other will be pushed to another niche or go extinct Example - MacArthur’s Warblers He studied 5 species of Warblers that coexisted in the same habitat (coniferous northeast United States) Study revealed that each species feeds in different areas of the same trees— they occupy different niches Organisms can share the same habitat, but they don’t have to compete for resources if they occupy different niches—niche partitioning

29 MacArthur’s Warblers

30 NUTRIENT CYCLES Biogeochemical Cycles
“Law of Conservation of Mass and Energy” Energy Flows through Ecosystem Matter Cycles Water Cycle Carbon/Oxygen Cycle Nitrogen Cycle Phosphorous Cycle

31 Hydrologic(Water) Cycle
Precipitation- rain Condensation Evaporation- water goes from a liquid to a gas and dispersed into the air Transpiration- water evaporated from leaves of green plants

32 THE WATER CYCLE

33 THE WATER CYCLE

34 THE WATER CYCLE

35 NUTRIENT CYCLES The Nitrogen Cycle
Nitrogen fixation- changing atmospheric nitrates into a usable form Biological: bacteria Legumes- peas, clover, beans Atmospheric: Lightning

36

37 The Nitrogen Cycle

38 The Nitrogen Cycle

39 Nitrogen Cycle ge/Chp29/animations/ch29/1_nitrogen_cycle.sw f are/vis_sim/em05_pg20_nitrogen/em05_pg20_n itrogen.html

40 Nutrient Cycles The Carbon/Oxygen Cycle Cell Respiration
Photosynthesis C6H12O O CO H2O ATP glucose + oxygen carbon + water + energy dioxide

41 Carbon Cycle

42

43 Habitat Disruption Biodiversity and Conservation
Algal Blooms (Eutrophication)- large population of algae. As the algae dies/decomposes it chokes the lake of oxygen = fish die Forest fires Floods Human activity/development What is Biodiversity

44 Class Assignment Stay Tuned – To be determined
Read chapter 16 Complete Chapter 16 Section Assessments Important Terms Biodiversity Acid Precipitation Endangered Species Habitat Degradation Habitat Fragmentation Ozone Layer Sustainable Use Threatened Species Reintroduction Extinction Exotic Species

45 Eutrophication


Download ppt "ECOLOGY! Chapters – 13 and 14.1, 14.2 Read Chapters Thoroughly!!!!"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google