2ObjectivesExplain the similarities and differences between Newton’s law of universal gravitation and Coulomb’s law.Explain how the force between two like charges and the force between two unlike charges are different.Describe how to create an electric field.Define electric potential difference or voltage.Differentiate between AC and DC .Identify the most common sources of DC voltage.Describe how to connect DC voltage sources so that voltages will add.
3Gravitational ForceNewton’s universal law of gravitation Every object in the universe attracts every other object with a force that is directly proportional to the mass of each body and that is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.m1m2N m2Fg= GWhere G = 6.67 x 10-11d2kg2
4Electric ChargeCharge – the property of an object that causes electrical force.Positive and Negative charges exist.Like charges repelUnlike charges attract (opposites attract)+-
5Gravity and Electrical Force Both are inverse square lawsBoth give magnitude of the force one object exerts on anotherGravitational force is always attractive, but electrical force can be attractive or repulsive.Gravitational forces govern large bodiesElectrical forces govern smaller bodies
6Origins of electrical charge Anatomy of an atom?Protons – Positive chargeNeutrons – Neutral chargeElectrons – Negative chargeNormal atom has no net chargeElectrons can move in some substancesPrinciple of conservation of chargeThe net electrical charge in an isolated system never changes. (hair and comb)
7Electrical Force Charles Coulomb and his law q1q2 charges N m2 FE= K The electrical force between two charged bodies is directly proportional to the charge on each body and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.chargesq1q2N m2FE= KWhere K = 9.0 x 109d2C2DistanceSI unit = Coulomb (C)Elementary Charge - Charge on one electron or proton = 1.6 x C
8Gravitational and Electrical Fields The fields are the space between two masses or charges and the effects within them.Opposite chargesPositive chargeNegative chargeOpposite platesLike charges
9Electrical PotentialWhen charges are within an electric field an electrical potential difference is created.Volt – unit of measurement for potential difference. (electrical potential, voltage)Voltage is the prime mover in electrical systems (like pressure in fluid system).
11Sources of Difference A pump is a source of fluid pressure difference A battery is a source of electrical potential difference
12Components of Electrical Systems Voltage source (battery or generator)Conductors (wires or circuit board)Load (motor, lights, etc.)Control element (switch)Electrical circuitControlVoltage sourceElectrical Loadconductors
13AC vs. DC Direct Current (DC) – charge flows in one direction. BatteriesSolar PanelsAlternating Current (AC) – charge flows back and forth.AlternatorsGenerators
14Batteries Cell – a single unit housing one or more chemical. Battery – consist of several cellsHow does it work?Chemicals react and electrons are removed creating a potential difference (voltage)Primary Cells – one time use batteries (cannot be recharged)Secondary Cells – Can be recharged
16Connecting cellsElectrodes – the positive and negative terminals on a battery (cell).Positive electrode (red) called anode.Negative electrode (black) called cathode.Voltages add when cells are connected in series.-+-+BatteryBattery1.5 v1.5 v-+3.0 v
18AC CircuitsAn AC voltage source reverses the positive and negative terminals many times per second.The current flows one direction and then the other then the other…..This changing of polarity or cycling is called frequency, measured in cycles per second (hertz).
20Where does AC come from?The main source of 60hz current comes from electrical power plants, through power lines and into your homes.Generally 110 – 120 voltsSome larger electrical devices need 220 – 240 volts.
21SummaryNewton’s law of universal gravitation and Coulomb’s law are both inverse squares laws. The magnitudes of both forces decrease with the square of the distance between the masses and the charges.Atoms are composed of proton, neutrons and electrons. Protons are positively charged, electrons are negatively charged, and neutrons have no charge.The flow of electrons in an electrical system is a current.Unlike charges attract, like charges repel.
22Summary (cont.)An electric field is a model of the alteration of space around one or more charges. You can use the field to predict the force exerted on a charge placed in a the field.The potential difference, or voltage, between two points in a uniform electric field is the product of the field strength and the distance between the points.Voltage is the prime mover in electrical systems.A battery is a source of DC voltage. It can maintain a current in an electrical circuit.Batteries or cells can be connected in series to increase voltage.