Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 1 Chapter Seven Nutrition: Healthy Food Choices.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 1 Chapter Seven Nutrition: Healthy Food Choices."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 1 Chapter Seven Nutrition: Healthy Food Choices

2 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 2 Nutritional Guidelines Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): recommended intake levels of essential nutrients associated with reducing risk of chronic diseaseDietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): recommended intake levels of essential nutrients associated with reducing risk of chronic disease Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA): represents the average daily amount of any one nutrient to protect against nutritional deficiency.Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA): represents the average daily amount of any one nutrient to protect against nutritional deficiency. USDA MyPyramid: graphic nutritional tool you can customize to see recommendations for daily food choicesUSDA MyPyramid: graphic nutritional tool you can customize to see recommendations for daily food choices Daily Values: standards used on food labels to indicate how a particular food contributes to the recommended daily intake of major nutrients in a 2,000-calorie dietDaily Values: standards used on food labels to indicate how a particular food contributes to the recommended daily intake of major nutrients in a 2,000-calorie diet

3 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 3 Nutrients Essential nutrients: needed to build, maintain, and repair tissues and regulate body processesEssential nutrients: needed to build, maintain, and repair tissues and regulate body processes Macro-nutrients: needed in large amountsMacro-nutrients: needed in large amounts WaterWater CarbohydratesCarbohydrates ProteinsProteins FatsFats Micro-nutrients: needed in small amountsMicro-nutrients: needed in small amounts VitaminsVitamins MineralsMinerals

4 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 4 Water Function:Function: Digest, absorb, transport nutrientsDigest, absorb, transport nutrients Helps regulate body temperatureHelps regulate body temperature Carries waste out of the bodyCarries waste out of the body Lubricates our body partsLubricates our body parts RDA:RDA: 1 to 1.5 milliliters per calorie spent1 to 1.5 milliliters per calorie spent 2 to 3 liters or 8 to 12 cups of fluid2 to 3 liters or 8 to 12 cups of fluid Water needs can vary depending on several factors such as foods consumed and activity levelWater needs can vary depending on several factors such as foods consumed and activity level

5 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 5 Carbohydrates Function:Function: The bodys main source of energyThe bodys main source of energy Fuel most of the bodys cells during daily activitiesFuel most of the bodys cells during daily activities Used by muscle cells during high-intensity exerciseUsed by muscle cells during high-intensity exercise Only source of energy for brain cells, red-blood cells and some other types of cellsOnly source of energy for brain cells, red-blood cells and some other types of cells Types:Types: Simple Carbohydrates (sugars)Simple Carbohydrates (sugars) Complex Carbohydrates (starches and dietary fibers)Complex Carbohydrates (starches and dietary fibers) RDA:RDA: 130 grams for males and females (aged 1-70)130 grams for males and females (aged 1-70)

6 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 6 Carbohydrates Simple Carbohydrates:Simple Carbohydrates: Sources:Sources: –Honey –Molasses –Fruit –Syrup –Vegetables –Table sugar –Milk Complex Carbohydrates:Complex Carbohydrates: Sources:Sources: –Grains, Whole grains (whole wheat, brown rice, oatmeal, corn) –Vegetables –Some fruit

7 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 7 Dietary Fiber Complex carbohydrate is found in plants and cannot be broken down by the digestive tract.Complex carbohydrate is found in plants and cannot be broken down by the digestive tract. Fiber allows for passage of food quickly through the intestines helping to prevent hemorrhoids and constipation.Fiber allows for passage of food quickly through the intestines helping to prevent hemorrhoids and constipation. Fiber is best obtained through diet, not pills or supplementsFiber is best obtained through diet, not pills or supplements RDA:RDA: 25 grams/day for women (aged 19-50)25 grams/day for women (aged 19-50) 38 grams/day for men (aged 14-50)38 grams/day for men (aged 14-50)

8 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 8 Sources of Fiber Viscous or soluble fiber sources:Viscous or soluble fiber sources: Oat branOat bran Many fruitsMany fruits Legumes (peas, beans, peanuts, soybeans)Legumes (peas, beans, peanuts, soybeans) Insoluble fiber sources:Insoluble fiber sources: Wheat branWheat bran Psyllium seedPsyllium seed Functional fiber: natural or synthetic fiber that has been added to foodFunctional fiber: natural or synthetic fiber that has been added to food Total fiber: combined amount of dietary and functional fiber in a foodTotal fiber: combined amount of dietary and functional fiber in a food

9 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 9 Proteins Function:Function: Build and maintain muscles, bones, and other body tissuesBuild and maintain muscles, bones, and other body tissues Form enzymes that facilitate chemical reactions that allow for:Form enzymes that facilitate chemical reactions that allow for: Types:Types: Complete proteinsComplete proteins Incomplete proteinsIncomplete proteins RDA:RDA:.36 grams per pound of body weight.36 grams per pound of body weight

10 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 10 Proteins Complete protein sourcesComplete protein sources Animal proteins:Animal proteins: –Meat –Fish –Poultry –Milk –Cheese –Eggs Incomplete protein sourcesIncomplete protein sources Vegetable proteins:Vegetable proteins: –Grains –Legumes –Nuts –Seeds –Other vegetables

11 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 11 Proteins Complementary proteins: proteins that in combination provide essential amino acidsComplementary proteins: proteins that in combination provide essential amino acids Mutual supplementation: nutritional strategy of combining two incomplete protein sources to provide a complete proteinMutual supplementation: nutritional strategy of combining two incomplete protein sources to provide a complete protein For example, beans and riceFor example, beans and rice

12 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 12 Fats Function:Function: Principal form of stored energy in the bodyPrincipal form of stored energy in the body Provide essential fatty acidsProvide essential fatty acids Play a role in the production of other fatty acids and Vitamin DPlay a role in the production of other fatty acids and Vitamin D Provide the major material for cell membranes and for the myelin sheaths that surround nerve fibersProvide the major material for cell membranes and for the myelin sheaths that surround nerve fibers Assist in absorption of fat-soluble vitaminsAssist in absorption of fat-soluble vitamins Affect texture, taste, and smell of foodsAffect texture, taste, and smell of foods Provide emergency reserve when we are sick or when our food is diminishedProvide emergency reserve when we are sick or when our food is diminished RDA:RDA: 20 to 35% of calories from fat with only about one- third coming from saturated fats 20 to 35% of calories from fat with only about one- third coming from saturated fats

13 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 13 Fats Saturated fat: lipids that are the predominant fats in animal products and other fats that remain solid at room temperatureSaturated fat: lipids that are the predominant fats in animal products and other fats that remain solid at room temperature Sources:Sources: –Beef –Pork –Poultry –Whole-milk dairy products –Certain tropical oils (coconut and palm) –Certain nuts (macadamia)

14 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 14 Fats Monounsaturated fat: lipids that are liquid at room temperature and semisolid or solid when refrigeratedMonounsaturated fat: lipids that are liquid at room temperature and semisolid or solid when refrigerated Sources:Sources: –Olive, safflower, peanut and canola oils –Avocados –Many nuts Polyunsaturated fat: lipids that are liquid at room temperature and when refrigeratedPolyunsaturated fat: lipids that are liquid at room temperature and when refrigerated Sources: Sources: –Corn and soybean oils –Many fish (trout, salmon, and anchovies)

15 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 15 Cholesterol A waxy substance that is needed for several important body functionsA waxy substance that is needed for several important body functions The body produces it from the liver and obtains it from animal food sourcesThe body produces it from the liver and obtains it from animal food sources Too much cholesterol can clog arteries and lead to cardiovascular diseaseToo much cholesterol can clog arteries and lead to cardiovascular disease LDLs (low density lipoproteins) are the bad cholesterol, while HDLs (high density lipoproteins) are considered goodLDLs (low density lipoproteins) are the bad cholesterol, while HDLs (high density lipoproteins) are considered good Recommended to consume no more than 300 mgs per dayRecommended to consume no more than 300 mgs per day

16 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 16 Trans Fatty Acids Liquid vegetable oils that have been chemically changed through the process of hydrogenation to extend the shelf life of processed foodsLiquid vegetable oils that have been chemically changed through the process of hydrogenation to extend the shelf life of processed foods Trans fats pose a risk to cardiovascular health by raising LDL levelsTrans fats pose a risk to cardiovascular health by raising LDL levels Foods high in trans fatty acids include:Foods high in trans fatty acids include: CrackersCrackers CookiesCookies ChipsChips Cakes and PiesCakes and Pies DoughnutsDoughnuts Deep fried foods like french friesDeep fried foods like french fries

17 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 17 Trans Fatty Acids Liquid vegetable oils that have been chemically changed through the process of hydrogenationLiquid vegetable oils that have been chemically changed through the process of hydrogenation Trans fats pose a risk to cardiovascular health by raising LDL levelsTrans fats pose a risk to cardiovascular health by raising LDL levels Foods high in trans fatty acids include:Foods high in trans fatty acids include: CrackersCrackers CookiesCookies ChipsChips CakesCakes DoughnutsDoughnuts

18 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 18 Minerals Naturally occurring substances needed by the body in small amountsNaturally occurring substances needed by the body in small amounts Build strong bones and teeth; help carry out metabolic processes and body functionsBuild strong bones and teeth; help carry out metabolic processes and body functions The body needs 20 essential minerals.The body needs 20 essential minerals. Macrominerals (need at least 100 mgs/day)Macrominerals (need at least 100 mgs/day) –Calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium, sodium Microminerals (need less than 100 mgs/day)Microminerals (need less than 100 mgs/day) –Iron, fluorine, iodine, zinc and others A balanced diet provides all the essential minerals the body needs per day, so no supplementation is necessary.A balanced diet provides all the essential minerals the body needs per day, so no supplementation is necessary.

19 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 19 Vitamins Naturally occurring organic substances needed by the body in small amountsNaturally occurring organic substances needed by the body in small amounts Serve as catalysts for releasing energy from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats while maintaining other body componentsServe as catalysts for releasing energy from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats while maintaining other body components Your body needs at least 11 specific vitamins.Your body needs at least 11 specific vitamins. A,C, D,E,K, and B-Complex vitaminsA,C, D,E,K, and B-Complex vitamins Vitamins can be found in a variety of foods, so no supplementation is necessary.Vitamins can be found in a variety of foods, so no supplementation is necessary.

20 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 20 Phytochemicals Substances naturally produced by plants.Substances naturally produced by plants. May keep cells healthy, slow tissue degeneration, prevent carcinogens, reduce cholesterol, protect heart, maintain hormone levels, keep bones strong.May keep cells healthy, slow tissue degeneration, prevent carcinogens, reduce cholesterol, protect heart, maintain hormone levels, keep bones strong. Three important types of phytochemicals:Three important types of phytochemicals: Antioxidants (neutralizes free radicals)Antioxidants (neutralizes free radicals) Phytoestrogens (lowers cholesterol and reduces risk of heart disease)Phytoestrogens (lowers cholesterol and reduces risk of heart disease) Phytonutrients (can fight against cancer and heart disease)Phytonutrients (can fight against cancer and heart disease) See the color wheel of food, Figure 7.1

21 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 21 The Color Wheel of Foods

22 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 22 2005 Dietary Guidelines The guidelines are designed to address two major concerns: The role of poor diet and a sedentary lifestyle in the major causes of disease and death in the United StatesThe role of poor diet and a sedentary lifestyle in the major causes of disease and death in the United States The role of these same factors in the increase of overweight and obesity in this countryThe role of these same factors in the increase of overweight and obesity in this country See 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans: Key Message, Table 7.3 © Image Source/Corbis

23 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 23 MyPyramid Based on familiar food groupsBased on familiar food groups Highlights physical activityHighlights physical activity Interactive tools at www.mypyramid.govInteractive tools at www.mypyramid.govwww.mypyramid.gov –Assess your current diet –Calculate your calorie needs –Develop customized food plan –Learn strategies for achieving a healthy weight

24 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 24 Vegetarian Diets 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans provides some direction for vegetarians.2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans provides some direction for vegetarians. Vegetarian diets may offer protection against obesity, heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, digestive disorders, and some forms of cancer.Vegetarian diets may offer protection against obesity, heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, digestive disorders, and some forms of cancer. Vegetarians need to make sure their diets provide the energy intake and food diversity to meet dietary guidelines.Vegetarians need to make sure their diets provide the energy intake and food diversity to meet dietary guidelines. See Highlight on Health, Vegetarian Diet Planning

25 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 25 Current Consumer Concerns Overconsumption of soft drinksOverconsumption of soft drinks High sodium dietsHigh sodium diets Food allergies and food intolerancesFood allergies and food intolerances Energy bars and energy drinksEnergy bars and energy drinks Fast foodsFast foods © BannanaStock/PunchStock

26 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 26 Food Safety and Technology Artificial SweetenersArtificial Sweeteners Organic FoodsOrganic Foods Functional FoodsFunctional Foods Foodborne illnessesFoodborne illnesses Genetically modified foodsGenetically modified foods See Figure 7.6, Food safety in the kitchen

27 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 27 Chapter Seven Nutrition: Healthy Food Choices


Download ppt "© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 1 Chapter Seven Nutrition: Healthy Food Choices."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google