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Food Sanitation Food Sanitation EMD 545b Lecture #13.

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Presentation on theme: "Food Sanitation Food Sanitation EMD 545b Lecture #13."— Presentation transcript:

1 Food Sanitation Food Sanitation EMD 545b Lecture #13

2 Food borne Illness Range 20 - 80 million cases a year (U.S.) Range 20 - 80 million cases a year (U.S.) 325,00 hospitalizations, 5,000 deaths (U.S.) 325,00 hospitalizations, 5,000 deaths (U.S.) 10 - 83 billion cost from absence from work or school, medical costs 10 - 83 billion cost from absence from work or school, medical costs Generally fecal-oral transmission Generally fecal-oral transmission food borne infection - invasion by the organism with multiplication or toxin production in the host. food borne infection - invasion by the organism with multiplication or toxin production in the host. food borne intoxication - growth in food source with toxin production before ingestion food borne intoxication - growth in food source with toxin production before ingestion

3 Agents Clostridium botulinum, C. perfringens Clostridium botulinum, C. perfringens Staphylococci, Salmonella, Shigella Staphylococci, Salmonella, Shigella Campylobacter jejuni, E. coli 0157:H7 Campylobacter jejuni, E. coli 0157:H7 Vibrio parahaemolyticus Vibrio parahaemolyticus Hepatitis A, Norwalk virus, Rotavirus Hepatitis A, Norwalk virus, Rotavirus Calicivirus, Listeria monocytogenes Calicivirus, Listeria monocytogenes Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Bacillus cereus Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Bacillus cereus Toxoplasma gondii, Cyclospora Toxoplasma gondii, Cyclospora

4 Food borne Diseases Infection Infection long incubation period (days) long incubation period (days) diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps. Fever often diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps. Fever often Salmonella, Salmonella, Hepatitis A Hepatitis A Listeria, Giardia Listeria, Giardia Vibrio, Campylobacter Vibrio, Campylobacter Norwalk virus Norwalk virus Intoxication short incubation period (minutes - hours) Vomiting, nausea, double vision, weakness, numbness, disorientation C. botulinum Staph aureus certain fish/ shellfish

5 Outbreaks 2 or more cases associated in time and place 2 or more cases associated in time and place E. coli 0157:H7 (Northwest) E. coli 0157:H7 (Northwest) Cryptosporidium (Milwaukee) Cryptosporidium (Milwaukee) Norwalk virus (Cruise ships) Norwalk virus (Cruise ships) Vibrio cholerae (South America) Vibrio cholerae (South America) Listeria (New York, New Jersey, CT) Listeria (New York, New Jersey, CT)

6 Surveillance Collection and analysis of data of food borne illness - goal to protect public Collection and analysis of data of food borne illness - goal to protect public Identify irregular patterns Identify irregular patterns Notify affected entities Notify affected entities Who, when, what, where? Who, when, what, where? Food items, types of contaminant(s), factors associated with the illness Food items, types of contaminant(s), factors associated with the illness

7 Natural Barriers to Infection Stomach acid pH 2 Stomach acid pH 2 GI Tract immune system GI Tract immune system normal intestinal flora normal intestinal flora bile acids and digestive enzymes bile acids and digestive enzymes

8 Increased Susceptibility Gastrectomy Gastrectomy acid blockers for ulcers acid blockers for ulcers antacids, excessive consumption of water antacids, excessive consumption of water buffering capacity of food- milk, fatty foods buffering capacity of food- milk, fatty foods antibiotic therapy antibiotic therapy very young, old very young, old immunocompromised immunocompromised stress, poor hygiene, underdeveloped areas stress, poor hygiene, underdeveloped areas

9 Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP) System to monitor food service process System to monitor food service process Purchase  Serving Purchase  Serving Framework of control procedures Framework of control procedures Identifies “Critical Control Points” (CCP’s) Identifies “Critical Control Points” (CCP’s) Points in process where hazards may be introduced Points in process where hazards may be introduced Reduce risk of food borne illness Reduce risk of food borne illness

10 Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP) Purchasing Purchasing Receiving Receiving Storing Storing Preparing Preparing Cooking Cooking Serving and holding Serving and holding Cooling Cooling Reheating Reheating

11 Purchasing Evaluate suppliers Evaluate suppliers Compliance with federal/state health standards Compliance with federal/state health standards Check inspection records Check inspection records Trained employees Trained employees Temperature controlled delivery Temperature controlled delivery Safe/sanitary packaging Safe/sanitary packaging Create “specifications” for acceptance Create “specifications” for acceptance Reject substandard items Reject substandard items Schedule delivery during “slow” times Schedule delivery during “slow” times

12 Approved Food Sources Licensed food distributor/establishment Licensed food distributor/establishment Compliance with State Public Health Code Compliance with State Public Health Code USDA inspected meat, poultry USDA inspected meat, poultry Verify supplier as a safe source Verify supplier as a safe source Fish from safe, unpolluted waters Fish from safe, unpolluted waters Pasteurized milk only Pasteurized milk only Inspect suppliers facilities Inspect suppliers facilities

13 Receiving Verify safe/fresh foods Verify safe/fresh foods Inspect upon delivery Inspect upon delivery Appearance, odor, contamination, expiration dates, condition of containers Appearance, odor, contamination, expiration dates, condition of containers Reject “thawed/refrozen” items (large ice crystals) Reject “thawed/refrozen” items (large ice crystals) Reject swollen/rusted/damaged cans Reject swollen/rusted/damaged cans Check temperature of refrigerated foods Check temperature of refrigerated foods

14 Receipt & Storage Check supplies upon receipt for: Check supplies upon receipt for: signs of spoilage signs of spoilage color, odor, texture, slime, mold, dirt, insects color, odor, texture, slime, mold, dirt, insects swollen, pierced, rusted, wet containers swollen, pierced, rusted, wet containers Quality, temperature, general condition Quality, temperature, general condition Arrange delivery for off-peak hours Arrange delivery for off-peak hours Plan ahead to ensure sufficient storage space Plan ahead to ensure sufficient storage space

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16 Receiving Transfer to proper storage promptly Transfer to proper storage promptly Create space for new stock Create space for new stock Clean transport carts Clean transport carts Date foods (arrival or “use by” date) Date foods (arrival or “use by” date) Pest control Pest control Clean, well lit areas Clean, well lit areas

17 Storing Dry storage Dry storage Clean/orderly, items 6” off floor Clean/orderly, items 6” off floor Good ventilation, Good ventilation, 50 – 70 F (verify temp periodically) 50 – 70 F (verify temp periodically) First In, First Out (FIFO) rotation First In, First Out (FIFO) rotation Dating packages, place new to rear Dating packages, place new to rear Clean spills promptly, trash kept out of room Clean spills promptly, trash kept out of room Segregate cleaning supplies (avoid contamination) Segregate cleaning supplies (avoid contamination)

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19 Storage Purchase foods that will be used ASAP Purchase foods that will be used ASAP Place in properly maintained storage area Place in properly maintained storage area Use food quickly Use food quickly Keep potentially hazardous food outside of danger zone Keep potentially hazardous food outside of danger zone Danger Danger <---- < 140 F Keep cleaning materials away from food Keep cleaning materials away from food

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22 Storing Refrigerated storage Refrigerated storage < 40 F (colder preferred, Verify periodically) < 40 F (colder preferred, Verify periodically) Don’t overload Don’t overload Allow for air transfer (slotted shelves) Allow for air transfer (slotted shelves) Date items Date items Properly sealed Properly sealed Raw/uncooked on bottom – away from ready to eat foods Raw/uncooked on bottom – away from ready to eat foods

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24 Storing Freezing Freezing 0 F, store foods immediately 0 F, store foods immediately For foods that are frozen upon receipt For foods that are frozen upon receipt Slotted shelves (circulation) Slotted shelves (circulation) Use moisture proof containers/wrappings Use moisture proof containers/wrappings Avoid multiple entries Avoid multiple entries Segregate large warm “container” into smaller ones Segregate large warm “container” into smaller ones

25 Preparing Thawing and Marinating Thawing and Marinating Keep foods out of temperature danger zone Keep foods out of temperature danger zone 40 F < Danger < 140 F 40 F < Danger < 140 F Never thaw on counter or non-refrigerated area Never thaw on counter or non-refrigerated area Use refrigerator – in pan on bottom shelf Use refrigerator – in pan on bottom shelf Under running water (70 F) < 2 hours Under running water (70 F) < 2 hours Marinate meats/fish in refrigerator Marinate meats/fish in refrigerator Avoid cross contamination (never reuse) Avoid cross contamination (never reuse) Sanitize cutting boards, knives between use Sanitize cutting boards, knives between use

26 Preparation Handle raw, high risk foods in separate area at separate time (Border Café in Cambridge, MA) Handle raw, high risk foods in separate area at separate time (Border Café in Cambridge, MA) Sanitize surfaces/equipment immediately after contact with potentially hazardous food Sanitize surfaces/equipment immediately after contact with potentially hazardous food Hand washing prior to handling food Hand washing prior to handling food ill or infected workers not allowed to handle food ill or infected workers not allowed to handle food For big or catered events, hold reference sample of all foods served for 72 hours For big or catered events, hold reference sample of all foods served for 72 hours

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28 Potentially Hazardous Foods Beef, poultry, pork, gravies, soups Beef, poultry, pork, gravies, soups Meat or fish stuffing Meat or fish stuffing Finfish, shellfish, raw fish Finfish, shellfish, raw fish Dairy products Dairy products Eggs, cream-filled pastries, custards Eggs, cream-filled pastries, custards Vegetables (cooked, raw sprouts, cabbage) Vegetables (cooked, raw sprouts, cabbage) Starchy foods (grains, rice, potatoes) Starchy foods (grains, rice, potatoes)

29 Cooking Cook foods to proper internal temperature Cook foods to proper internal temperature Internal temp of 165 F Internal temp of 165 F Stir foods in deep pots frequently Stir foods in deep pots frequently Regulate size/thickness of foods (uniformity) Regulate size/thickness of foods (uniformity) Validate cooking times/temperatures Validate cooking times/temperatures Check thickest part of the food Check thickest part of the food Always use sanitary cooking/serving utensils Always use sanitary cooking/serving utensils Never touch prepared foods with bare hands Never touch prepared foods with bare hands

30 The Safe Food Handler Training Training Food borne infection Food borne infection Reporting to public health authorities Reporting to public health authorities Carrier state Carrier state during incubation, illness or recovery during incubation, illness or recovery asymptomatic chronic shedding asymptomatic chronic shedding Salmonella typhi (Typhoid Mary) Salmonella typhi (Typhoid Mary) Personal hygiene Personal hygiene

31 Serving and Holding Keep hot food above 140 F Keep hot food above 140 F Steam tables, keep food covered Steam tables, keep food covered Stir foods to ensure even heating Stir foods to ensure even heating Keep cold food below 40 F Keep cold food below 40 F Refrigeration unit/ice Refrigeration unit/ice Check temperature periodically Check temperature periodically Sanitize thermometer after each use Sanitize thermometer after each use Discard food held in danger zone (4 hours) Discard food held in danger zone (4 hours) Never add “fresh” food to food already out for serving Never add “fresh” food to food already out for serving

32 Serving and Holding Wash hands before serving food Wash hands before serving food Clean/sanitary long handled ladles and spoons for serving Clean/sanitary long handled ladles and spoons for serving Never touch parts of cups/plates that will have contact w/food Never touch parts of cups/plates that will have contact w/food Cover cuts w/ bandages and cover with gloves Cover cuts w/ bandages and cover with gloves Change gloves after contact with contaminated surface Change gloves after contact with contaminated surface

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34 Serving and holding Sneeze guards Sneeze guards Avoid cross-contamination Avoid cross-contamination Pre-wrap as much food as possible Pre-wrap as much food as possible Watch customer behavior – remove contaminated food Watch customer behavior – remove contaminated food

35 Serving Rigid personal hygiene requirements Rigid personal hygiene requirements handling raw food handling raw food touching unclean surfaces or equipment touching unclean surfaces or equipment Keep hands away from face, head Keep hands away from face, head no smoking, eating, handling money no smoking, eating, handling money hand washing following restroom use hand washing following restroom use adequately cover cuts, abrasions adequately cover cuts, abrasions no gum chewing, spitting, coughing no gum chewing, spitting, coughing clean work clothes, hair restraints used clean work clothes, hair restraints used

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37 Serving Don’t wear jewelry Don’t wear jewelry Use utensils for serving Use utensils for serving Don’t taste food with finger Don’t taste food with finger Report any illness to management, avoid handling food Report any illness to management, avoid handling food Healthy workers, hair washing, bathing, with frequent hand washing Healthy workers, hair washing, bathing, with frequent hand washing

38 Serving Temperature of food out of danger zones Temperature of food out of danger zones Thermometers to check food temp Thermometers to check food temp steam tables 180 - 200 F to maintain 140 F food steam tables 180 - 200 F to maintain 140 F food Sneeze guards and utensils for salad bar Sneeze guards and utensils for salad bar no dirty plates used for return trip no dirty plates used for return trip Avoid touching food contact surfaces with hands Avoid touching food contact surfaces with hands Server trained in choke saving procedure Server trained in choke saving procedure

39 Cooling Problems here are #1 cause of food borne illness Problems here are #1 cause of food borne illness Rapid cooling important Rapid cooling important Chill to below 40 F Chill to below 40 F Reduce food mass (divide into multiple containers) Reduce food mass (divide into multiple containers) Shallow pre-chilled pans Shallow pre-chilled pans Use ice water bath for quick chill then refrigerate Use ice water bath for quick chill then refrigerate Stir to increase cooling Stir to increase cooling Monitor temperature periodically Monitor temperature periodically Store in covered containers Store in covered containers

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41 Sanitary Facilities & Equipment Cleaning & Sanitization Cleaning & Sanitization Pest Control Pest Control Inspections Inspections clean floors, no debris, clutter, mouse droppings clean floors, no debris, clutter, mouse droppings no food storage on floor no food storage on floor check cleanliness of dishes, utensils in storage check cleanliness of dishes, utensils in storage check drawers for debris, cleanliness check drawers for debris, cleanliness check cleanliness of all equipment used in food preparation or serving (slicers, soup kettles, dispensers check cleanliness of all equipment used in food preparation or serving (slicers, soup kettles, dispensers

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43 Sanitary Facilities & Equipment Cleanliness of dishwasher Cleanliness of dishwasher temperature, detergent, scaling agents temperature, detergent, scaling agents food debris inside machine, grooves on door food debris inside machine, grooves on door washing arms free of obstruction washing arms free of obstruction Backflow prevention devices on plumbing Backflow prevention devices on plumbing Mop closets clean, mop head stored upright, replaced or washed frequently Mop closets clean, mop head stored upright, replaced or washed frequently Facility surfaces and equipment sanitized and inspected on an ongoing basis Facility surfaces and equipment sanitized and inspected on an ongoing basis

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45 Reheating Boil/heat to > 165 F within 2 hours of removal from refrigeration Boil/heat to > 165 F within 2 hours of removal from refrigeration Never reheat more than once Never reheat more than once Never mix leftover and fresh food Never mix leftover and fresh food Discard leftovers refrigerated for more than a week from preparation date Discard leftovers refrigerated for more than a week from preparation date


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