2What is bilingual education? Bilingual education is a program of instruction that uses the student's language as a tool of instruction while they begin learning English, his/her second language. The program is meant to help the student for three or four years until it is determined that he/she can successfully handle academic work entirely in English.
3What is bilingual education? (cont.)In addition to teaching students subject matter in Spanish, the program provides English as a Second Language (ESL) teaching methods.Successful bilingual programs provide instruction that instills, confidence, self-assurance, and positive identity with their cultural heritage. They learn about the history and culture of their ancestors, as well as that of the United States.
4Main ObjectiveThe main objective of bilingual education is to help English Language Learner students achieve success, both in their current academic placement and in the future.
5What are the goals of bilingual education? Learning English is one of the primary goals of bilingual education.The other goals of bilingual education are to:insure access to comprehensible instruction in the native languageprovide access to content area instruction in the native languageteach English using English as a Second Language instructionestablish a warm and welcoming climate that supports cognitive growth of language minority students
6Who is served?Students who are limited-English proficient (LEP). The LEP students may be from various language groups. In Texas, approximately 98% of the LEP population is Spanish-speaking.If at least twenty students from the same language group are enrolled in a grade level. Texas law requires that the school district provide a formal language program of instruction which uses both languages of instruction.
7How is eligibility determined? Federal guidelines require that school districts have procedures in place that help them identify students who can benefit from a bilingual program.When a student enrolls in a Texas public school parents are asked to identify:which language the child learned firstwhich language is most often spoken at home
8How is eligibility determined? (cont.)Parents that answer both questions by naming a language other than English are identified for further testing. Students are first given a test in English.
9How is eligibility determined? Students who have difficulty in understanding and speaking English are identified and placed in a special program.ESLBilingualThe ultimate decision for program placement lies with the parents. Under no circumstances should a district place a child in either bilingual or an ESL program if the parent does not provide authorization.
10How is it determined when a student is ready to exit the bilingual program? Development of student's oral language level of proficiency skills.Scores on English achievement test (40% in both English language arts and reading is required)
11Why do we need bilingual education? High failure rates for Hispanics during the 1950's and 1960's, the dropout rates ranged from 60-70%. The "sink or swim" approach may have worked for a few, but not for all Hispanics.Students who are ready to read can do so in their strong primary language, Spanish.
12Why do we need bilingual education? (cont.)Students do not have to sit in class waiting to learn English well to begin learning content area instruction (math, social studies, science). They are presented in Spanish while they are gradually introduced to English using ESL techniques.Many of the reading skills learned in the native language will transfer to the second language.
13Will being in bilingual classes retard students' academic progress? Research has shown that it takes four to seven years for students to acquire cognitive academic language proficiency in the second language. It is important to recognize that not all students have had the same background experiences.
14Research on Academic Achievement Concepts and skills that students learn in one language transfer to another (Ramirez, 1992, study founded by Federal Government). English immersion and early exit programs are inefficient to ELL’sELL’s immersed in the English mainstream showed decreases in reading and math achievement by Grade 5 (Collier and Thomas 2002).Strong primary language development helps students learn English (Collier 1987).
15Research on Academic Achievement (cont.)School related task require a fairly sophisticated grasp of language (Collier and Thomas 1987).Students who are highly proficient in two languages appear to have academic advantages over monolingual students (Cummings 2000)Supporting primary language promotes self-esteem (Baker 1988 and Miller 1990)
16What is the program of instruction? The implementation of the program of instruction addresses three specific areas of student needs:how it will teach English as a second language to the studenthow it will teach the content area subject matter (science, math, social studies)how the student will be helped so that he/she does not fall behind his/her assigned grade level.
19Transitional Bilingual Education Transitional bilingual education uses students' native languages in teaching subject areas, and students use progressively more English to transit into the mainstream education curriculum. The first language can be helpful in providing background knowledge, and literacy transfers across languages. The main emphasis of transitional bilingual education programs is to enable limited English proficient students to become competent in all areas of English through the development of literacy and academic skills in their native language.
20Immersion Bilingual Programs Immersion education is defined as using the standard, approved school curriculum taught in a foreign language to students who share the same first language. In other words, the foreign language is used for the instruction of all subject matter, and not taught as a separate subject. Teachers use gestures, toys, and pictures to aid student's development of language acquisition as they explore content areas such as math, reading, social studies, science, and other curriculums. The idea to use the immersion model for teaching foreign languages came from Canada's successful use of the program that started in 1965 (Peterson).
21Immersion Bilingual Programs (cont.) They are bilingual programs because of the following characteristics:The teacher is bilingual. Although the lesson is delivered in a language that is new to the students, students can expressed themselves and be understood in their own language.The language used for the instruction is carefully modified and mediated to improve students understanding. All instruction is supported by use of visuals, media, and hands on experiences.Students usually received language arts instruction in their primary language.Immersion programs, like others, work best when their emphasis is additive.
22Two-Way Bilingual Immersion Programs Two-way bilingual immersion programs (also known as dual language programs) are unique in bilingual education in that they foster literacy and native language ability in two different languages for all students in the curriculum, regardless of mother tongue. Two-way immersion programs integrate language minority and language majority students, providing instruction in both English and the native language of the language minority students. Overriding goals of two-way bilingual immersion programs are to promote bilingualism and biliteracy, grade-level academic achievement, and positive cross-cultural attitudes and behaviors in all students.
23Developmental Bilingual Programs Developmental Bilingual Education, also known as "Late Exit" programs, proposes that students stay in the program throughout elementary school and continue to receive 40% or more of instruction in the first language even when they have been tested as English proficient (Rennie). The programs begin in elementary school and extend through high school. From 1994 to 1995, 38.4% of students participated in state and local bilingual programs versus 29.9% participated in ESL programs (Summary). Key issues in this program are the ways that first language can positively affect acquisition of other languages and that human rights and culture must be respected.
24Early exit vs. Late exitJim Cummins found in studies that the better students have mastered the first language, the better they will understand English (Leung). It was found that the foundation of the first language would best prepare students for learning academic English, a process lasting from five to seven years. In a 1991 study, 2,000 Spanish students in five states found that "late exit" bilingual education programs were superior to "early exit" transitional programs (Leung). This study shows that the first language base knowledge is central to the assimilation of other languages.
25ESL Pull-OutsIn a pull-out program for ESL, English language learners (ELLs) are removed from the “regular” class (in which they receive their daily academic instruction from a teacher who, probably, speaks ONLY English) so that they can receive small-group instruction in English Language Development (ELD) or ESL for a limited amount of time each day, somewhere between 30 to 50 minutes. The pull-out students then return to their “regular” classroom and continue to “learn” the content areas from the English-ONLY teacher.
26ESL Pull-Outs(cont.) Most of the time, the pull-out program instructor, an aide or a certified teacher, has little contact with the “regular” classroom teacher in terms of instructional planning. The ESL or ELD instructor, teacher or aide, implements a program that may not be in any way, form or shape connected to the daily content area lessons that the pull-out ESL students receive in their “regular” class from their “regular” teacher.
27Additive versus Subtractive Bilingualism A subtractive bilingual is a person who has replace a first language with a new one: the first language is undeveloped or lost. Students become subtractive bilinguals in the absence of formal schooling in their primary language. Such students may maintain oral proficiency in their first language, but they do not enjoy the benefits of language and literacy development for that language.An additive bilingual is a person who has learned a second language in addition to a native language. Additive bilinguals have an academic advantage over subtractive bilinguals and monolinguals.
28The English Plus Movement The English Plus movement began as a political move to guarantee freedom from discrimination based on language. Representative Jose Serrano, (D-NY) of the 107th Congress, introduced a nonbinding resolution around 1982(English Plus). Other similar measures have passed at the state level as well. The policy emerged to push more investments in language education for Americans, and also to conserve bilingual education.
29The English Plus Movement (cont.) Proponents of English Plus thought that this type of education could benefit employment, create more cultural awareness, and render psychological benefits to this country. It was further stated that national interest might be best served when all members of society can receive access to opportunities to learn English. Further, according to the Constitution, language assistance must be available to all, including U.S. citizens of other languages who have not had the opportunity to learn English (English Plus).