Presentation on theme: "Evolution (Test 1) 1. By discharging electric sparks into a laboratory chamber atmosphere that consisted of water vapor, hydrogen gas, methane, and ammonia,"— Presentation transcript:
Evolution (Test 1) 1. By discharging electric sparks into a laboratory chamber atmosphere that consisted of water vapor, hydrogen gas, methane, and ammonia, Stanley Miller obtained data that showed that a number of organic molecules, including many amino acids, could be synthesized. Miller was attempting to model early Earth conditions as understood in the 1950’s. The results of Miller’s experiments best support which of the following hypotheses?
a.The molecules essential to life today did not exist at the time Earth was formed. b.The molecules essential to life today could not have been carried to the primordial Earth by a comet or meteorite. c.The molecules essential to life today could have formed under early Earth conditions. d.The molecules essential to life today were initially self replicating proteins that were synthesized approximately four billion years ago.
Evolution (Test 1) 18. Five new species of bacteria were discovered in Antarctic ice core samples. The nucleotide (base) sequences of rRNA subunits were determined for the new species. The table below shows the number of nucleotide differences between the species.
Which of the following phylogenetic trees is most consistent with the data?
21.In a hypothetical population of beetles, there is a wide variety of color, matching the range of coloration of the tree trunks on which the beetles hide from predators. The graphs below illustrate four possible changes to the beetle population as a result of a change in the environment due to pollution that darkened the tree trunks. Which of the following includes the most likely change in the coloration of the beetle population after pollution and a correct rationale for the change? Evolution (Test 1)
a.The coloration range shifted toward more light-colored beetles, as in diagram I. The pollution helped the predators find the darkened tree trunks. b.The coloration in the population split into 2 extremes, as in diagram II. Both the lighter-colored and the darker- colored beetles were able to hide on the darker tree trunks. c.The coloration range became narrower, as in diagram III. The predators selected beetles at the color extremes. d.The coloration in the population shifted toward more darker-colored beetles, as in diagram IV. The lighter- colored beetles were found more easily by the predators than were the darker colored beetles.
Evolution (Test 1) 37. A group of students summarized information of five great extinction events. The students are sampling a site in search of fossils from the Devonian period. Based on the chart, which of the following would be the most reasonable plan for the students to follow?
a.Searching horizontal rock layers in any class of rock and trying to find those that contain the greatest number of fossils. b.Collecting fossils from rock layers deposited prior to the Permian period that contain some early vertebrate bones. c.Looking in sedimentary layers next to bodies of water in order to find marine fossils of bivalves and trilobites d.Using relative dating techniques to determine the geological ages of the fossils found so they can calculate the rate of speciation of early organisms.
1. Which one of these most correctly describes the comparison of the bird and bat wing? a. The bird and bat wing are analagous structures. b. The bird and bat wing are homologous structures. c. The bird and bat wing are vestigial structures. d. The bird and bat wing are proof that they evolved from a common ancestor. Evolution (Test 2)
2. What is the most important factor in determining whether a group of organisms is a species? a.Reproductive success – the ability of members of a group to be successful at producing offspring. b.Reproductive isolation – the members of a species share a single gene pool. c.DNA analysis – study of the genetic makeup of the parent must show an equivalent DNA sequence in the offspring. d.Similarity of appearance. Evolution (Test 2)
4. Which of the following choices is structural evidence that supports the relatedness of all eukaryotes? a.Vestigial structures as shown by the wings of an ostrich. b.Membrane bound organelles. c.The universal nature of the genetic code d.The role of ribosomal RNA in translation and the production of polypeptides. Evolution (Test 2)
In 1953 Miller and Urey conducted an experiment that would help determine the origin of life on Earth. A diagram of the experimental apparatus used is shown below. Evolution (Test 2)
24. The electric spark was run through a group of gases meant to model: a.lightning passing through a primitive sea. b.meteorite impact on a primitive Earth. c.lightning passing through a primitive atmosphere d.primitive lightning and its effects on condensation in an early atmosphere. **Questions 25 & 26 also apply** Evolution (Test 2)
27. Which of these is a component of natural selection? a.In order to adjust to environmental conditions, many species will find a way to adapt. b.A population responds to a change in the environment by modification of their structure, thereby passing this structure on to their offspring. c.Members of a population have inheritable variations. d.Populations produce offspring with an increased variety during difficult periods. **Questions 28 – 30, 34 also apply to evolution** Evolution (Test 2)
33. When humans selected specific characteristics in a species like corn, what was the impact on variation in the natural environment? a.Production of a plant beneficial to the human race with smaller, healthier, less productive fruit. b.Humans have changed millions of acres of land from a varied nonproductive wasteland to a sterile field of a single species, and thus destroyed the natural variation. c.Through the selection of a set of traits that are desired, the human population has placed external pressures on the natural species and limited its ability to survive. d.Humans have changed the entire makeup of the ecosystem where corn grows by limiting the species that can live in that ecosystem, effectively changing the water cycle, nutrient cycles, and the entire trophic system of that ecosystem. Evolution (Test 2)
For 56-59 select which process is occurring: a.Artificial selection b.Genetic drift c.Adaptive radiation d.Allopatric speciation 56. A small group of individuals start an Amish community in PA. One of the males carries a genetic mutation for polydactyly, which causes his offspring and a majority of the second generation of the community to have extra fingers and toes. 57. Between 1943 and 1952, a new volcano called Paricutin emerged form the ground in Mexico. This volcano separates two portions of a population of salamanders which in turn become distinct species. Evolution (Test 2) Genetic drift Allopatric speciation
For 56-59 select which process is occurring: a.Artificial selection b.Genetic drift c.Adaptive radiation d.Allopatric speciation 58. Foxes are very shy and shun the company of people. Russian scientists are able to produce silver foxes that allow themselves to be petted and even seek the attention of people. 59. A single finch species arrive in the Galapagos Islands and give rise to thirteen varieties of finch species. Evolution (Test 2) Artificial selection Adaptive radiation