Presentation on theme: "Beowulf Introducing the Epic Literary Focus: Archetype— The Epic Hero"— Presentation transcript:
1Beowulf Introducing the Epic Literary Focus: Archetype— The Epic Hero Feature MenuIntroducing the EpicLiterary Focus: Archetype— The Epic HeroReading Focus: ParaphrasingWriting Focus: Think as a Reader/WriterTechFocus
5Beowulf Introducing the Epic Beowulf isone of the most important epics of Western literaturea long narrative with monsters, gory battles, and a brave hero— Beowulf
6Beowulf Introducing the Epic PeopleBeowulf: nephew of Higlac, king of the Geats.Hrothgar: king of the Danes.Wiglaf: a Geat warrior, one of Beowulf’s select band and the only one to help him in his final fight with the dragon.
7Beowulf Introducing the Epic PronunciationIn Anglo-Saxon, e is usually a separate vowel.Beowulf (BAY oh wolf)Geats (YAY ahts)Hr is pronounced at the beginning of words.Hrothgar (HROTH gahr)
8Beowulf Introducing the Epic MonstersGrendel: man-eating monster who lives at the bottom of a foul mere, or mountain lake.Grendel’s mother: water-witch who seeks revenge.Dragon: giant fire-breathing serpent that Beowulf fights in Part Two of the epic.
9Beowulf Introducing the Epic PlacesHerot: King Hrothgar's guest hall, where warriors gathered to celebrate.
10Beowulf Introducing the Epic PronunciationThe first syllable of Anglo-Saxon words is accented.• Herot (HAY-oh-rot)
11Beowulf Introducing the Epic PlacesBeowulf takes place in Scandinavia.ScandinaviaBritainScholars think Herot might have been built on the coast of Zealand, in Denmark.
12Beowulf Introducing the Epic Time500Beowulf describes the world of the early sixth century.The story of Beowulf is first told.600However, the epic was not written down until some time between 600 and 750.The epic is written down in 3,200 lines.750
13Beowulf Introducing the Epic SourcesBeowulf is based on early Celtic and Scandinavian folk legends.Christian elements and geographic details suggest the epic was written down by a Northumbrian monk.[End of Section]
14Beowulf Literary Focus: Archetype—The Epic Hero An archetype is a very old imaginative pattern that appears in literature across cultures and time.ArchetypeRomeo & Julietcharacteryoung loversplotstar-crossed loveimageJuliet is the sunsettingorder from chaos
15Beowulf Literary Focus: Archetype—The Epic Hero Another archetype is the epic hero—the main character of a myth or long narrative poem. An epic hero reflects the values and heroic ideals of a particular society. As archetypes, epic heroes also embody universal ideals.An epic is a quest story on a grand scale.
16Beowulf Literary Focus: Archetype—The Epic Hero Beowulf is one of ancient England’s heroes.His name may mean bear.He was a Geat from Sweden who crossed the sea to save the Danes from Grendel.His culture valued his bravery and strength.
17Beowulf Literary Focus: Archetype—The Epic Hero Other times and cultures have had other heroes.King ArthursamuraiJoan of Arc
18Beowulf Literary Focus: Archetype—The Epic Hero In modern America, the hero may be a real person or a fictional character.[End of Section]
19Beowulf Translations of Beowulf Beowulf was composed in Old English. The versions you will read were translated by Burton Raffel and Seamus Heaney.Their translations reflect these features of Anglo-Saxon poetry:• caesura• alliteration• kenning
20Beowulf Translations of Beowulf Anglo-Saxon poets used a caesura, or rhythmic pause, to create unity.Locate the caesura in these lines:ða com of more under misthleoþum Grendel gongan, godes yrre bær; mynte se manscaða manna cynnes sumne besyrwan in sele þam hean.Line divided into two parts by a caesura.
21Beowulf Translations of Beowulf Here are the same lines in modern English:Out from the marsh, from the foot of mistyHills and bogs, bearing God’s hatred,Grendel came, hoping to killAnyone he could trap on this trip to high Herot.In English, punctuation reproduces the pause of the caesura.
22Beowulf Translations of Beowulf The Anglo-Saxon oral poet also used the poetic device of alliteration.Grendel gongan, godes yrre bær; mynte se manscaða manna cynnes
23Beowulf Translations of Beowulf Alliteration: the repetition of consonant sounds in words close together.And with old woes new wail my dear time’s waste.The emphasis on the w sound in this line from Shakespeare’s Sonnet 30 creates a melancholy tone.
24Beowulf Translations of Beowulf Find examples of alliteration in this translation of lines of Beowulf:Out from the marsh, from the foot of mistyHills and bogs, bearing God’s hatred,Grendel came, hoping to killAnyone he could trap on this trip to high Herot.
25Beowulf Translations of Beowulf Find examples of alliteration in this translation of lines of Beowulf:Out from the marsh, from the foot of mistyHills and bogs, bearing God’s hatred,Grendel came, hoping to killAnyone he could trap on this trip to high Herot.
26Beowulf Translations of Beowulf The kenning is another poetic device that was used by the oral poet.Examples of kennings from Beowulf:gold-shining hall = Herotguardian of crime = Grendelstrong-hearted wakeful sleeper = Beowulfcave-guard and sky-borne foe = dragon
27Beowulf Translations of Beowulf Kenning: a metaphorical phrase or compound word used to name a person, place, thing, or event indirectly.A kenning enhances the literal meaning of the words. A kenning gives the listener an idea of how the words connect to an idea or concept that is richer and more emotionally complex.
28Beowulf Translations of Beowulf Create modern-day kennings for things you see around you.giver of wordsword-wand????[End of Section]
29Beowulf Reading Focus: Paraphrasing Identifying nouns, verbs, and phrases will help you discover the most important ideas in a passage.Paraphrasing is the process of selecting the most important ideas and putting them in your own words. First, identify and list nouns, verbs, and phrases. Then, ask: How are these nouns, verbs, and phrases related?
30Beowulf Reading Focus: Paraphrasing Paraphrasing is the process of selecting the most important ideas and putting them in your own words. First, identify and list nouns, verbs, and phrases. Then, ask: How are these nouns, verbs, and phrases related?Related Nouns, Verbs, Phrases:ParaphrasingisprocessDefinition of paraphrasingselecting . . .putting . . .Related Nouns, Verbs, Phrases:Steps in the processidentifylistask
31Beowulf Reading Focus: Paraphrasing Into Action: As you read, use a chart like the one below to list nouns, verbs, and phrases that describe the epic hero Beowulf and his actions.Nouns/PronounsVerbsPhrasesmy dutywas to goto the DanesIdrove / chasedgiants[End of Section]
32Beowulf Reading Focus: Paraphrasing NounsDefinition• name a person, place, thing, or idea• can be the subject or object of a verbExampleHerot, shield, courageBeowulf fought Grendel.
33Beowulf Reading Focus: Paraphrasing VerbsDefinitionExamplesexpress an action or state of beingcan be the predicate of a sentenceGrendel fled. Beowulf was unafraid.The story of their battle was handed down.
34Beowulf Reading Focus: Paraphrasing PhrasesDefinition•Examplessurprising the enemy in the hall to slay his foes shivering from feara group of words that work as one unit in a sentence
35Beowulf Writing Focus: Think as a Reader/Writer Find It in Your ReadingAlthough much of the epic Beowulf progresses in narrative, the main characters deliver speeches to each other, establishing their credentials, their heritage, and their intentions.In a notebook, make notes about what characterizes these speeches.[End of Section]
36Beowulf TechFocus TechFocus As you read Beowulf, think about similar characters that you have met in modern TV shows, movies, and video games.[End of Section]
38Beowulf Vocabularyreparation n.: payment to make up for a wrong or injury.reprisal n.: punishment in return for an injury.loathsome adj.: very hateful; disgusting.vehemently adv.: violently.infallible adj.: unable to fail or be wrong.extolled v.: praised.
39Beowulf VocabularyThe word reparation comes from a Latin word that means “restore.”Related words include• repair• reconciliation• restorationJudges sometimes require criminals to make reparation to reduce the harm to their victims.
40Beowulf VocabularyAfter a war has ended, which countries would be expected to pay reparations?a. countries that started the warb. countries that were invaded during the warc. countries that were uninvolved in the war
41Beowulf VocabularyAfter a war has ended, which countries would be expected to pay reparations?a. countries that started the warb. countries that were invaded during the warc. countries that were uninvolved in the war
42Beowulf VocabularyThe word reprisal comes from an Old French word that means “take back.”A synonym is retaliation.One country might warn other nations that any attack will bring reprisal.
43Beowulf Vocabulary“If you throw that snowball,” I warned, “you can expect reprisal.”What do you think will happen if someone throws the first snowball?
44Beowulf VocabularyThe word loathsome comes from an Old English word that means “to hate” or “be disgusted with.”Synonyms include• disgusting • revolting• hideous • vile• horribleThe monster created by Frankenstein could not make friends because people found the monster loathsome.
45Beowulf VocabularySome people call bugs “creepy-crawlies.” Do these children find this insect loathsome? How can you tell?
46Beowulf VocabularySomeone who speaks vehemently talks with passion and conviction.Antonyms include• apathetically• dully• unenthusiasticallyDr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was a great orator who spoke vehemently in support of civil rights.
47Beowulf VocabularyIn which picture are people arguing vehemently?
48Beowulf VocabularySomeone who is fallible can make mistakes or be deceived. Someone who is infallible is just the opposite.In + fallible = unable to err“You think I’m wrong? No way; I’m infallible!”
49Beowulf Vocabulary“Most articles in a wiki can be edited by any user,” warned the teacher.Does the teacher think that articles in the online encyclopedia Wikipedia are infallible?
50Beowulf VocabularyThe word extolled, which means “praised,” comes from a Latin word that means “to lift.”Other words for praise areacclaim exaltcelebrate glorifycheer honorSongs that extolled heroes like Beowulf became part of the oral tradition.
51Beowulf VocabularyAfter the rescue, the child’s parents said that the firefighter deserved a medal.What else might they have said when they extolled the firefighter?[End of Section]
54Beowulf QuickWrite Think about a hero you know or have read about. In a notebook, write down a list of situations in which a person can rise above his or her place in life to become a hero.[End of Section]
56BeowulfBackgroundThe epic poem Beowulf takes place in the Anglo-Saxon period following the fall of the Roman Empire.Reconstructed Anglo-Saxon village in West Stow, England, with communal hall on the left.
57BeowulfBackgroundThe story concerns a brave and strong hero who hears tales of a fearsome beast that has laid waste to a kingdom of Danes.The ancestry of each character is emphasized throughout the epic.Beowulf rips off the monster Grendel’s arm.[End of Section]