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Educate to care: A training needs analysis of Irish registered mental health nurses in physical health and physical health skills. Brendan Power (RGN,RPN)

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Presentation on theme: "Educate to care: A training needs analysis of Irish registered mental health nurses in physical health and physical health skills. Brendan Power (RGN,RPN)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Educate to care: A training needs analysis of Irish registered mental health nurses in physical health and physical health skills. Brendan Power (RGN,RPN) HSE – Dublin West/South West Mental Health Service

2 MSc (Nurse/Midwifery Education)

3 Dublin West/South West Region Dublin West/South West Region Dublin West/South West Region Population = 276,334 people Population = 276,334 people Service predominantly community based in line with Vision for Change (2006) 4 sector community mental health teams 4 sector community mental health teams A service wide Psychiatry of Later Life Service A service wide Psychiatry of Later Life Service A Service wide Rehabilitation Service A Service wide Rehabilitation Service Inpatient unit (Approved Centre) based in Tallaght Hospital 52 acute beds = 23 male, 23 female, 6 bedded high observation unit. 52 acute beds = 23 male, 23 female, 6 bedded high observation unit.

4 Lets begin… Mental health nurses perform a broad range of tasks in a variety of differing settings However often the physical health needs of consumers can often be overlooked… (Happell et al, 2012)

5 Lets go back in time…. In the UK, the unmet physical health needs of mental health service users has been an area of topic for over seventy years. (Phillips, 1934) In the UK, the unmet physical health needs of mental health service users has been an area of topic for over seventy years. (Phillips, 1934) For over a century there has been a strong association between diabetes and schizophrenia, even though the underlying associations are unclear. (Holt et al, 2005) For over a century there has been a strong association between diabetes and schizophrenia, even though the underlying associations are unclear. (Holt et al, 2005)

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7 Background to the Problem: Individuals with a serious mental illness (SMI) have significant higher mortality rates, in comparison to the wider population, due to untreated or under recognised physical health conditions. (Harris et al, 1998; Ronis, 2008; Gray et al, 2009). Individuals with a serious mental illness (SMI) have significant higher mortality rates, in comparison to the wider population, due to untreated or under recognised physical health conditions. (Harris et al, 1998; Ronis, 2008; Gray et al, 2009). Many factors inhibit individuals with SMI from receiving adequate physical healthcare. Many factors inhibit individuals with SMI from receiving adequate physical healthcare. (Phelan et al, 2001; De Hert, 2010; Hardy et al, 2010)

8 Nash (2010) defined three main determinants influencing the physical health of clients: Nash (2010) defined three main determinants influencing the physical health of clients: 1. Lifestyle factors 2. Social factors 3. Adverse drug reactions

9 Knowledge & Psychiatry The knowledge of health nursing has been immature and in psychiatry compelled forward with the development of medical expansionism. (Barker et al, 1989 ;Meadows, 2003) The knowledge of health nursing has been immature and in psychiatry compelled forward with the development of medical expansionism. (Barker et al, 1989 ;Meadows, 2003) As medical knowledge and science advanced nurses needed to know about the causes and treatments of physical conditions. As medical knowledge and science advanced nurses needed to know about the causes and treatments of physical conditions. (Sheridan, 2008) (Sheridan, 2008) The adoption of a recovery approach has often argued the need for mental health nursing to move away from the medicalized psychiatric paradigm. (Barker et al, 2011) The adoption of a recovery approach has often argued the need for mental health nursing to move away from the medicalized psychiatric paradigm. (Barker et al, 2011)

10 Physical Health & Mental health Nursing Mental health nurses undertake routine risk assessments and often worry about the occurrence of death by suicide of service-users (Gray et al, 2009) Mental health nurses undertake routine risk assessments and often worry about the occurrence of death by suicide of service-users (Gray et al, 2009) However, a large proportion of mortality in people with SMI is due to physical diseases (Leucht et al, 2007) However, a large proportion of mortality in people with SMI is due to physical diseases (Leucht et al, 2007)

11 Physical Health & Mental health Nursing Mental health nurse training should educate nurses to be fit for practice and have adequate knowledge in the causes of ill health. (Anderson et al, 2011) Mental health nurse training should educate nurses to be fit for practice and have adequate knowledge in the causes of ill health. (Anderson et al, 2011) Irish mental health service users should have their physical health needs met and nursing has a responsibility to undertake this as being the largest professional group employed in worldwide mental health services. (Udo et al, 2011; WHO, 2011) Irish mental health service users should have their physical health needs met and nursing has a responsibility to undertake this as being the largest professional group employed in worldwide mental health services. (Udo et al, 2011; WHO, 2011) The knowledge deficits of mental health nurses in physical health care have been widely published (Jones, 2003; Nash, 2005; 2009; 2010) but no studies have been undertaken in the Republic of Ireland specifically to mental health nursing. The knowledge deficits of mental health nurses in physical health care have been widely published (Jones, 2003; Nash, 2005; 2009; 2010) but no studies have been undertaken in the Republic of Ireland specifically to mental health nursing.

12 Ireland is one of the only countries in the world to have separate and core undergraduate nurse training pathways (Robinson et al, 2007) Ireland is one of the only countries in the world to have separate and core undergraduate nurse training pathways (Robinson et al, 2007)

13 Study Aims/Objectives Utilizing a survey questionnaire design (Nash, 2005) the aim of this study was to: To determine how many mental health nurses had previous training in physical healthcare. To determine how many mental health nurses had previous training in physical healthcare. To explore do mental health nurses provide physical healthcare to individuals with in their care and what physical health conditions do they encompass in practice To explore do mental health nurses provide physical healthcare to individuals with in their care and what physical health conditions do they encompass in practice To ascertain if mental health nurses would like further training in physical/general healthcare and what specific areas would they prefer to gain new knowledge in. To ascertain if mental health nurses would like further training in physical/general healthcare and what specific areas would they prefer to gain new knowledge in. To identify the preferred methods of learning and associated barriers that would inhibit the process. To identify the preferred methods of learning and associated barriers that would inhibit the process. To examine and estimate the frequency of physical health conditions and associated exposure on weekly work routines. To examine and estimate the frequency of physical health conditions and associated exposure on weekly work routines.

14 Study Design & Sample A quantitative non-experimental descriptive survey design A quantitative non-experimental descriptive survey design 18 question self-report survey questionnaire (Nash, 2005) utilised. 18 question self-report survey questionnaire (Nash, 2005) utilised. A purposeful sample of 153 (n =153) registered mental health nurses working within hospital and community areas in a mental health service in the Dublin West/South West region. A purposeful sample of 153 (n =153) registered mental health nurses working within hospital and community areas in a mental health service in the Dublin West/South West region.

15 Ethics & Analysis Full ethics granted from the St James /Tallaght hospital Ethics Committee Full ethics granted from the St James /Tallaght hospital Ethics Committee Access granted to utilize staff in hospital & community areas by gate-keeper. Access granted to utilize staff in hospital & community areas by gate-keeper. Analysis undertaken with SPSS Version 18. Analysis undertaken with SPSS Version 18.

16 Study Participants – Hospital (Approved Centre) Mean years qualified Mean years qualified = (range 2 to 33 years; Standard Deviation 9.782) The mean length of a nurse in their current working role =6.617 years (range 0.5 to 20; SD ). The mean length of a nurse in their current working role =6.617 years (range 0.5 to 20; SD ).

17 Study Participants – Community Areas Mean years qualified Mean years qualified = 15(range 2 to 42 years; Standard Deviation ) The mean length of a nurse in their current working role =3.98 years (range 0.5 to 17; SD ). The mean length of a nurse in their current working role =3.98 years (range 0.5 to 17; SD ).

18 Findings – Previous Experiences Nurses in the approved centre had higher levels of experience (73.7%) and training (42.1%) in physical healthcare when compared to the community where there was a higher incidence of mental health nurses with a general nursing qualification (33% CA, 21.1% AC). Nurses in the approved centre had higher levels of experience (73.7%) and training (42.1%) in physical healthcare when compared to the community where there was a higher incidence of mental health nurses with a general nursing qualification (33% CA, 21.1% AC). Most experience of training in physical healthcare was reported occurring during training (undergraduate and general), in previous employment and through daily work exposure. Most experience of training in physical healthcare was reported occurring during training (undergraduate and general), in previous employment and through daily work exposure.

19 Findings – Providing physical healthcare Nurses in both areas provide physical healthcare to service users Nurses in both areas provide physical healthcare to service users Approved Centre – Yes (84.2%) Community Area – Yes (59.3%)

20 Findings – Care Provision (Approved Centre) The highest areas ( 50%) for nurses providing care in the approved centres was in the areas of: Pain relief (84.2%) Pain relief (84.2%) Skin conditions (78.9%) Skin conditions (78.9%) Diabetes (73.7%) Diabetes (73.7%) Tissue viability (63.2%) Tissue viability (63.2%) Cardiovascular conditions (68.4%) Cardiovascular conditions (68.4%) Respiratory conditions (57.9%) Respiratory conditions (57.9%) Substance Detoxification (57.9%) Substance Detoxification (57.9%)

21 Findings – Care Provision (Community Areas) The highest areas (50%) for nurses providing care in the community areas was in the areas of: Diabetes (44.4%) Diabetes (44.4%) Cardiovascular conditions (29.6%) Cardiovascular conditions (29.6%) Respiratory conditions (11.1%) Respiratory conditions (11.1%) Skin conditions (18.5%) Skin conditions (18.5%) Pain relief (33.1%) Pain relief (33.1%) Substance detoxification (25.9%). Substance detoxification (25.9%).

22 Findings – Care Provision Other areas reported by nurses in both areas provide included: Epilepsy Epilepsy Health promotion Health promotion Medication education Medication education Metabolic screening Metabolic screening Palliative care Palliative care Weight management Weight management Infection control Infection control Continence care Continence care

23 The highest areas where staff in the Approved Centre identified for further knowledge development were in the areas of: The highest areas where staff in the Approved Centre identified for further knowledge development were in the areas of: Diabetes (68.4%) Diabetes (68.4%) Health education and promotion (52.6%) Health education and promotion (52.6%) Managing minor illness (52.6%) Managing minor illness (52.6%) Coronary artery disease (52.6%) Coronary artery disease (52.6%) Findings – Developing Knowledge

24 The highest areas where staff in the community areas identified for further knowledge development were in the areas of: The highest areas where staff in the community areas identified for further knowledge development were in the areas of: Assessment skills for physical health (70.4%); Assessment skills for physical health (70.4%); Diabetes management (59.3%) Diabetes management (59.3%) Obesity management (51.9%) Obesity management (51.9%)

25 Findings – Developing Knowledge Both areas reported low findings in acquiring new knowledge into smoking cessation Both areas reported low findings in acquiring new knowledge into smoking cessation Approved Centre – Yes (15.9%) Community Area – Yes (14.8%)

26 Findings – Programme participation 89% of nurses both in in the Approved Centre and community areas reported they would like to participate in physical health/general health training 89% of nurses both in in the Approved Centre and community areas reported they would like to participate in physical health/general health training

27 Findings – Barriers to Programme participation Nurses subjectively reported such barriers that would inhibit training would include: Nurses subjectively reported such barriers that would inhibit training would include: Funding Funding Current staff shortages Current staff shortages Local service opposition Local service opposition Perceptions of general nurses Perceptions of general nurses Poor course structure and the Poor course structure and the Lack of qualification after completion Lack of qualification after completion

28 Findings – Preferred Teaching Methods The preferred method of learning new knowledge in physical health skills was through formal teaching methods Approved Centre % Approved Centre % Community Area - 71% Community Area - 71%

29 Findings – Least Preferred Teaching Methods The least preferred method of learning new knowledge in physical health skills was through the use of audio methods (tapes, pod-casts) Approved Centre – 89.5% Approved Centre – 89.5% Community Area % Community Area %

30 Findings – Estimated weekly exposure

31 The current impact of physical health on current practice had the highest incidences in the approved centre occurring daily (68.4%) in comparison to community areas. The current impact of physical health on current practice had the highest incidences in the approved centre occurring daily (68.4%) in comparison to community areas. Community areas reported the impact of physical health on practice occurring on a weekly basis (48.1%). Community areas reported the impact of physical health on practice occurring on a weekly basis (48.1%).

32 Limitations: Low response rate Low response rate Limitations of current Informatics in Irish public mental health limited other mediums for data collection Limitations of current Informatics in Irish public mental health limited other mediums for data collection Application of findings to larger Irish mental health nursing population Application of findings to larger Irish mental health nursing population

33 Recommendations & further research In consultation with the local nursing practice development unit possible development of enhancing knowledge in this area with current resources… In consultation with the local nursing practice development unit possible development of enhancing knowledge in this area with current resources… Undertake further analysis utilizing larger samples in varying regions… Undertake further analysis utilizing larger samples in varying regions… Mixed method approaches to enhance the richness of data… Mixed method approaches to enhance the richness of data…

34 In summary.. The needs of needs of mental health services users should be identified through research (HSE, 2012) The needs of needs of mental health services users should be identified through research (HSE, 2012) The development of physical health skills programmes should be specifically designed for mental health and mental health practitioners (Woods, 2010). The development of physical health skills programmes should be specifically designed for mental health and mental health practitioners (Woods, 2010).

35 The End… Any Questions? Any Questions? Author details:


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