Presentation on theme: "Feature matching “What stuff in the left image matches with stuff on the right?” Necessary for automatic panorama stitching (Part of Project 4!) Slides."— Presentation transcript:
1 Feature matching“What stuff in the left image matches with stuff on the right?”Necessary for automatic panorama stitching(Part of Project 4!)Slides from Steve Seitz and Rick Szeliski
2 Image matching TexPoint fonts used in EMF. by Diva Sianby swashfordTexPoint fonts used in EMF.Read the TexPoint manual before you delete this box.: AAAAAA
9 Invariant local features -Algorithm for finding points and representing their patches should produce similar results even when conditions vary-Buzzword is “invariance”geometric invariance: translation, rotation, scalephotometric invariance: brightness, exposure, …Feature Descriptors
10 What makes a good feature? Say we have 2 images of this scene we’d like to align by matching local featuresWhat would be the good local features (ones easy to match)?
11 Want uniqueness Look for image regions that are unusual Lead to unambiguous matches in other imagesHow to define “unusual”?
12 Local measures of uniqueness Suppose we only consider a small window of pixelsWhat defines whether a feature is a good or bad candidate?High level idea is that corners are good. You want to find windows that contain strong gradients AND gradients oriented in more than one directionSlide adapted from Darya Frolova, Denis Simakov, Weizmann Institute.
13 Feature detection Local measure of feature uniqueness How does the window change when you shift it?Shifting the window in any direction causes a big change“flat” region: no change in all directions“edge”:no change along the edge direction“corner”: significant change in all directionsSlide adapted from Darya Frolova, Denis Simakov, Weizmann Institute.
14 Feature detection: the math Consider shifting the window W by (u,v)how do the pixels in W change?compare each pixel before and after by summing up the squared differences (SSD)this defines an SSD “error” of E(u,v):W
15 Small motion assumption Taylor Series expansion of I:If the motion (u,v) is small, then first order approx is goodPlugging this into the formula on the previous slide…
16 Feature detection: the math Consider shifting the window W by (u,v)how do the pixels in W change?compare each pixel before and after by summing up the squared differencesthis defines an “error” of E(u,v):W
17 Feature detection: the math This can be rewritten:For the example aboveYou can move the center of the green window to anywhere on the blue unit circleWhich directions will result in the largest and smallest E values?We can find these directions by looking at the eigenvectors of H
18 Quick eigenvalue/eigenvector review The eigenvectors of a matrix A are the vectors x that satisfy:The scalar is the eigenvalue corresponding to xThe eigenvalues are found by solving:In our case, A = H is a 2x2 matrix, so we haveThe solution:Once you know , you find x by solving
19 Feature detection: the math x-x+Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of HDefine shifts with the smallest and largest change (E value)x+ = direction of largest increase in E.+ = amount of increase in direction x+x- = direction of smallest increase in E.- = amount of increase in direction x+
20 Feature detection: the math How are +, x+, -, and x+ relevant for feature detection?What’s our feature scoring function?
21 Feature detection: the math How are +, x+, -, and x+ relevant for feature detection?What’s our feature scoring function?Want E(u,v) to be large for small shifts in all directionsthe minimum of E(u,v) should be large, over all unit vectors [u v]this minimum is given by the smaller eigenvalue (-) of H
22 Feature detection summary Here’s what you doCompute the gradient at each point in the imageCreate the H matrix from the entries in the gradientCompute the eigenvalues.Find points with large response (- > threshold)Choose those points where - is a local maximum as features
23 Feature detection summary Here’s what you doCompute the gradient at each point in the imageCreate the H matrix from the entries in the gradientCompute the eigenvalues.Find points with large response (- > threshold)Choose those points where - is a local maximum as features
24 The Harris operator- is a variant of the “Harris operator” for feature detectionThe trace is the sum of the diagonals, i.e., trace(H) = h11 + h22Very similar to - but less expensive (no square root)Called the “Harris Corner Detector” or “Harris Operator”Lots of other detectors, this is one of the most popular
30 Harris features (in red) The tops of the horns are detected in both images
31 Invariance Suppose you rotate the image by some angle Will you still pick up the same features?What if you change the brightness?Scale?Rotation: yes (with some caveats—image resampling errors…)Change brightness: probably, but will have to adjust thresholdsScale: no, generally.
32 Scale invariant detection Suppose you’re looking for cornersKey idea: find scale that gives local maximum of ff is a local maximum in both position and scaleCommon definition of f: Laplacian (or difference between two Gaussian filtered images with different sigmas)Show other scales and how the feature looks less corner like
33 Lindeberg et al, 1996 Lindeberg et al., 1996 Slide from Tinne TuytelaarsSlide from Tinne Tuytelaars
41 ? Feature descriptors We know how to detect good points Next question: How to match them??
42 ? Feature descriptors We know how to detect good points Next question: How to match them?Lots of possibilities (this is a popular research area)Simple option: match square windows around the pointState of the art approach: SIFTDavid Lowe, UBC?
43 Invariance Suppose we are comparing two images I1 and I2 I2 may be a transformed version of I1What kinds of transformations are we likely to encounter in practice?
44 Invariance Suppose we are comparing two images I1 and I2 I2 may be a transformed version of I1What kinds of transformations are we likely to encounter in practice?We’d like to find the same features regardless of the transformationThis is called transformational invarianceMost feature methods are designed to be invariant toTranslation, 2D rotation, scaleThey can usually also handleLimited 3D rotations (SIFT works up to about 60 degrees)Limited affine transformations (2D rotation, scale, shear)Limited illumination/contrast changes
45 How to achieve invariance Need both of the following:Make sure your detector is invariantHarris is invariant to translation and rotationScale is trickiercommon approach is to detect features at many scales using a Gaussian pyramid (e.g., MOPS)More sophisticated methods find “the best scale” to represent each feature (e.g., SIFT)2. Design an invariant feature descriptorA descriptor captures the information in a region around the detected feature pointThe simplest descriptor: a square window of pixelsWhat’s this invariant to?Let’s look at some better approaches…
46 Rotation invariance for feature descriptors Find dominant orientation of the image patchThis is given by x+, the eigenvector of H corresponding to ++ is the larger eigenvalueRotate the patch according to this angleFigure by Matthew Brown
47 Multiscale Oriented PatcheS descriptor Take 40x40 square window around detected featureScale to 1/5 size (using prefiltering)Rotate to horizontalSample 8x8 square window centered at featureIntensity normalize the window by subtracting the mean, dividing by the standard deviation in the window (both window I and aI+b will match)40 pixels8 pixelsCSE 576: Computer VisionAdapted from slide by Matthew Brown
49 Scale Invariant Feature Transform Basic idea:Take 16x16 square window around detected featureCompute edge orientation (angle of the gradient - 90) for each pixelThrow out weak edges (threshold gradient magnitude)Create histogram of surviving edge orientations2angle histogramAdapted from slide by David Lowe
50 SIFT descriptor Full version Divide the 16x16 window into a 4x4 grid of cells (2x2 case shown below)Compute an orientation histogram for each cell16 cells * 8 orientations = 128 dimensional descriptorAdapted from slide by David Lowe
51 Properties of SIFT Extraordinarily robust matching technique Can handle changes in viewpointUp to about 60 degree out of plane rotationCan handle significant changes in illuminationSometimes even day vs. night (below)Fast and efficient—can run in real timeLots of code available
52 Maximally Stable Extremal Regions J.Matas et.al. “Distinguished Regions for Wide-baseline Stereo”. BMVC 2002.Maximally Stable Extremal RegionsThreshold image intensities: I > thresh for several increasing values of threshExtract connected components (“Extremal Regions”)Find a threshold when region is “Maximally Stable”, i.e. local minimum of the relative growthApproximate each region with an ellipse
53 Feature matchingGiven a feature in I1, how to find the best match in I2?Define distance function that compares two descriptorsTest all the features in I2, find the one with min distance
54 Feature distanceHow to define the difference between two features f1, f2?Simple approach is SSD(f1, f2)sum of square differences between entries of the two descriptorscan give good scores to very ambiguous (bad) matchesf1f2I1I2
55 Feature distance f1 f2' f2 I1 I2 How to define the difference between two features f1, f2?Better approach: ratio distance = SSD(f1, f2) / SSD(f1, f2’)f2 is best SSD match to f1 in I2f2’ is 2nd best SSD match to f1 in I2gives small values for ambiguous matchesf1f2'f2I1I2
56 Evaluating the results How can we measure the performance of a feature matcher?5075200feature distance
57 True/false positivesThe distance threshold affects performanceTrue positives = # of detected matches that are correctSuppose we want to maximize these—how to choose threshold?False positives = # of detected matches that are incorrectSuppose we want to minimize these—how to choose threshold?50true match75200false matchfeature distance
58 Evaluating the results How can we measure the performance of a feature matcher?10.7# true positives# matching features (positives)true positive ratefalse positive rate0.11# false positives# unmatched features (negatives)
59 Evaluating the results How can we measure the performance of a feature matcher?ROC curve (“Receiver Operator Characteristic”)10.7# true positives# matching features (positives)true positive ratefalse positive rate0.11# false positives# unmatched features (negatives)ROC CurvesGenerated by counting # current/incorrect matches, for different threholdsWant to maximize area under the curve (AUC)Useful for comparing different feature matching methodsFor more info: