2The Federal Reserve System Commonly known as the FedCreated in 1913 as the central banking organization in the United StatesIts goal was to provide stability to the economy and end recessions.
3What does the Fed do? The Fed is responsible for Monetary Policy Involves changing the rate of growth of the supply of money in circulation in order to affect the cost and availability of credit.
4Functions of the Fed Regulating the money supply Clearing checks Acting as the government’s fiscal agentSupervising BanksHolding reserves and setting reserve requirementsSupplying paper currency
5Organization of the Fed Chairman of the Federal ReserveHead of the Central BankAppointed by the PresidentCurrent Chairman: Janet Yellen
6Organization of the Fed Board of GovernorsDirects operations of the FedSeven members appointed by the president and approved by congressFederal Advisory Council12 members elected by directors of banksFederal Open Market Committee12 members who determine interest rates
7Organization of the Fed The nation is divided into 12 Federal Reserve Districts, each with a federal reserve bank.25 Federal Reserve Branch BanksAll national banks are required to become members of the Federal Reserve System.Members receive dividends on their stock of the district bank.Even if a bank is not a member, they must keep their deposit reserves in the Fed district bank.
8Credit is a service that you pay for with interest. Monetary PolicyCredit is a service that you pay for with interest.How do you think the demand for credit is influenced by interest rates?
9The Law of Demand!If you charge higher interest rates, people will be less likely to take out loans.When the Fed keeps interest rates LOW it is called Loose Money PolicyWhen the Fed makes interest rates HIGH it is called Tight Money Policy
10Loose Money Policy The Good The Bad Borrowing is easy Consumers buy moreBusinesses expandMore people are employedPeople spend moreInflationConsumers are more likely to go into debtCan create economics bubbles (bubbles tend to burst)
11Tight Money Policy Pros Cons Consumers are less likely to go into debt Higher interest for banksBorrowing is difficult and more expensiveConsumers borrow lessBusinesses postpone expansionProduction and employment may decrease
12Fractional Reserve Banking System in which only a fraction of the deposits in a bank is kept on hand, or in reserve; the remainder is available to lend.The Fed sets reserve requirements for banks.Requires banks to keep a certain percentage of the checkable deposits as cash in their own values or as deposits in the Federal Reserve district bank.What are some benefits of this system?What are some potential problems?
13How does this system affect the money supply? Bank A sells a government bond to the Fed and receives $1000.If the reserve requirement is only at 20% then Bank A can lend out $800.The $800 that Bank A lends to a business gets deposited to Bank B.So the $800 is technically in two places at one timeThis process is known as the multiple expansion of the money supply.
14Regulating the Money Supply Main goal of the Fed: Keep the economy growing and efficiently control the money supply.How is this done?Changing the reserve requirement can affect the amount of money in circulation.Changing the Federal Funds RateInterest rate that banks charge each other on loans.
15Why would one bank borrow from another? If a customer makes a large withdrawal, the bank may not have enough money to meet the reserve requirement. (If it doesn’t it will have to pay a fine to the Fed)
16So what does that bank do?! Option 1:Take a loan out from the Fed! (The Fed gets to collect interest!)Option 2: Take a loan from another bank! (The Fed gets to choose the interest rate regardless!)
17How does the Federal Funds Rate Affect the Economy? If the Fed drops the rate…Banks borrow and lend more!If the Fed raises the rateBanks will borrow less and raise interest on the funds they lend to make up the lost profit
18Open-Market Operations Buying and selling of United States securities by the Fed to affect the money supplyWhen the Fed buys securities (treasury bills, notes, and bonds) it pays for them by printing its own money. Increases money supply!When the Fed sells securities the dealers bank will have less money in their reserves and will either have to lend less or borrow more money from the Fed (that they can pay back with interest of course) Decreases the money supply!
19Criticism of the Federal Reserve “The Federal Reserve is not currently forecasting a recession”-Ben Bernanke, Fed Chairman, 2008 (right before the recession)
20Criticism of the FedThe Fed has a tendency to promote inflation and debt by keeping the reserve requirements and federal funds rates so low.Since the creation of the Fed, the dollar has lost 96% of its value.Because the Fed is run by private bankers, not the government, many people have compared it to a cartel
21Oooooo Cartel…Sounds Scary… Say hello to my little interest rate!Cartel: Formal agreement among competing firms. An organization of producers that agree to fix prices, marketing, and production.Remember, the Federal Reserve gets to choose the reserve requirements and interest rates at which all banks lend to each other (even if the banks are not members)
22Criticism of the Fed The Fed has little to no accountability Leaders of the federal reserve are appointed, not elected. The American people have no say whatsoever on the Fed’s policies.Because the Fed operates like a corporation, foreign countries and companies can own shares.The Fed does not have to report to congress or even the president
24Is anybody going to do something!? Many conservatives believe the Federal reserve should be eliminated and the United States should return to the gold standard to keep the money supply stable.What kind of money would that be?Many liberals believe the Federal reserve should operated in a more democratic fashion to make it more accountable to the American people.Instead the treasury department could be in charge of monetary policy
25Any chance of this getting done? Good luck with that…