Presentation on theme: "The European Age of Exploration Part II: Divide and Conquer, Colonize, Exploit, Enslave, Rape, Pillage and Kill Graphic scene of violence here."— Presentation transcript:
The European Age of Exploration Part II: Divide and Conquer, Colonize, Exploit, Enslave, Rape, Pillage and Kill Graphic scene of violence here
Pre-Columbian America Central and South America –Most natives members of one of two major empires (they are ?)
Pre-Columbian America North America –How many different tribal groups? –No empires
Discovery Columbus begins the pattern of destruction Others follow… Hands of Arawaks cut off after attempted rebellion (must set an example) Tainos hung and burned after trying to escape
Europe and the New World The Columbian Exchange –(Europe, Africa, Western Hemisphere) Population Growth –Due to new foodstuffs from New World
The Spanish in America Missions Economics –Plantations –Encomiendas (definition?) Natives are subjects of the monarch, therefore… Las Casas – Enslavement of the native people is wrong, so… Slavery (African) –Why are they brought to the New World by the Spanish?
Native American Populations Original estimates low –Helped assuage European guilt Disease! (main factor) A modern adult with smallpox
EFFECTS FOR AMERICA Expansion of overseas territorial claims and European migration to North and South America Demise of Aztec and Inca Empires Legacy of a rigid class system and dictatorial rule in Latin America Forced migration of Africans who had been enslaved Colonies imitation of the culture and social patterns of their parent countries European plantation system in the Caribbean and the Americas destroyed indigenous economics and damaged the environment.
EFFECTS FOR AFRICA European trading posts along the coast Trade in slaves, gold, and other resources
Global Trade – The Dutch (who?) First to compete with Portugal –1599 – First shipment of spices from Asia (big profit) –Outposts in southern Africa (Capetown) –Leaders of commerce by late 1500s –Dutch East India Co. First successful joint stock company Like Exxon, but with guns Take Malacca from Portugal in 1641, monopolize spice trade New Amsterdam dominates NA fur trade –Amsterdam THRIVES! (Paris of the North – wealth, commerce and culture) Capetown
Trade with the Sleeping Giant The Ultimate Prize! –China was fixed in the European imagination as an exotic kingdom with fabulous wealth and luxury Hesitant to trade with Europeans –Couldnt offer better goods –Portuguese first to be granted privileges (minor) at Macao –Only accepted gold (major implications for European rulers, i.e., New World) –Protection of Chinese culture
Trade with the Sleeping Giant Restrictive trade policies –Reflected Chinese conception of themselves as the Middle Kingdom (who needs Europe?) Ming Dynasty Porcelain
EFFECTS FOR ASIA Colonization by small groups of merchants (India, the Indies, China) Portugal, England, and the Netherlands competed for the Indian Ocean trade by establishing coastal ports on the Indian sub-continent. Southern India traded silks, spices, and gems.
China Creation of foreign enclaves to control trade Imperial policy of controlling foreign influences and trade Japan Adopted a policy of isolation to limit foreign influences
England and France in America England – creating an Empire –1580 – Drake returns with $25 million –Jamestown – 1 st permanent settlement – 1607 Seeking? –Massachusetts, Pilgrims, 1620, Mayflower Compact Seeking? –Mostly as brutal as the Spanish
England and France in America France – Focus on trade –Missionaries –Fur trade –Relations with Natives? Alliances & Intermarriage
Slave Trade The triangular trade –A few triangles, actually Part of a much larger trading network
The Triangular Trade
Mercantilism Europes economic philosophy 1600s-1800s –Wealth is finite (premise) Increase of one nations requires decrease of anothers Measured in a nations holdings (gold, silver) –Goal? Favorable balance of trade (?) All transactions benefit mother country Colonies exist solely to serve her Theory has major implications for your homeland!
(2) Due to this new Age of Exploration, Europeans changed basic economic practices! Banks added services to meet the needs of exploration. Cities began to produce coins with fixed values. Joint-Stock Company: Owners raised money by selling shares, or stock, in the company to investors. Would you take the financial risk? The Commercial Revolution
How did things change? Banks began to add services to meet the needs of exploration! Lending money to people like Columbus… Merchants and trades-people needed a standard system of money
Joint-stock company A business organization that developed during the Age of Exploration Owners raised money by selling shares, or stock, in the company Raised large sums of money from investors to finance exploration!
Nike Stock Scenario A: New Jordans are a hit! Sales of Air Jordans in 2012 explode Stock is now worth $5! Scenario B: Jordan arrested on drug charges! Sales of Air Jordans in 2012 plummet Stock is now only worth $0.25!
Mercantilism – a countrys government should do all it could to increase the countrys wealth. Favorable balance of trade: Sell (or export) more goods than you buy (or import) from foreign countries Tariffs: Import taxes on goods coming into the country Subsidies: Grants of money to help business people start new industries Colonies: Ideally, lands were rich in gold, silver, and raw materials
Tariff Ford – American made Honda – Japanese made Honda pays a tariff when it brings Honda Accords to the U.S. They add that additional cost to the price of the good.