Presentation on theme: "The European Age of Exploration"— Presentation transcript:
1The European Age of Exploration Graphic scene of violence herePart II: Divide and Conquer, Colonize, Exploit, Enslave, Rape, Pillage and Kill
2Pre-Columbian America Central and South AmericaMost natives members of one of two major empires (they are ?)
3Pre-Columbian America North AmericaHow many different tribal groups?No “empires”
4Tainos hung and burned after trying to escape “Discovery”Columbus begins the pattern of destructionOthers follow…Hands of Arawaks cut off after attempted rebellion (must set an example)Tainos hung and burned after trying to escape
5Europe and the New World The Columbian Exchange(Europe, Africa, Western Hemisphere)Population GrowthDue to new foodstuffs from New World
6The Spanish in America Missions Economics PlantationsEncomiendas (definition?) Natives are subjects of the monarch, therefore…Las Casas – “Enslavement of the native people is wrong,” so…Slavery (African)Why are they brought to the New World by the Spanish?
7Native American Populations Original estimates lowHelped assuage European guiltDisease! (main factor)A modern adult with smallpox
8EFFECTS FOR AMERICA Expansion of overseas territorial claims and European migration to North and South AmericaDemise of Aztec and Inca EmpiresLegacy of a rigid class system and dictatorial rulein Latin AmericaForced migration of Africans who had been enslavedColonies’ imitation of the culture and social patternsof their parent countriesEuropean plantation system in the Caribbean and theAmericas destroyed indigenous economics and damagedthe environment.
9EFFECTS FOR AFRICA European trading posts along the coast Trade in slaves, gold, and other resources
10Global Trade – The Dutch (who?) First to compete with Portugal1599 – First shipment of spices from Asia (big profit)Outposts in southern Africa (Capetown)Leaders of commerce by late 1500sDutch East India Co.First successful joint stock companyLike Exxon, but with gunsTake Malacca from Portugal in 1641, monopolize spice tradeNew Amsterdam dominates NA fur tradeAmsterdam THRIVES! (“Paris of the North” – wealth, commerce and culture)Capetown
11Trade with the Sleeping Giant The Ultimate Prize!China was fixed in the European imagination as an exotic kingdom with fabulous wealth and luxuryHesitant to trade with EuropeansCouldn’t offer better goodsPortuguese first to be granted privileges (minor) at MacaoOnly accepted gold (major implications for European rulers, i.e., New World)Protection of Chinese culture
12Trade with the Sleeping Giant Restrictive trade policiesReflected Chinese conception of themselves as the “Middle Kingdom” (who needs Europe?)Ming Dynasty Porcelain
13EFFECTS FOR ASIAColonization by small groups of merchants (India, the Indies, China)Portugal, England, and the Netherlands competed for the Indian Ocean trade by establishing coastal ports on the Indian sub-continent.Southern India traded silks, spices, and gems.
14ChinaCreation of foreign enclaves to control tradeImperial policy of controlling foreign influencesand tradeJapanAdopted a policy of isolation to limit foreign influences
15England and France in America England – creating an Empire1580 – Drake returnswith $25 millionJamestown – 1st permanent settlement – 1607Seeking?Massachusetts, Pilgrims, 1620, Mayflower CompactMostly as brutal as the Spanish
16England and France in America France – Focus on tradeMissionariesFur tradeRelations with Natives?Alliances & Intermarriage
17Part of a much larger trading network Slave TradeThe triangular tradeA few triangles, actuallyPart of a much larger trading network
19Theory has major implications for your homeland! MercantilismEurope’s economic philosophy 1600s-1800sWealth is finite (premise)Increase of one nation’s requires decrease of another’sMeasured in a nation’s holdings (gold, silver)Goal?Favorable balance of trade (?)All transactions benefit “mother country”Colonies exist solely to serve “her”Theory has major implications for your homeland!
20The Commercial Revolution (2) Due to this new Age of Exploration, Europeans changed basic economic practices!Banks added services to meet the needs of exploration.Cities began to produce coins with fixed values.The Commercial RevolutionJoint-Stock Company: Owners raised money by selling shares, or stock, in the company to investors. Would you take the financial risk?
21How did things change?Banks began to add services to meet the needs of exploration!Lending money to people like Columbus…Merchants and trades-people needed a standard system of money
22Joint-stock company Like the stock market A business organization that developed during the Age of ExplorationOwners raised money by selling shares, or stock, in the companyRaised large sums of money from investors to finance exploration!
23Nike Stock $1 Scenario A: Scenario B: New Jordan’s are a hit! Sales of Air Jordan’s in 2012 explodeStock is now worth $5!Scenario B:Jordan arrested on drug charges!Sales of Air Jordan’s in 2012 plummetStock is now only worth $0.25!
24Mercantilism – a country’s government should do all it could to increase the country’s wealth. Favorable balance of trade: Sell (or export) more goods than you buy (or import) from foreign countriesTariffs: Import taxes on goods coming into the countrySubsidies: Grants of money to help business people start new industriesColonies: Ideally, lands were rich in gold, silver, and raw materials
25Tariff Ford – American made Honda – Japanese made Honda pays a tariff when it brings Honda Accords to the U.S. They add that additional cost to the price of the good.