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The European Age of Exploration

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Presentation on theme: "The European Age of Exploration"— Presentation transcript:

1 The European Age of Exploration
Graphic scene of violence here Part II: Divide and Conquer, Colonize, Exploit, Enslave, Rape, Pillage and Kill

2 Pre-Columbian America
Central and South America Most natives members of one of two major empires (they are ?)

3 Pre-Columbian America
North America How many different tribal groups? No “empires”

4 Tainos hung and burned after trying to escape
“Discovery” Columbus begins the pattern of destruction Others follow… Hands of Arawaks cut off after attempted rebellion (must set an example) Tainos hung and burned after trying to escape

5 Europe and the New World
The Columbian Exchange (Europe, Africa, Western Hemisphere) Population Growth Due to new foodstuffs from New World

6 The Spanish in America Missions Economics
Plantations Encomiendas (definition?) Natives are subjects of the monarch, therefore… Las Casas – “Enslavement of the native people is wrong,” so… Slavery (African) Why are they brought to the New World by the Spanish?

7 Native American Populations
Original estimates low Helped assuage European guilt Disease! (main factor) A modern adult with smallpox

8 EFFECTS FOR AMERICA Expansion of overseas territorial claims and
European migration to North and South America Demise of Aztec and Inca Empires Legacy of a rigid class system and dictatorial rule in Latin America Forced migration of Africans who had been enslaved Colonies’ imitation of the culture and social patterns of their parent countries European plantation system in the Caribbean and the Americas destroyed indigenous economics and damaged the environment.

9 EFFECTS FOR AFRICA European trading posts along the coast
Trade in slaves, gold, and other resources

10 Global Trade – The Dutch (who?)
First to compete with Portugal 1599 – First shipment of spices from Asia (big profit) Outposts in southern Africa (Capetown) Leaders of commerce by late 1500s Dutch East India Co. First successful joint stock company Like Exxon, but with guns Take Malacca from Portugal in 1641, monopolize spice trade New Amsterdam dominates NA fur trade Amsterdam THRIVES! (“Paris of the North” – wealth, commerce and culture) Capetown

11 Trade with the Sleeping Giant
The Ultimate Prize! China was fixed in the European imagination as an exotic kingdom with fabulous wealth and luxury Hesitant to trade with Europeans Couldn’t offer better goods Portuguese first to be granted privileges (minor) at Macao Only accepted gold (major implications for European rulers, i.e., New World) Protection of Chinese culture

12 Trade with the Sleeping Giant
Restrictive trade policies Reflected Chinese conception of themselves as the “Middle Kingdom” (who needs Europe?) Ming Dynasty Porcelain

13 EFFECTS FOR ASIA Colonization by small groups of merchants (India, the Indies, China) Portugal, England, and the Netherlands competed for the Indian Ocean trade by establishing coastal ports on the Indian sub-continent. Southern India traded silks, spices, and gems.

14 China Creation of foreign enclaves to control trade Imperial policy of controlling foreign influences and trade Japan Adopted a policy of isolation to limit foreign influences

15 England and France in America
England – creating an Empire 1580 – Drake returns with $25 million Jamestown – 1st permanent settlement – 1607 Seeking? Massachusetts, Pilgrims, 1620, Mayflower Compact Mostly as brutal as the Spanish

16 England and France in America
France – Focus on trade Missionaries Fur trade Relations with Natives? Alliances & Intermarriage

17 Part of a much larger trading network
Slave Trade The triangular trade A few triangles, actually Part of a much larger trading network

18 The Triangular Trade

19 Theory has major implications for your homeland!
Mercantilism Europe’s economic philosophy 1600s-1800s Wealth is finite (premise) Increase of one nation’s requires decrease of another’s Measured in a nation’s holdings (gold, silver) Goal? Favorable balance of trade (?) All transactions benefit “mother country” Colonies exist solely to serve “her” Theory has major implications for your homeland!

20 The Commercial Revolution
(2) Due to this new Age of Exploration, Europeans changed basic economic practices! Banks added services to meet the needs of exploration. Cities began to produce coins with fixed values. The Commercial Revolution Joint-Stock Company: Owners raised money by selling shares, or stock, in the company to investors. Would you take the financial risk?

21 How did things change? Banks began to add services to meet the needs of exploration! Lending money to people like Columbus… Merchants and trades-people needed a standard system of money

22 Joint-stock company Like the stock market
A business organization that developed during the Age of Exploration Owners raised money by selling shares, or stock, in the company Raised large sums of money from investors to finance exploration!

23 Nike Stock $1 Scenario A: Scenario B: New Jordan’s are a hit!
Sales of Air Jordan’s in 2012 explode Stock is now worth $5! Scenario B: Jordan arrested on drug charges! Sales of Air Jordan’s in 2012 plummet Stock is now only worth $0.25!

24 Mercantilism – a country’s government should do all it could to increase the country’s wealth.
Favorable balance of trade: Sell (or export) more goods than you buy (or import) from foreign countries Tariffs: Import taxes on goods coming into the country Subsidies: Grants of money to help business people start new industries Colonies: Ideally, lands were rich in gold, silver, and raw materials

25 Tariff Ford – American made Honda – Japanese made
Honda pays a tariff when it brings Honda Accords to the U.S. They add that additional cost to the price of the good.

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