5Motives and Means Motives Age of Exploration very much a product of the Renaissance (remember?)Importance of the individual (glory, fame)Interest in the natural worldQuest for knowledgeRise of nation-statesCan FUND voyagesNational prideFANTASTIC STORIES brought to Europe by travelers (most notably Mr. Polo) piqued interest (in the “other”)
6Motives and Means Trade! (and its buddy, WEALTH!) Spices, silk and gold from “the East” (China (Cathay), Southeast Asia, the Indies) – much desired in EuropeSilk Road trade falters after decline of Yuan (Mongols) in ChinaConstantinople had been a link with the east,but it falls to the Muslim infidels in 1453Italian merchants (Genoa, Venice) and Muslims then served as middlemen for European traders – CUT THEM OUT AND FIND ROUTE BY SEA!!!
7Motives and Means Means Religion - as Europeans encounter non-Christian cultures, conversion becomes important (especially for the Spanish (“God, Gold, and Glory”)MeansTechnology (much comes from the Arab world!)Improved cartography (portolani)CompassAstrolabe (to determine latitude)Ship design (the Caravel – new sail design, deeper hulls – longer voyages)
8Exploration Begins - Portugal Prince Henry (the Navigator) (d. 1460)(1420) Begins sending exploratory missions into the Atlantic and along the western coast of Afrique (into the “Green Sea of Darkness”)Slaves and Gold!Europeans come to call southern coast of West Africa the “gold coast”
15Exploration Begins - Portugal Prince Henry (the Navigator) (d. 1460)(1420) Begins sending exploratory missions into the Atlantic and along the western coast of Afrique (into the “Green Sea of Darkness”)Slaves and Gold!Henry’s reasons for explorationEuropeans come to call southern coast of West Africa the “gold coast”Bartholomeu Dias – 1488First to round southern tip of Africa (Cape of Good Hope)Turns back due to storms (loser?)
16Exploration Begins - Portugal Vasco DeGamaReaches w. coast of India (Calicut) in 1498 (A First!) - forces treaty with rulerMakes stops on Africa’s eastern shore (to later Portuguese outposts)Takes on cargo of spices, 1000% profit!DaGama, our hero!
17Exploration Begins - Portugal By 1510, they DOMINATE the spice tradeFortified outposts in India prevent competitionTreaty with Spice Island rulers to purchase and export cloves, etc.By the 1520s, Venetians are buying pepper in Lisbon!Mostly achieved by violent meansMassacres, deceptionThe InquisitionNo colonizationHad neither power, people, nor desire - just creation of a TRADING EMPIRE
18Exploration Begins - Spain Not to be outdone or out-traded…Columbus sails with blessing (and wads of cash) from Ferdinand of Isabella of SpainInitially rejected by Portugal, sails west to get eastBINGO! 1492 (a day that will live in infamy?)Lands on Hispaniola (modern-day Haiti and Dominican Republic)“I’ve found the Indies, hence, you savages are “Indians””I claim this land in the name of Spain, who will soon completely destroy every single last one of you!
19Exploration Begins - Spain Columbus makes 3 more trips (still thinks it’s Asia)Caribbean islands today are called the “West Indies”Balboa (1513) - First European to see the PacificMagellan (1520) - Tries to circumnavigate the globe, but...NO! Not the face!
20Pre-Columbian America North AmericaHow many different tribal groups?No “empires”
21Pre-Columbian America Central and South AmericaMost natives members of one of two major empires (they are ?)
22Pre-Columbian America Commonalities?Well-developed societiesAll EXPLOITIVE (?)Highly developed religious beliefs
23Exploration Begins - Land Grab! Spain v. Portugalboth lay claim to New WorldPope steps in, 1494 (both Catholic nations)Treaty of TordesillasEstablished “Line of Demarcation” (west of line to Spain, east of line to Portugal) Why do they speak Portuguese in Brazil?Someone gets a raw dealDifferences?Spain wants AN EMPIRE (and an empire they will have!)
24Spanish Conquistadors Hernan CortesConquers who?Allied with who?Horses, cannon, guns, disease give Cortez the edgeTenochtitlan becomes Mexico City
25Spanish Conquistadors Francisco PizarroConquers who?For what resources?Pizarro -Villain of PeruPizarro -Hero of Spain
26Exploration Begins - Wait For Us! Europe scrambles to competeSearch for Northwest Passage (to the east)England - Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot)claims New England for (old) EnglandFrance - Cartierexplores the St. Lawrence in (French) CanadaThe Dutch send Henry Hudsonsails up Hudson River, discovers one of the world’s greatest natural harbors next to a little piddling island, later known as ManhattanThere is no northwest passage, unless you have a sled dog (and a warm coat)Hudson’s voyageAn Algonquin sees Hudson approachI’ve got a bad feeling about this.
28Global Trade – The Dutch (who?) First to compete with Portugal1599 – First shipment of spices from Asia (big profit)Outposts in southern Africa (Capetown)Leaders of commerce by late 1500sDutch East India Co.First successful joint stock companyLike Exxon, but with gunsTake Malacca from Portugal in 1641, monopolize spice tradeNew Amsterdam dominates NA fur tradeAmsterdam THRIVES! (“Paris of the North” – wealth, commerce and culture)Capetown
29Trade with the Sleeping Giant The Ultimate Prize!China was fixed in the European imagination as an exotic kingdom with fabulous wealth and luxuryHesitant to trade with EuropeansCouldn’t offer better goodsPortuguese first to be granted privileges (minor) at MacaoOnly accepted gold (major implications for European rulers, i.e., New World)Protection of Chinese culture
30Trade with the Sleeping Giant Restrictive trade policiesReflected Chinese conception of themselves as the “Middle Kingdom” (who needs Europe?)British embassy (McCartney) in 1793 a failureRemain in place until 1800sMing Dynasty PorcelainEmperor to Macartney: Yankee Go Home!Stay tuned for The Age of Exploration: Phase II