Presentation on theme: "Free Response Think about space exploration or going to the moon. List all the things (or, resources) that a country needs in order to explore space."— Presentation transcript:
Free Response Think about space exploration or going to the moon. List all the things (or, resources) that a country needs in order to explore space.
The European Age of Exploration Phase I: Exploration and Trade (with a bit of violence for good measure) LAND HO!! (But do I really need this telescope to see it?)
THE AGE OF EXPLORATION
Motives and Means Motives –Age of Exploration very much a product of the Renaissance (remember?) Importance of the individual (glory, fame) Interest in the natural world Quest for knowledge –Rise of nation-states Can FUND voyages National pride –FANTASTIC STORIES brought to Europe by travelers (most notably Mr. Polo) piqued interest (in the other)
Motives and Means –Trade! (and its buddy, WEALTH!) Spices, silk and gold from the East (China (Cathay), Southeast Asia, the Indies) – much desired in Europe Silk Road trade falters after decline of Yuan (Mongols) in China Constantinople had been a link with the east,but it falls to the Muslim infidels in 1453 Italian merchants (Genoa, Venice) and Muslims then served as middlemen for European traders – CUT THEM OUT AND FIND ROUTE BY SEA!!!
Motives and Means –Religion - as Europeans encounter non-Christian cultures, conversion becomes important (especially for the Spanish (God, Gold, and Glory) Means –Technology (much comes from the Arab world!) Improved cartography ( portolani ) Compass Astrolabe (to determine latitude) Ship design (the Caravel – new sail design, deeper hulls – longer voyages)
Exploration Begins - Portugal Prince Henry (the Navigator) (d. 1460) –(1420) Begins sending exploratory missions into the Atlantic and along the western coast of Afrique (into the Green Sea of Darkness) –Slaves and Gold! –Europeans come to call southern coast of West Africa the gold coast
AFRICA ASIA/CHINA EUROPE
Exploration Begins - Portugal Prince Henry (the Navigator) (d. 1460) –(1420) Begins sending exploratory missions into the Atlantic and along the western coast of Afrique (into the Green Sea of Darkness) –Slaves and Gold! Henrys reasons for exploration Europeans come to call southern coast of West Africa the gold coast Bartholomeu Dias – 1488 –First to round southern tip of Africa (Cape of Good Hope) –Turns back due to storms (loser?)
Exploration Begins - Portugal Vasco DeGama –Reaches w. coast of India (Calicut) in 1498 (A First!) - forces treaty with ruler –Makes stops on Africas eastern shore (to later Portuguese outposts) –Takes on cargo of spices, 1000% profit! DaGama, our hero!
Exploration Begins - Portugal By 1510, they DOMINATE the spice trade –Fortified outposts in India prevent competition –Treaty with Spice Island rulers to purchase and export cloves, etc. –By the 1520s, Venetians are buying pepper in Lisbon! –Mostly achieved by violent means Massacres, deception The Inquisition No colonization –Had neither power, people, nor desire - just creation of a TRADING EMPIRE
Exploration Begins - Spain Not to be outdone or out-traded… –Columbus sails with blessing (and wads of cash) from Ferdinand of Isabella of Spain Initially rejected by Portugal, sails west to get east BINGO! 1492 (a day that will live in infamy?) Lands on Hispaniola (modern-day Haiti and Dominican Republic) Ive found the Indies, hence, you savages are Indians I claim this land in the name of Spain, who will soon completely destroy every single last one of you!
Exploration Begins - Spain –Columbus makes 3 more trips (still thinks its Asia) Caribbean islands today are called the West Indies –Balboa (1513) - First European to see the Pacific –Magellan (1520) - Tries to circumnavigate the globe, but... NO! Not the face!
Pre-Columbian America North America –How many different tribal groups? –No empires
Pre-Columbian America Central and South America –Most natives members of one of two major empires (they are ?)
Pre-Columbian America Commonalities? –Well-developed societies –All EXPLOITIVE (?) –Highly developed religious beliefs
Exploration Begins - Land Grab! Spain v. Portugal –both lay claim to New World –Pope steps in, 1494 (both Catholic nations) Treaty of Tordesillas Established Line of Demarcation (west of line to Spain, east of line to Portugal) Why do they speak Portuguese in Brazil? Someone gets a raw deal –Differences? Spain wants AN EMPIRE (and an empire they will have!)
Spanish Conquistadors Hernan Cortes –Conquers who? –Allied with who? –Horses, cannon, guns, disease give Cortez the edge –Tenochtitlan becomes Mexico City
Spanish Conquistadors Francisco Pizarro –Conquers who? –For what resources? Pizarro - Hero of Spain Pizarro - Villain of Peru
Exploration Begins - Wait For Us! Europe scrambles to compete –Search for Northwest Passage (to the east) England - Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot) –claims New England for (old) England France - Cartier –explores the St. Lawrence in (French) Canada The Dutch send Henry Hudson – sails up Hudson River, discovers one of the worlds greatest natural harbors next to a little piddling island, later known as Manhattan –There is no northwest passage, unless you have a sled dog (and a warm coat) Hudsons voyage Ive got a bad feeling about this. An Algonquin sees Hudson approach
THE AGE OF EXPLORATION
Global Trade – The Dutch (who?) First to compete with Portugal –1599 – First shipment of spices from Asia (big profit) –Outposts in southern Africa (Capetown) –Leaders of commerce by late 1500s –Dutch East India Co. First successful joint stock company Like Exxon, but with guns Take Malacca from Portugal in 1641, monopolize spice trade New Amsterdam dominates NA fur trade –Amsterdam THRIVES! (Paris of the North – wealth, commerce and culture) Capetown
Trade with the Sleeping Giant The Ultimate Prize! –China was fixed in the European imagination as an exotic kingdom with fabulous wealth and luxury Hesitant to trade with Europeans –Couldnt offer better goods –Portuguese first to be granted privileges (minor) at Macao –Only accepted gold (major implications for European rulers, i.e., New World) –Protection of Chinese culture
Trade with the Sleeping Giant Restrictive trade policies –Reflected Chinese conception of themselves as the Middle Kingdom (who needs Europe?) –British embassy (McCartney) in 1793 a failure –Remain in place until 1800s Ming Dynasty Porcelain Emperor to Macartney: Yankee Go Home! Stay tuned for The Age of Exploration: Phase II