Presentation on theme: "FTCE 6.7 Determine how human body systems adapt to physical activity."— Presentation transcript:
FTCE 6.7 Determine how human body systems adapt to physical activity.
Muscle Fiber Types Slow Twitch – Type I Fast Twitch – Type II
Table 2.2 Relative Involvement of Muscle Fiber Types in Sport Events EventType IType II 100-m sprintLowHigh 800-m runHighHigh MarathonHighLow Olympic weightliftingLowHigh Barbell squatHighHigh SoccerHighHigh Field hockeyHighHigh Football wide receiverLowHigh Football linemanHighHigh BasketballLowHigh Distance cyclingHighLow
Table 2.3 Major Adaptations to Resistance Versus Aerobic Endurance Training VariableResistanceAerobic trainingendurance training Size of muscleIncreaseNo change fibers Number of muscleNo changeNo change fibers Movement speedIncreaseNo change StrengthIncreaseNo change Aerobic capacityNo changeIncrease Anaerobic capacityIncreaseNo change
A daptations to resistance training are specific to the type of exercise performed.
A lthough aerobic endurance training increases aerobic power, it does not enhance muscle strength or size. In fact, intense aerobic endurance training can actually compromise the benefits of resistance training.
Table 4.1 Exercise Prescription Guidelines for Stimulating Bone Growth VariablesSpecific recommendations Volume3-6 sets of up to 10 repetitions Load1-10RM Rest1-4 min VariationTypical periodization schemes designed to increase muscle strength and size Exercise selectionStructural exercises: squats, cleans, deadlifts, bench presses, shoulder presses
T he components of mechanical load that stimulate bone growth are the magnitude of the load (intensity), rate (speed) of loading, direction of the forces, and volume of loading (number of repetitions).
T he process of hypertrophy involves both an increase in the synthesis of the contractile proteins actin and myosin within the myofibril and an increase in the number of myofibrils within a muscle fiber. The new myofilaments are added to the external layers of the myofibril, resulting in an increase in its diameter.
Stimulating Muscular Adaptations For strength: high loads, few repetitions, full recovery periods For muscle size: moderate loads, high volume, short to moderate rest periods For muscular endurance: low intensity, high volume, little recovery allowed
Table 4.2 Proportion of Type II Fibers in Athletes Who Perform Anaerobic Activities Type of athleteType II fibers Bodybuilders44% Javelin throwers50% 800-m runners52% Weightlifters60% Shot-putters62% Discus throwers63% Sprinters and 63% jumpers
A general connective tissue response to aerobic endurance exercise is increased collagen metabolism.
I t has been theorized that the endocrine system can be manipulated naturally with resistance training to enhance the development of various target tissues, thereby improving performance.
Endocrine Glands of the Body
T he force produced in the activated fibers stimulates receptor and membrane sensitivities to anabolic factors, including hormones, which lead to muscle growth and strength changes.
H ormone responses are tightly linked to the characteristics of the resistance exercise protocol.
L arge-muscle group exercises result in acute increased serum total testosterone concentrations in men.
G rowth hormone is important for a childs normal development and appears to play a vital role in adapting to the stress of resistance training. However, GH injections result in a wide variety of secondary effects not related to changes in muscle size or strength and can, in fact, result in hypertrophy with less force production than results from exercise-induced hypertrophy.
T raining protocols must be varied to allow the adrenal gland to engage in recovery processes and to prevent the secondary responses of cortisol, which can negatively affect the immune system and protein stuctures.
Human Heart Structure and Blood Flow
Arterial and Venous Components of the Circulatory System
T he cardiovascular system transports nutrients and removes waste products while helping to maintain the environment for all the bodys functions. The blood transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues for use in cellular metabolism; blood also transports carbon dioxidethe most abundant by-product of metabolismfrom the tissues to the lungs, where it is removed from the body.
T he primary function of the respiratory system is the basic exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
A cute aerobic exercise results in increased cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate, oxygen uptake, systolic blood pressure, and blood flow to active muscles and a decrease in diastolic blood pressure. Resistance exercise with low intensity and high volume generally results in similar responses, some to a lesser degree.
A cute bouts of high-intensity, low-volume resistance exercise result in increased heart rate and increased diastolic and systolic blood pressure but no change in oxygen uptake, no change or a slight increase in cardiac output, and no change or a slight decrease in stroke volume.
D uring aerobic exercise, large amounts of oxygen diffuse from the capillaries into the tissues, increased levels of carbon dioxide move from the blood into the alveoli, and minute ventilation increases to maintain appropriate alveolar concentrations of these gases.
A erobic exercise training results in increased maximal cardiac output and maximal oxygen uptake, slower resting heart rate, increased capillarization, improved ventilation efficiency, increased oxygen extraction, and OBLA occurring at a higher percentage of aerobic capacity.