2 Chapter Outline Content Analysis Analyzing Existing Statistics Comparative and Historical ResearchEthics and Unobtrusive MeasuresQuick Quiz
3 Unobtrusive Research – Methods of studying social behavior without affecting it. Example: Durkheim’s analysis of suicideTypes of Unobtrusive ResearchContent AnalysisAnalysis of Existing StatisticsComparative and Historical Analysis
4 Content AnalysisContent Analysis – The study of recorded human communications (i.e., books, websites, paintings, laws).Appropriate Topics“Who says what, to whom, why, how, and with what effect?”
5 Example: violence on TV Develop operational definitionsDecide what to observeDecide how to code/analyze data
6 Figure 11.1Sampling in Content AnalysisUnits of Analysis
7 Identify the unit of analysis: You are interested in how children’s literature portrays gender roles.You are interested in popular film’s use of drugs and alcohol.You are interested in sociology textbook’s definition of race.You are interested in the content of Internet Blogs.
9 Sampling TechniquesAny conventional sampling technique may be used for content analysis.
10 Coding in Content Analysis Coding – The process whereby raw data are transformed into standardized form suitable for machine processing and analysis.
11 Manifest Content – The concrete terms contained in a communication. Latent Content – The underlying meaning of communication.
12 Conceptualization and the Creation of Code Categories Operational DefinitionLevels of MeasurementCounting and Record KeepingThe end product of coding must be numerical.Record keeping must distinguish between units of analysis and units of observation.Record from the base from which the counting is done.
16 Strengths of Content Analysis Economy of time and moneyAllowing for the correction of errorsPermits the study of processes occurring over timeResearch has little (if any) effect on subjectsReliabilityWeaknesses of Content AnalysisLimited to recorded communicationsValidity
17 Analyzing Existing Statistics The analysis of existing statistics is not the same as secondary analysis.Existing statistics may be the main source of data or a supplemental source of data.Example: Durkheim’s Study of SuicideExample: Kentor’s Consequences of Globalization
18 Units of Analysis By nature, existing statistics describe groups. Ecological Fallacy
19 Problems of Reliability Problems of ValidityLogical ReasoningReplicationProblems of ReliabilityQuality of Existing Statistics
20 Sources of Existing Statistics Statistical Abstract of the United StatesGovernment DataDemographic YearbookSINET
21 Comparative and Historical Research Comparative and Historical Research – The examination of societies (or other social units) over time and in comparison with one another.
22 Examples of Comparative and Historical Research Weber and the Role of IdeasJapanese Religion and CapitalismSources of Comparative and Historical Data
26 1. Which type of research does not require the researcher to intrude on what s/he is studying? Quantitative ResearchQualitative ResearchSurvey ResearchUnobtrusive Research
27 Answer: D. Unobtrusive research does not require the researcher to intrude on what s/he is studying?
28 2. Which of the following may be examined in content analysis? booksmagazineswebsitesall of the above
29 Answer: D. Books, magazines, and websites may be examined in content analysis.
30 3. Which of the following occurs when you obtain a copy of someone else’s data and undertake your own statistical analysis?using quasi official statisticsusing official statisticssecondary analysisnone of the above
31 Answer: C. Secondary analysis occurs when you obtain a copy of someone else’s data and undertake your own statistical analysis.
32 4. Which of the following are types of unobtrusive research methods? content analysisanalysis of existing statisticscomparative and historical researchall of the above
33 Answer: D. Content analysis, analysis of existing statistics, and comparative and historical research are types of unobtrusive research methods.
34 5. Which of the following are usually qualitative? field researchcomparative and historical researchboth of the abovenone of the above
35 Answer: C. Field research and comparative and historical research are usually qualitative.
36 6. _____ are the individual units that we make descriptive and explanatory statements about. Units of analysisArtifactsGroupsall of the above
37 Answer: A. Units of analysis are the individual units that we make descriptive and explanatory statements about.
38 7. In the content analysis of _____, sampling may occur at any or all of several levels. written prosetelevisionthe Internet
39 Answer: A. In the content analysis of written prose sampling may occur at any or all of several levels.
40 8. Existing statistics should always be considered a _____ source of data. primarysupplementaltertiaryall of the abovenone of the above
41 Answer: B. Existing statistics should always be considered a supplemental source of data.
42 9. When we base research on an analysis of data that already exist, we face problems of: repeatability.validity.generalization.
43 Answer: B. When we base research on an analysis of data that already exist, we face problems of validity.