Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 11, COMPARATIVE AND HISTORICAL RESEARCH. Chapter Outline Content Analysis Analyzing Existing Statistics Comparative and Historical Research."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 11, COMPARATIVE AND HISTORICAL RESEARCH
Chapter Outline Content Analysis Analyzing Existing Statistics Comparative and Historical Research Ethics and Unobtrusive Measures Quick Quiz
Unobtrusive Research – Methods of studying social behavior without affecting it. Example: Durkheim’s analysis of suicide Types of Unobtrusive Research 1. Content Analysis 2. Analysis of Existing Statistics 3. Comparative and Historical Analysis
Content Analysis Content Analysis – The study of recorded human communications (i.e., books, websites, paintings, laws). Appropriate Topics “Who says what, to whom, why, how, and with what effect?”
Example: violence on TV 1. Develop operational definitions 2. Decide what to observe 3. Decide how to code/analyze data
Figure 11.1 Sampling in Content Analysis Units of Analysis
Identify the unit of analysis: You are interested in how children’s literature portrays gender roles. You are interested in popular film’s use of drugs and alcohol. You are interested in sociology textbook’s definition of race. You are interested in the content of Internet Blogs.
Sampling Techniques Any conventional sampling technique may be used for content analysis.
Coding in Content Analysis Coding – The process whereby raw data are transformed into standardized form suitable for machine processing and analysis.
Manifest Content – The concrete terms contained in a communication. Latent Content – The underlying meaning of communication.
Conceptualization and the Creation of Code Categories Operational Definition Levels of Measurement Counting and Record Keeping The end product of coding must be numerical. Record keeping must distinguish between units of analysis and units of observation. Record from the base from which the counting is done.
Qualitative Data Analysis “Negative Case Testing” Tips for Avoiding Dangers 1. Select cases at random 2. Provide at least three supporting examples 3. Ask others to review interpretations 4. Report inconsistencies
Illustrations of Content Analysis
Strengths of Content Analysis Economy of time and money Allowing for the correction of errors Permits the study of processes occurring over time Research has little (if any) effect on subjects Reliability Weaknesses of Content Analysis Limited to recorded communications Validity
Analyzing Existing Statistics The analysis of existing statistics is not the same as secondary analysis. Existing statistics may be the main source of data or a supplemental source of data. Example: Durkheim’s Study of Suicide Example: Kentor’s Consequences of Globalization
Units of Analysis By nature, existing statistics describe groups. Ecological Fallacy
Problems of Validity Logical Reasoning Replication Problems of Reliability Quality of Existing Statistics
Sources of Existing Statistics Statistical Abstract of the United States Government Data Demographic Yearbook SINET
Comparative and Historical Research Comparative and Historical Research – The examination of societies (or other social units) over time and in comparison with one another.
Examples of Comparative and Historical Research Weber and the Role of Ideas Japanese Religion and Capitalism Sources of Comparative and Historical Data
1. Which type of research does not require the researcher to intrude on what s/he is studying? A. Quantitative Research B. Qualitative Research C. Survey Research D. Unobtrusive Research
Answer: D. Unobtrusive research does not require the researcher to intrude on what s/he is studying?
2. Which of the following may be examined in content analysis? A. books B. magazines C. websites D. all of the above
Answer: D. Books, magazines, and websites may be examined in content analysis.
3. Which of the following occurs when you obtain a copy of someone else’s data and undertake your own statistical analysis? A. using quasi official statistics B. using official statistics C. secondary analysis D. none of the above
Answer: C. Secondary analysis occurs when you obtain a copy of someone else’s data and undertake your own statistical analysis.
4. Which of the following are types of unobtrusive research methods? A. content analysis B. analysis of existing statistics C. comparative and historical research D. all of the above
Answer: D. Content analysis, analysis of existing statistics, and comparative and historical research are types of unobtrusive research methods.
5. Which of the following are usually qualitative? A. field research B. comparative and historical research C. both of the above D. none of the above
Answer: C. Field research and comparative and historical research are usually qualitative.
6. _____ are the individual units that we make descriptive and explanatory statements about. A. Units of analysis B. Artifacts C. Groups D. all of the above
Answer: A. Units of analysis are the individual units that we make descriptive and explanatory statements about.
7. In the content analysis of _____, sampling may occur at any or all of several levels. A. written prose B. television C. the Internet
Answer: A. In the content analysis of written prose sampling may occur at any or all of several levels.
8. Existing statistics should always be considered a _____ source of data. A. primary B. supplemental C. tertiary D. all of the above E. none of the above
Answer: B. Existing statistics should always be considered a supplemental source of data.
9. When we base research on an analysis of data that already exist, we face problems of: A. repeatability. B. validity. C. generalization.
Answer: B. When we base research on an analysis of data that already exist, we face problems of validity.