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Chapter 2—Programming by Example The Art and Science of An Introduction to Computer Science ERIC S. ROBERTS Java Programming by Example C H A P T E R 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2—Programming by Example The Art and Science of An Introduction to Computer Science ERIC S. ROBERTS Java Programming by Example C H A P T E R 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2—Programming by Example The Art and Science of An Introduction to Computer Science ERIC S. ROBERTS Java Programming by Example C H A P T E R 2 Example is always more efficacious than precept. —Samuel Johnson, Rasselas, The “Hello world” program 2.2 Perspectives on the programming process 2.3 A program to add two numbers 2.4 Programming idioms and patterns 2.5 Classes and objects 2.6 Graphical programs

2 The “Hello World” Program One of the important influences on the design of Java was the C programming language, which was developed at Bell Labs in the early 1970s. The primary reference manual for C was written by Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie. On the first page of their book, the authors suggest that the first step in learning any language is to write a simple program that prints the message “hello, world” on the display. That advice remains sound today. 1.1 Getting Started The only way to learn a new programming language is to write programs in it. The first program to write is the same for all languages: Print the words hello, world This is the big hurdle; to leap over it you have to be able to create the program text somewhere, compile it, load it, run it, and find out where your output went. With these mechanical details mastered, everything else is comparatively easy. In C, the program to print “ hello, world ” is #include main() { printf("hello, world"); }

3 The “Hello World” Program in Java /* * File: HelloProgram.java * * This program displays "hello, world" on the screen. * It is inspired by the first program in Brian * Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie's classic book, * The C Programming Language. */ import acm.graphics.*; import acm.program.*; public class HelloProgram extends GraphicsProgram { public void run() { add( new GLabel( "hello, world", 100, 75 ) ); } /* * File: HelloProgram.java * * This program displays "hello, world" on the screen. * It is inspired by the first program in Brian * Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie's classic book, * The C Programming Language. */ The simple “Hello World” example illustrates several features that are common to the programs you will see in this book. This first few lines (everything between /* and */ ) are an example of a comment, which is intended for human readers. import acm.graphics.*; import acm.program.*; public class HelloProgram extends GraphicsProgram { public void run() { add( new GLabel( "hello, world", 100, 75 ) ); } The next two lines are the imports, which indicate what library packages the program uses. The last few lines in the file define the HelloProgram class, which the extends keyword identifies as a GraphicsProgram. A class definition in Java typically contains a series of entries. This example has one entry, which is a method called run. A Java method consists of a series of statements. Here, the only statement is a call to add, which adds an object to the display. The object to be added is indicated by supplying an argument to the add method. Here, the argument is a new GLabel object. In Java, objects are created by using a constructor, which consists of the keyword new followed by the class name and arguments. The arguments supply information that the constructor needs to make the object, such as the string to display and the coordinates. The next slide simulates the operation of HelloProgram so that you can get a sense of what appears on the display. /* * File: HelloProgram.java * * This program displays "hello, world" on the screen. * It is inspired by the first program in Brian * Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie's classic book, * The C Programming Language. */ import acm.graphics.*; import acm.program.*; public class HelloProgram extends GraphicsProgram { public void run() { add( new GLabel( "hello, world", 100, 75 ) ); }

4 The “Hello World” Program in Java import acm.graphics.*; import acm.program.*; public class HelloProgram extends GraphicsProgram { public void run() { add( new GLabel("hello, world", 100, 75) ); } HelloProgram hello, world import acm.graphics.*; import acm.program.*; public class HelloProgram extends GraphicsProgram { public void run() { add( new GLabel("hello, world", 100, 75) ); }

5 Perspectives on the Programming Process In his Pulitzer-prizewinning book, computer scientist Douglas Hofstadter identifies two concepts—holism and reductionism—that turn out to be important as you begin to learn about programming. Hofstadter explains these concepts in the form of a dialogue in the style of Lewis Carroll: I will be glad to indulge both of you, if you will first oblige me, by telling me the meaning of these strange expressions, “holism” and “reductionism”. Achilles: Crab: Holism is the most natural thing in the world to grasp. It’s simply the belief that “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts”. No one in his right mind could reject holism. Anteater: Reductionism is the most natural thing in the world to grasp. It’s simply the belief that “a whole can be understood completely if you understand its parts, and the nature of their ‘sum’”. No one in her left brain could reject reductionism.

6 A Program to Add Two Numbers import acm.program.*; public class Add2Integers extends ConsoleProgram { public void run() { println("This program adds two numbers."); int n1 = readInt("Enter n1: "); int n2 = readInt("Enter n2: "); int total = n1 + n2; println("The total is " + total + "."); } The holistic perspective is particularly useful when you are first learning to program. When you look at a program, you should concentrate on understanding its operation in a general way rather than focusing on the details. Consider, for example, the following program, which adds two integers and prints their sum: This program is an example of a ConsoleProgram, which reads input from the keyboard and displays characters on the screen. Such programs are not as exciting as graphical applications but are useful for illustrating programming concepts. As you saw in the case of the HelloProgram example, Java programs written using the acm.program package begin by executing the statements in the run method. The first statement in the program prints a message to the user describing what the program does. The next two statements read the input values from the user, each of which is a whole number, which is more formally called an integer. The input values are stored in memory cells called variables that serve as placeholders for those values. The next statement computes the sum by adding the values stored in the variables n1 and n2. In this statement, the + operator represents addition, as in standard mathematics. The final statement in the run method displays the result. In this statement, the + operator signifies concatenation, which consists of combining the operands together as strings. The next slide animates the operation of this program to illustrate the assignment of values to variables. import acm.program.*; public class Add2Integers extends ConsoleProgram { public void run() { println("This program adds two numbers."); int n1 = readInt("Enter n1: "); int n2 = readInt("Enter n2: "); int total = n1 + n2; println("The total is " + total + "."); }

7 The Add2Integers Program Add2Integers class Add2Integers extends ConsoleProgram { public void run() { println("This program adds two numbers."); int n1 = readInt("Enter n1: "); int n2 = readInt("Enter n2: "); int total = n1 + n2; println("The total is " + total + "."); } n1n2total This program adds two numbers. Enter n2: The total is class Add2Integers extends ConsoleProgram { public void run() { println("This program adds two numbers."); int n1 = readInt("Enter n1: "); int n2 = readInt("Enter n2: "); int total = n1 + n2; println("The total is " + total + "."); } n1n2total Enter n1: 17

8 Programming Idioms and Patterns Experienced programmers also often take a holistic approach to programming. Effective programmers can recognize a variety of common operations and have learned a standard solution strategy for each one. The code that implements such a solution strategy is called a programming idiom or programming pattern. Learning to use these patterns saves you from having to think about the nitty-gritty details. As an example, it is important to think of a statement like int n1 = readInt("Enter n1: "); not in terms of what each part of the statement means, but rather as a holistic pattern to read an integer from the user: int variable = readInt(" prompt ");

9 Classes and Objects As described in the slides for Chapter 1, Java programs are written as collections of classes, which serve as templates for individual objects. Each object is an instance of a particular class, which can serve as a pattern for many different objects. Classes in Java form hierarchies. Except for the class named Object that stands at the top of the hierarchy, every class in Java is a subclass of some other class, which is called its superclass. A class can have many subclasses, but each class has only one superclass. A class represents a specialization of its superclass. If you create an object that is an instance of a class, that object is also an instance of all other classes in the hierarchy above it in the superclass chain. When you define a new class in Java, that class automatically inherits the behavior of its superclass.

10 Biological Models of Class Structure The structure of Java’s class hierarchy resembles the biological classification scheme introduced by Scandinavian botanist Carl Linnaeus in the 18th century. Linnaeus’s contribution was to recognize that organisms fit into a hierarchical classification scheme in which the placement of individual species reflects anatomical similarities. Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778)

11 Biological Class Hierarchy Living Things PlantsAnimalsFungi AnnelidaBrachiopodaArthropodaMolluscaChordata CrustaceaInsectaArachnida Hymenoptera Formicidae Iridomyrmex purpureus Kingdom Phylum Order Class Family Genus Species Classification of the red ant Iridomyrmex purpureus Every red ant is also an animal, an arthropod, and an insect, as well as the other superclasses in the chain. Note that there can be many individual red ants, each of which is an instance of the same basic class.

12 The Program Hierarchy Applet JApplet Program DialogProgramGraphicsProgramConsoleProgram Java class hierarchies are similar to the biological class hierarchy from the previous slide. This diagram, for example, shows the hierarchy formed by the classes in the acm.program package. Every ConsoleProgram is also a Program, a JApplet, and an Applet. That means that every ConsoleProgram can run as an applet on the web. The same is true for any DialogProgram or GraphicsProgram.

13 The DialogProgram Class public class Add2Integers extends DialogProgram { public void run() { println("This program adds two numbers."); int n1 = readInt("Enter n1: "); int n2 = readInt("Enter n2: "); int total = n1 + n2; println("The total is " + total + "."); } In object-oriented languages like Java, a class definition specifies the behavior of objects of that class. The DialogProgram class has exactly the same operations as the ConsoleProgram class; the only difference is that the input and output operations use popup dialogs instead of a console, as illustrated by the following implementation of AddTwoIntegers : public class Add2Integers extends DialogProgram { public void run() { println("This program adds two numbers."); int n1 = readInt("Enter n1: "); int n2 = readInt("Enter n2: "); int total = n1 + n2; println("The total is " + total + "."); }

14 Graphical Programs The GraphicsProgram class makes it possible to create simple pictures on the screen. The conceptual model is that of a collage composed of objects on a canvas. Running a GraphicsProgram creates a window that serves as the background canvas for the collage. You create pictures by creating graphical objects of various kinds and then adding those objects to the canvas. In this chapter, you will learn how to work with labels, rectangles, ovals, and lines using the classes GLabel, GRect, GOval, and GLine. The complete set of graphics classes is introduced in Chapter 9.

15 Sending Messages to Objects In many applications, you will need to change the appearance of a graphical object after you have created it. For example, you might want to have the object change its color or move to a new position on the canvas. In object-oriented languages like Java, such changes are the responsibility of the object. To change the color of an object you send a message to the object asking it to change color. where receiver is the object to which the message is directed, name identifies the type of message, and arguments is a list of values used to specify any other information associated with the message. receiver. name ( arguments ); Java uses the following syntax to send a message to an object:

16 public class HelloProgram extends GraphicsProgram { public void run() { GLabel label = new GLabel("hello, world", 100, 75); label.setFont("SansSerif-36"); label.setColor(Color.RED); add(label); } HelloProgram Sending Messages to a GLabel hello, world label hello, world The following program illustrates sending a message to an object. Note that the label doesn’t appear until it is added to the canvas. skip simulation public class HelloProgram extends GraphicsProgram { public void run() { GLabel label = new GLabel("hello, world", 100, 75); label.setFont("SansSerif-36"); label.setColor(Color.RED); add(label); } label hello, world

17 The Java Coordinate System Positions and distances in a graphics program are measured in terms of pixels, which are the individual dots that cover the screen. Unlike traditional mathematics, Java defines the origin of the coordinate system to be in the upper left corner. Values for the x coordinate increase as you move rightward across the screen; y coordinate values increase as you move downward. Creating a JLabel at a particular x and y position means that the baseline of the first character in the label appears at that point, as follows: HelloProgram Hello (100, 75)

18 The GObject Hierarchy The classes that represent graphical objects form a hierarchy, part of which looks like this: GObject GRectGOvalGLineGLabel The GObject class represents the collection of all graphical objects. The four subclasses shown in this diagram correspond to particular types of objects: labels, rectangles, ovals, and lines. The class diagram makes it clear that any GLabel, GRect, GOval, or GLine is also a GObject. Operations on graphical objects are defined at each level of the hierarchy. Operations that apply to all graphical objects are specified at the GObject level, where they are inherited by each subclass. Operations that apply to a particular subclass are specified as part of the definition of that class.

19 Operations on the GObject Class object.setColor( color ) Sets the color of the object to the specified color constant. object.setLocation( x, y ) Changes the location of the object to the point (x, y). object.move( dx, dy ) Moves the object on the screen by adding dx and dy to its current coordinates. The following operations apply to all GObject s: The standard color names are defined in the java.awt package: Color.BLACK Color.DARK_GRAY Color.GRAY Color.LIGHT_GRAY Color.WHITE Color.RED Color.YELLOW Color.GREEN Color.CYAN Color.BLUE Color.MAGENTA Color.ORANGE Color.PINK

20 Operations on the GLabel Class Constructor new GLabel( text, x, y ) Creates a label containing the specified text that begins at the point (x, y). Methods specific to the GLabel class label.setFont( font ) Sets the font used to display the label as specified by the font string. The font is typically specified as a string in the form " family - style - size " where family is the name of a font family style is either PLAIN, BOLD, ITALIC, or BOLDITALIC size is an integer indicating the point size

21 Drawing Geometrical Objects Constructors new GRect( x, y, width, height ) Creates a rectangle whose upper left corner is at (x, y) of the specified size. new GOval( x, y, width, height ) Creates an oval that fits inside the rectangle with the same dimensions. Methods shared by the GRect and GOval classes object.setFilled( fill ) If fill is true, fills in the interior of the object; if false, shows only the outline. object.setFillColor( color ) Sets the color used to fill the interior, which can be different from the border. new GLine( x 0, y 0, x 1, y 1 ) Creates a line extending from (x 0, y 0 ) to (x 1, y 1 ).

22 The GRectPlusGOval Program public class GRectPlusGOval extends GraphicsProgram { public void run() { GRect rect = new GRect(100, 50, 125, 60); rect.setFilled(true); rect.setColor(Color.RED); add(rect); GOval oval = new GOval(100, 50, 125, 60); oval.setFilled(true); oval.setFillColor(Color.GREEN); add(oval); } GRectPlusGOval ovalrect public class GRectPlusGOval extends GraphicsProgram { public void run() { GRect rect = new GRect(100, 50, 125, 60); rect.setFilled(true); rect.setColor(Color.RED); add(rect); GOval oval = new GOval(100, 50, 125, 60); oval.setFilled(true); oval.setFillColor(Color.GREEN); add(oval); } ovalrect skip simulation

23 The End


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