2 International Treaties I Maryland Constitution: Declaration of Rights Article II"The Constitution of the United States, and the Laws made, or which shall be made, in pursuance thereof, and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, are, and shall be the Supreme Law of the State; and the Judges of this State, and all the People of this State, are, and shall be bound thereby; anything in the Constitution or Law of this State to the contrary notwithstanding."
3 International Treaties II Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Article 23: “Everyone has the right work”International Covention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination Art. 5 “parties [to treaty] undertake to prohibit and to eliminate racial discrimination in all its forms and to guarantee…the enjoyment of the…the right to work”OAS Declaration of the Rights & Duties of Man, Art. XIV: “Every person has the right to work”
4 Maryland Constitution Article 27: “That no conviction shall work corruption of the blood or forfeiture of estate.”Forfeiture of Estate = loss of landLoss of livelihood?Corruption of Blood = sins of parents visited on the children
5 Maryland Court of Appeals I Singer v. State, 72 Md. 464, 19A (1890)“ No one questions the right of every person in this country to follow any legitimate business or occupation he may see fit. This is a privilege open alike to every one. His own labor, and the right to use it as a means of livelihood is a right as sacred and fully protected by the law as any other personal or private right.” Singer, at 1045.
6 Maryland Court of Appeals II Singer again:State can qualify the right“The nature and extent of the qualifications required must primarily depend on the judgement of the state as to their necessity. If they are appropriate to the calling or profession, and attainable by reasonable application, no objection to their validity can be raised.”
7 Title VII of Civil Rts Act Can’t discriminate on the basis of RaceNeutral Tests—like criminal records screening, can be considered to be racial discriminationEmployer can avoid this by showing the screening is JOB RELATED and CONSISTENT with business necessity
8 What Must Employers Do? Nature and gravity of the offense The time that has passed since the conviction and/or completion of the sentenceThe nature of the job held or soughtSUMMARY: JOB RELATEDNESS of Conviction and TIME FRAME INVOLVED
9 What Employers Can’t Do No Questions About ArrestsNo Broad Based Prohibitions --“We don’t hire anyone with a conviction, regardless of the crime”Too Broad a policy—will screen out minorities at a higher rate than whites & violates Title VII
10 What is a Conviction and What Isn’t? Guilty = ConvictionNon ConvictionsProbation Before JudgmentStetNol ProssDismissalAcquittal
11 Probation Before Judgment Sufficient evidence exists to convict, but court allows defendant to escape the stigma of conviction through an agreement to abide by the terms of probationPleads Guilty, No Contest, or Found GuiltyIf Probation violated, court can enter convictionis not a conviction for the purpose of any disqualification or disability imposed by law because of conviction of a crime. Crim Pro 6-220
12 Stet The State postpones the trial Indefinitely (forever) May be rescheduled by request of state within one yearAfter one year, state needs to show “Good Cause” for rescheduling itMD Rule 4-248
13 Nolle Prosequi MD Rule 2-247 State Terminates the Prosecution Charge is technically dismissed but disposition is Nolle Prosequi
14 What is a Conviction and What Isn’t? Guilty = ConvictionNon ConvictionsProbation Before JudgmentStetNol ProssDismissalAcquittal
15 Expungement Generally—Only the Non Convictions PBJ, Nol Pros, Stet, Dismissal, AcquittalRecent change in law allowing some convictions to be expungedPanhandlingPublic drinking-urinating-obstruction passageNo proof MTA-loitering-park vio
16 Expungement & Nol Pross Aside from those Nuisance crimes, only NON-CONVICTIONS can be expungedSpecial Rules depending on the non-convictionNol Pross? Expunge anytime as long as not convicted of a criminal offense SINCE time of nol prossExample: 01 Nol Pross, then 08 Conviction—you are out of luck
17 Expungement and STET or PBJ Like Nol Pros – if you’ve been CONVICTED since the time of the Stet or PBJ, you have lost your right to expunge the stet or PBJAlso, must wait three years to file expungement request (3 yrs after entry)
18 Expungement ProcessFile Expungement Petition in Court in which the PBJ, Stet, Nol Pross, Dismissal, Acquittal occurredFiling Fee WaiverRoughly 60 days—OrderCompliance with Order
19 Expungement Summary Really only good for folks without convictions New Law—nuisance crimesPBJ and Stet—Need to wait three years
20 Expungement Example 03 Stet– CDS possession 04 PBJ– possession 05 Stet—theft less than $300Nothing since? Can expunge the all after three year wait and if no convictions sinceFile PetitionAwait Orders of Compliance
21 Expungement Example II 03 Stet– CDS possession04 PBJ– possession05 Stet—theft less than $30006 Guilty– CDS possesionCONVICTION extinguishes right to expunge these charges (Stet, PBJ or Nol Pros)
22 Expungement Example III 03 Dismissed– CDS possession04 Dismissed– possession05 Dismissed—theft less than $30006 Guilty– CDS possessionStill can expunge the DismissalsCONVICTION extinguishes right to expunge a Stet, PBJ or Nol Pros
23 Recap There is a Right to Work (freedom to work) It Can’t be abridged on basis of raceRacial disparities in arrests & convictionsTitle VII of Civil Rights Act requires Employers to used a standard that is JOB RELATED and CONSISTENT with business necessityExpungement is a limited tool—ONLY for NON CONVICTIONS (w/homeless nuisance exception) and for THOSE WHO HAVE KEPT OUTTA TROUBLE SINCE….
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