Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Human Rights of Ex- Offenders. International Treaties I Maryland Constitution: Declaration of Rights Article II "The Constitution of the United States,

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The Human Rights of Ex- Offenders. International Treaties I Maryland Constitution: Declaration of Rights Article II "The Constitution of the United States,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Human Rights of Ex- Offenders

2 International Treaties I Maryland Constitution: Declaration of Rights Article II "The Constitution of the United States, and the Laws made, or which shall be made, in pursuance thereof, and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, are, and shall be the Supreme Law of the State; and the Judges of this State, and all the People of this State, are, and shall be bound thereby; anything in the Constitution or Law of this State to the contrary notwithstanding."

3 International Treaties II Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Article 23: Everyone has the right work International Covention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination Art. 5 parties [to treaty] undertake to prohibit and to eliminate racial discrimination in all its forms and to guarantee…the enjoyment of the…the right to work OAS Declaration of the Rights & Duties of Man, Art. XIV: Every person has the right to work

4 Maryland Constitution Article 27: That no conviction shall work corruption of the blood or forfeiture of estate. Forfeiture of Estate = loss of land Loss of livelihood? Corruption of Blood = sins of parents visited on the children

5 Maryland Court of Appeals I Singer v. State, 72 Md. 464, 19A (1890) No one questions the right of every person in this country to follow any legitimate business or occupation he may see fit. This is a privilege open alike to every one. His own labor, and the right to use it as a means of livelihood is a right as sacred and fully protected by the law as any other personal or private right. Singer, at 1045.

6 Maryland Court of Appeals II Singer again: State can qualify the right The nature and extent of the qualifications required must primarily depend on the judgement of the state as to their necessity. If they are appropriate to the calling or profession, and attainable by reasonable application, no objection to their validity can be raised.

7 Title VII of Civil Rts Act Cant discriminate on the basis of Race Neutral Testslike criminal records screening, can be considered to be racial discrimination Employer can avoid this by showing the screening is JOB RELATED and CONSISTENT with business necessity

8 What Must Employers Do? Nature and gravity of the offense The time that has passed since the conviction and/or completion of the sentence The nature of the job held or sought SUMMARY: JOB RELATEDNESS of Conviction and TIME FRAME INVOLVED

9 What Employers Cant Do No Questions About Arrests No Broad Based Prohibitions --We dont hire anyone with a conviction, regardless of the crime Too Broad a policywill screen out minorities at a higher rate than whites & violates Title VII

10 What is a Conviction and What Isnt? Guilty = Conviction Non Convictions Probation Before Judgment Stet Nol Pross Dismissal Acquittal

11 Probation Before Judgment Sufficient evidence exists to convict, but court allows defendant to escape the stigma of conviction through an agreement to abide by the terms of probation Pleads Guilty, No Contest, or Found Guilty If Probation violated, court can enter conviction is not a conviction for the purpose of any disqualification or disability imposed by law because of conviction of a crime. Crim Pro 6-220

12 Stet The State postpones the trial Indefinitely (forever) May be rescheduled by request of state within one year After one year, state needs to show Good Cause for rescheduling it MD Rule 4-248

13 Nolle Prosequi MD Rule State Terminates the Prosecution Charge is technically dismissed but disposition is Nolle Prosequi

14 What is a Conviction and What Isnt? Guilty = Conviction Non Convictions Probation Before Judgment Stet Nol Pross Dismissal Acquittal

15 Expungement GenerallyOnly the Non Convictions PBJ, Nol Pros, Stet, Dismissal, Acquittal Recent change in law allowing some convictions to be expunged Panhandling Public drinking-urinating-obstruction passage No proof MTA-loitering-park vio

16 Expungement & Nol Pross Aside from those Nuisance crimes, only NON-CONVICTIONS can be expunged Special Rules depending on the non- conviction Nol Pross? Expunge anytime as long as not convicted of a criminal offense SINCE time of nol pross Example: 01 Nol Pross, then 08 Convictionyou are out of luck

17 Expungement and STET or PBJ Like Nol Pros – if youve been CONVICTED since the time of the Stet or PBJ, you have lost your right to expunge the stet or PBJ Also, must wait three years to file expungement request (3 yrs after entry)

18 Expungement Process File Expungement Petition in Court in which the PBJ, Stet, Nol Pross, Dismissal, Acquittal occurred Filing Fee Waiver Roughly 60 daysOrder Compliance with Order

19 Expungement Summary Really only good for folks without convictions New Lawnuisance crimes PBJ and StetNeed to wait three years

20 Expungement Example 03 Stet– CDS possession 04 PBJ– possession 05 Stettheft less than $300 Nothing since? Can expunge the all after three year wait and if no convictions since File Petition Await Orders of Compliance

21 Expungement Example II 03 Stet– CDS possession 04 PBJ– possession 05 Stettheft less than $ Guilty– CDS possesion CONVICTION extinguishes right to expunge these charges (Stet, PBJ or Nol Pros)

22 Expungement Example III 03 Dismissed– CDS possession 04 Dismissed– possession 05 Dismissedtheft less than $ Guilty– CDS possession Still can expunge the Dismissals CONVICTION extinguishes right to expunge a Stet, PBJ or Nol Pros

23 Recap There is a Right to Work (freedom to work) It Cant be abridged on basis of race Racial disparities in arrests & convictions Title VII of Civil Rights Act requires Employers to used a standard that is JOB RELATED and CONSISTENT with business necessity Expungement is a limited toolONLY for NON CONVICTIONS (w/homeless nuisance exception) and for THOSE WHO HAVE KEPT OUTTA TROUBLE SINCE….


Download ppt "The Human Rights of Ex- Offenders. International Treaties I Maryland Constitution: Declaration of Rights Article II "The Constitution of the United States,"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google