Presentation on theme: "Unit4 Grammar and usage. Unit 4 Verb-ed and verb-ing (Participles) Teaching goals: The grammar in this unit focuses on participles. Students are required."— Presentation transcript:
Unit4 Grammar and usage
Verb-ed and verb-ing (Participles) Teaching goals: The grammar in this unit focuses on participles. Students are required to understand what is a participle. The teacher will help students review the functions of participles (verb-ing and verb-ed) in different situations. Students are expected to apply what they learn to complete some oral and written tasks.
falling leaves a thick layer of fallen leaves developing countries developed countries terrified birds a terrifying experience boiling water boiled water Translate the following using the participle: The verb-ing form usually expresses an action that is going on, while the verb-ed form usually refers to a finished action.
Translate the following using the participle: exciting development excited people encouraging words encouraged people worrying traffic accidents worried passengers The verb-ing form usually expresses what something is like while the verb-ed tells how we feel about something.
The v-ed form usually expresses the passive meaning while the v-ing form expresses the active meaning. find the stolen cars the book lying on the desk the baby laid on the desk a burning fire burned skin
Note: A participle phrase usually goes after the noun it modifies. The trains going to London stop at the edge of the city. Your time spent doing research on the Internet will be much more rewarding. She sat beside the window, watching the falling leaves floating in the air. We can use participles as an attribute. Does this word function as an attribute? The Verb-ing form and the Verb-ed form can be used as an adverbial.
Now combine these two sentences using the participles as the adverbial. Realizing he would have to take two different trains, he decided to take a taxi instead. Exhausted by hard work, he soon fell asleep. Because he realized he would have to take two different trains, he decided to take a taxi instead. As he was exhausted by hard work, he soon fell asleep. We can use the verb-ing and verb-ed form as an adverbial of reason.
If they know all that, they neednt ask him any more. Knowing all that, they neednt ask him any more. If we are united, we stand; if we are divided, we fall. United, we stand; divided, we fall. We can use the verb-ing and verb-ed form as an adverbial of condition.
A plane crashed near the South Pacific so that it killed 24 passengers on board. A plane crashed near the South Pacific, killing 24 passengers on board. European football is played in 80 countries, so that it is made the most popular sport in the world. European football is played in 80 countries, making the most popular sport in the world. We can use the verb-ing and verb-ed form as an adverbial of result.
Though they know all this, they asked him to write down what happened. Knowing all this, they asked him to write down what happened. Although he was born in a rich family, he lived a simple life. Born in a rich family, he lived a simple life. We can use the verb-ing and verb-ed form as an adverbial of concession.
When he hears the news that he will get 4As, he will jump with joy. Hearing the news that he will get 4As, he will jump with joy. When she was asked how old the underground system was, she made no reply. When asked how old the underground system was, she made no reply. We can use the verb-ing and verb-ed form as an adverbial of time.
The participle can also be used as an adverbial of manner. 1.They came into the classroom, singing and laughing. They came into the classroom, and they were singing and laughing. 2.The train headed for London, puffing and rattling. The train headed for London, and it was puffing and rattling. They came into the classroom as they sang and laughed.
1. 2. when/while when/while+ -ing 3. -ing
Note 1:When the v-ing or v-ed clause is used as an adverbial, its understood subject is usually the same as the subject of the main clause. 1., Having been trapped in traffic, he was late for work. 2., Given enough time, we will be able to see the whole city.
Note 2: The negative word not always appears before the v-ing or v-ed. 1., Not knowing which line to take, she turned to me for help. 2., Not having tried his best, he failed in the exam.
Note 3. We use being +v-ed to form the continuous passive. 1.The underground system being built in the city will be open next year. 2. In those days they went to the wharf to watch the ships being loaded and unloaded.
Writing: Task 1: Supposing there was an accident that happened in a hotel, a policeman would look into it. Please make a dialogue with some participles.
Sample: Policeman: What did you do when you got to the party? Witness: Arriving there, I found everybody was there and the dancing was just beginning. Having looking around for several minutes, I saw some of my friends chatting at a table. So I went over to join them.
Policeman: Witness: When did you last see the hostess? Drinking too much wine, I got a headache and the hostess led me to a room upstairs to have a rest. It was about 10 p.m.. Policeman: What happened next? Witness: Having rested for half an hour, I felt much better and went to wash my face. Hearing the scream, I ran downstairs and saw the hostess lying on the floor, surrounded by all the guests.
Task2: Please write a diary entry describing how you felt during your preparation for 4As and after your examination.
?! Verb-ed and verb-ing
1. Whenever he was asked why he was late for class, he would answer carelessly, always _______ the same thing A. sayingB. said C. to sayD. having said
2. My cousin came to see me from the country, _______ me a full basket of fresh fruits. (2006 ) A. brought B. bringing C. to bring D.had brought
3. Dont respond to any s ____ personal information, no matter how official they look A.searching B. asking C. requesting D. questioning
4. Dont sit there _______ nothing. Come and help me with this table A. do B. to do C. doing D. and doing
5. Hi, Mary. Would you like to go to the concert this evening? Sorry, Tom. _______ tomorrows lessons, I have no time to go out with you. (2006 ) A. Not preparing B. Not having prepared C. Not to prepare D. Being not prepared
6.The English exam is not difficult, is it? _______. Even Tom _______ to the top students failed in it. (2006 ) A. Yes; belongs B. No; belong C. Yes; belonging D. No; belonging
7. At the end of 2004, there were around 6,000 foreign printing companies in China, _____ up around 4 percent of national total. (2006 ) A. madeB. to make C. making D. having made
1. When ______ different cultures, we often pay attention only to the differences without noticing the many similarities A. compared B. being compared C. comparing D. having compared
2. I was told that there were about 50 foreign students _______ Chinese in the school, most _______ were from Germany A. study; of whom B. study; of them C. studying; of them D. studying; of whom
3. Why do you look sad? There are so many problems _____. (2006 ) A. remaining to settle B. remained settling C. remaining to be settled D. remained to be settled
4. _______ as the "first lady of speech", Dr, Lillian Glass is recognized as one of the worlds leading experts on communication skills. (2006 ) A. Knowing B. Having known C. Known D. To be known
5. No matter how frequently _______, the works of Beethoven still attract people all over the world A. performed B. performing C. to be performed D. being performed
6. _______ for the breakdown of the school computer network, Alice was in low spirits A. Blaming B. Blamed C. To blame D. To be blame
7. _______ with so much trouble, we failed to complete the task on time A. Faced B. Face C. Facing D. To face
1. _____ good, cookies made by the Smiths sell well in the market. (2006 ) A. Smelled B. Being smelling C. Smelling D. To smell
2. The repairs cost a lot, but its money well ____. (2005 ) A. to spendB. spent C. being spent D. being tried out
3. Only _______ according to the directions can the medicine be quite effective. (2006 ) A. taking B. taken C. being taken D. having been taken
4. The wild flowers looked like a soft orange blanket _____ the desert A. coveringB. covered C. cover D. to cover
5. I send you 100 dollars today, the rest in a year. (2005 ) A. follows B. followed C. to follow D. being followed
6. ____in a white uniform, he looks more like a cook than a doctor A. Dressed B. To dress C. Dressing D. Having dressed
7. Is there any possibility of the film____ in Paris International Festival? Not in the least, because audience generally think little of it. (2006 ) A. trying out B. tried out C. to try out D. being tried out
8. ONeal works hard. So he does. He is often seen _____ heavily before his teammates have even arrived at practice. (2006 ) A. to be sweatedB. sweated C. be sweatedD. sweating
learn through comprehension learn through communication Grammar learning strategy learn through induction learn through errors
Homework 1. Please finish your writing. 2. Read the given passage and decide whether you will go to The Lake District for a holiday.