* Break-even analysis is a method for finding out the minimum level of sales necessary for a firm to just start to make a profit
* The level of output at which total sales revenue is equal to total costs of production * When costs are greater than revenue the firm makes a loss * When costs are less than revenue the firm will make a profit * What happens when costs = revenue? The firm will just break even
* Fixed costs must be paid regardless of the level of output * Variable costs increase with output but at a constant rate, so if 1 unit cost £5 then 10 units will cost £50 * Every Unit of output produced is sold * Selling price remains constant regardless of units sold
* 3 Methods * Using a table showing revenue and costs over a range of output levels * Using a formula * Using a graph
Step 1 Extract the data Step 2 Calculate the BEQ Step 3 Fix the X Axis (quantity/capacity) Step 4 Fix the Y Axis (revenue and costs) Step 5 Plot the TR Axis Step 6 Add the FC point Step 7 Add the TC Line
FIRST – work out BEQ * FC £480,000 per month. * VC: £60 per unit * Price: £120 per unit
* Total Revenue(TR) = Number of items sold x their price * Total costs (TC) = FC + VC(x) * At break-even TR = TC or P(x) = FC + VC(x) * So BEQ = FC/(P - VC) Note: P = price; x = quantity
* The equation BEQ = FC/(P - VC) $480,000 per month / ($120 - $60 per unit) = $480,000/£60 = 8,000 units per month
* If you are given a maximum capacity, use that figure. * If not, double the break-even quantity is a good guide figure, or 16,000 units in this case.
* In this case the maximum revenue is 16,000 x £120 = £1.92 million (price per unit x maximum possible sales).