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European Colonial Expansion

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Presentation on theme: "European Colonial Expansion"— Presentation transcript:

1 European Colonial Expansion
Name: _________________________________ Political, Social, & Economic Developments

2 European control of the world before A.D. 1400

3 The Portuguese Empire

4 Prince Henry the Navigator
Started a school for map makers in Portugal. Map makers are called Cartographers. Vasco da Gamma and Bartholomew Dias were two of his students.

5 New Map-making Technologies
Included the compass was used to find direction. The cross-staff was used to find latitude. Latitude is the measure of distance north or south.

6 New Map-making Technologies
The chronometer was used to find longitude. Longitude is the measure of distance east or west. The astrolabe was used to triangulate a ship’s position at sea.

7 New Transportation Technologies
               New Transportation Technologies The Caravel The Caravel was a ship that used both square and triangular sails. It combined speed & maneuverability to create a better ship.

8 New Weapons Europeans used gunpowder invented by the Chinese to create cannons and rifles.

9 Next

10 Next

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12 The Columbian Exchange
Resulted in the spread of animals, plants, and diseases around the world New World Old World Animals Plants Animals Plants Alpacas Corn Horses Wheat Guinea pigs Cocoa Cattle Oats Raccoons Avocados Pigs Coffee Beavers Chili Pepper Chickens Garlic Llamas Peanuts Goats Onions Turkeys Squash (incl. pumpkin) Rabbits Peaches Bison Strawberries Sheep Lettuce Diseases Diseases Syphilis Influenza Measles Malaria Smallpox Tuberculosis

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14 Economic Motivations for Exploring
Islamic nations blocked Europe from getting spices, silk, ivory, and gold from Africa & Asia.

15 Bartholomew Dias He was the first European to sail to the southern tip of Africa. Today the southern tip of Africa is called the Cape of Good Hope.

16 Vasco da Gama He was the first European to sail directly from Europe to India around Africa. His voyage turned a $10, investment into $600,000.00

17 The Portuguese Built the first trading post in India.
Built the first trading post in China. First to sail around Africa. First to sail from Europe to India. Were the first to settle in Brazil, South America.

18 European control of the world before A.D. 1400

19 The Spanish Empire

20 Christopher Columbus Sailed west across the Atlantic Ocean in A.D Thought he had reached islands near India. He named the native people Indians.

21 Hernando Cortes Spanish explorer who conquered Mexico.
He destroyed the Aztec empire. He made Mexico part of the Spanish empire.

22 Next

23 Vasco Balboa He was the first European to reach the Pacific Ocean by going west. He claimed the Pacific Ocean for Spain. Francisco Pizarro traveled with him.

24 The Canary Island Canine was the breed of dog brought to the New World by Balboa.
They are large and powerful dogs.

25 Francisco Pizarro Spanish explorer who conquered Peru.
He destroyed the Inca empire. He made western South America part of the Spanish empire.

26 Ferdinand Magellan Magellan was the first man to circumnavigate the earth. He proved the earth is round.

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28 Conflict between Portugal & Spain was solved by the Treaty of Tordesillas.
The pope got both nations to agree to this treaty. It gave most of the New World to Spain & all of Africa and most of Asia to Portugal

29 Modern day results of Portuguese & Spanish exploration
Mexico, Central America, & South America are Catholic Christians. Portuguese is the official language in Brazil. Spanish is the official language in Mexico, Central America, and most of South America. European sports like soccer are enjoyed. Beef, chicken, onions, cheese, and rice are common foods. Political corruption and social unrest are also common.

30 European control of the world before A.D. 1400

31 The French Empire

32 Jacques Cartier He was sent by the king of France to find a Northwest passage to China. He discovered the St. Lawrence River He named the land he explored Canada.

33 Jacques Marquette & Louis Jolliet
They were the first Europeans to explore the Mississippi River. Marquette & Jolliet traveled from Canada to modern Tennessee. They explored the Mississippi River for France.

34 La Salle He claimed the Mississippi River and its tributaries for France. He named the land Louisiana after king Louis XIV of France. His second expedition failed to locate where the Mississippi River meets the Gulf of Mexico.

35 Results of French exploration
The French set up trading-post colonies. They took furs and timber back to France They tried to live peacefully with the native Indians. Most Canadians speak both English and French today.

36 North America Europe Sugar, Cotton, Rice, and Tobacco Guns, Cotton cloth, Rum and Metal tools Slaves Africa South America Middle Passage

37 European control of the world before A.D. 1400

38 The Dutch Empire

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40 The Dutch took control of the Spice Islands
The Dutch established trading-post and plantation colonies. They established the Dutch East India Company that paid 18% dividends yearly for 200 years.

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42 Three types of Colonies
Trading-post colonies created to get raw materials like furs, spices, gold, etc… Portugal, France, and the Dutch built these colonies. Plantation colonies created large farms to grow crops like sugar, cotton, & tobacco. Spain & Britain built these colonies. Settlement colonies created to provide a new home for social outcasts. Britain primarily built these colonies.

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44 European control of the world before A.D. 1400

45 The British Empire

46 John Cabot He reached Newfoundland, Canada in 1497.
He thought he was in Asia, north of Japan. He disappeared on his second voyage.

47 Sir Walter Raleigh He was the first Englishman to establish a settlement colony in the New World in 1584. The colony failed. He was later accused of treason and beheaded by King James I.

48 John Smith He established the first permanent English settlement colony in the New World in 1607. The colony was owned by the Virginia Company. The settlement was named Jamestown.

49 Plymouth Colony Plymouth was a settlement colony.
One third of its residents were Separatists. They sought religious freedom to worship according to the teachings of the Bible. Plymouth began in 1620.

50 Massachusetts Bay Colony
Was established by English Puritans. They wanted to purify the Church of England from false worship. They started Harvard University as a school to train preachers.

51 The Spanish Armada England stole gold from Spanish ships coming back from the New World. In 1588, Spain attacked England to retaliate. Spain lost over 50 ships but England lost only 7.

52 Francis Drake He circumnavigated the world attacking Spanish ships.
He was knighted by Queen Elizabeth I. He was responsible for England’s victory against the Spanish Armada.

53 Results of English exploration
English settlement colonies were established in the New World, Africa, and Australia. English religion, law, language, economics, and culture spread worldwide. England became the most powerful nation in the world. The sun never set on the British empire.

54 European control of the world before A.D. 1400

55 European control of the world by 1700.

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