4Prince Henry the Navigator Started a school for map makers in Portugal.Map makers are called Cartographers.Vasco da Gamma and Bartholomew Dias were two of his students.
5New Map-making Technologies Included the compass was used to find direction.The cross-staff was used to find latitude.Latitude is the measure of distance north or south.
6New Map-making Technologies The chronometer was used to find longitude.Longitude is the measure of distance east or west.The astrolabe was used to triangulate a ship’s position at sea.
7New Transportation Technologies New Transportation TechnologiesThe CaravelThe Caravel was a ship that used both square and triangular sails.It combined speed & maneuverability to create a better ship.
8New WeaponsEuropeans used gunpowder invented by the Chinese to create cannons and rifles.
14Economic Motivations for Exploring Islamic nations blocked Europe from getting spices, silk, ivory, and gold from Africa & Asia.
15Bartholomew DiasHe was the first European to sail to the southern tip of Africa.Today the southern tip of Africa is called the Cape of Good Hope.
16Vasco da GamaHe was the first European to sail directly from Europe to India around Africa.His voyage turned a $10, investment into $600,000.00
17The Portuguese Built the first trading post in India. Built the first trading post in China.First to sail around Africa.First to sail from Europe to India.Were the first to settle in Brazil, South America.
28Conflict between Portugal & Spain was solved by the Treaty of Tordesillas. The pope got both nations to agree to this treaty.It gave most of the New World to Spain & all of Africa and most of Asia to Portugal
29Modern day results of Portuguese & Spanish exploration Mexico, Central America, & South America are Catholic Christians.Portuguese is the official language in Brazil.Spanish is the official language in Mexico, Central America, and most of South America.European sports like soccer are enjoyed.Beef, chicken, onions, cheese, and rice are common foods.Political corruption and social unrest are also common.
32Jacques CartierHe was sent by the king of France to find a Northwest passage to China.He discovered the St. Lawrence RiverHe named the land he explored Canada.
33Jacques Marquette & Louis Jolliet They were the first Europeans to explore the Mississippi River.Marquette & Jolliet traveled from Canada to modern Tennessee.They explored the Mississippi River for France.
34La SalleHe claimed the Mississippi River and its tributaries for France.He named the land Louisiana after king Louis XIV of France.His second expedition failed to locate where the Mississippi River meets the Gulf of Mexico.
35Results of French exploration The French set up trading-post colonies.They took furs and timber back to FranceThey tried to live peacefully with the native Indians.Most Canadians speak both English and French today.
36NorthAmericaEuropeSugar, Cotton, Rice,and TobaccoGuns, Cotton cloth,Rum and Metal toolsSlavesAfricaSouthAmericaMiddle Passage
42Three types of Colonies Trading-post coloniescreated to get raw materials like furs, spices, gold, etc…Portugal, France, and the Dutch built these colonies.Plantation coloniescreated large farms to grow crops like sugar, cotton, & tobacco.Spain & Britain built these colonies.Settlement coloniescreated to provide a new home for social outcasts.Britain primarily built these colonies.
46John Cabot He reached Newfoundland, Canada in 1497. He thought he was in Asia, north of Japan.He disappeared on his second voyage.
47Sir Walter RaleighHe was the first Englishman to establish a settlement colony in the New World in 1584.The colony failed.He was later accused of treason and beheaded by King James I.
48John SmithHe established the first permanent English settlement colony in the New World in 1607.The colony was owned by the Virginia Company.The settlement was named Jamestown.
49Plymouth Colony Plymouth was a settlement colony. One third of its residents were Separatists.They sought religious freedom to worship according to the teachings of the Bible.Plymouth began in 1620.
50Massachusetts Bay Colony Was established by English Puritans.They wanted to purify the Church of England from false worship.They started Harvard University as a school to train preachers.
51The Spanish ArmadaEngland stole gold from Spanish ships coming back from the New World.In 1588, Spain attacked England to retaliate.Spain lost over 50 ships but England lost only 7.
52Francis Drake He circumnavigated the world attacking Spanish ships. He was knighted by Queen Elizabeth I.He was responsible for England’s victory against the Spanish Armada.
53Results of English exploration English settlement colonies were established in the New World, Africa, and Australia.English religion, law, language, economics, and culture spread worldwide.England became the most powerful nation in the world.The sun never set on the British empire.