2Key ConceptsFrom ancient to medieval times, there was a widespread and thriving network of global trade among East Asia, Southeast Asia, the Mediterranean, the Middle East and Africa. This network was transformed by the intrusion of new groups of Europeans. The Portuguese and the Dutch competed first with Muslim merchants and then with each other in Asia. They joined the British and French in the exploration and colonization of the Americas.
3Key ConceptsEuropeans had a variety of motives as well as certain technological advantages that prompted the expansion of their trade in Asia and their exploration of the New World. “Gold, God and Glory” were not only motivators of exploration, but also led Europeans to colonize in ways that fostered economic development and Christianization.
4Key ConceptsAmong the consequences of the encounter of the Old World with the New was:a rapid and thorough decimation of the native population,the transformation of their economic and religious lives,an enormous expansion of the already existing African slave trade.The Columbian exchangepeople, crops and animals led to radical changes in agriculture and diets, as well as in values and technologygold and silver infused the European economy,inflation benefited the middle classes while hurting the poor and those on fixed incomes.The increasing wealth of the middle class was an important change in the social structure.Intellectual life saw the introduction of new ideas like skepticism and cultural relativism as well as new forms of racism.
5AP TipFor those of you interested in world history, the first section of this chapter is very rich with a detailed exploration of centers of wealth and trade around the globe. Although most of this material would not appear on an AP European history exam, it is important to understand it for background and the long-term legacy of colonialism. Pay particular attention to those sections that deal with Europe.
7The Rise of Capitalism Banking The Fuggers in Germany and the Medicis in Italy were among the leading bankers in Europe.Funded countless economic activitiesAntwerp in Flanders became the banking and commercial center of Europe in the 16th century.The Hanseatic League evolved from within the German states in the Middle Ages that eventually controlled trade in much of northern Europe well into the 16th century.The League was a mercantile association of numerous cities and towns.Chartered companies: state provided monopolies in certain areas (e.g. British East India Co. and the Dutch East India Co.)These chartered companies became, in effect, a state within a state with large fleets of ships and military power.Joint-stock companies: investors pooled resources for a common purpose (forerunner of the modern corporation).One of the early prime examples of capitalism.Stock markets emerged: e.g., the bourse in AntwerpInvestors financed a company by purchasing shares of stock; as the value of the company grew so did the value of the stock, and thus the investors’ profit.
8The TransititonSlow transition from a European society that was almost completely rural and isolated, to a society that was more developed with the emergence of towns.Many serfs, mostly in Western Europe, improved their social position as a result.Wealth could be taxedThe age of exploration developed as competing nations sought to create new empires overseasRise of nation states (“New Monarchs”) resulted in competition for empires and tradePortugal and Spain sought to break the Italian monopoly on trade with Asia.
9World Trade Before the Age of Exploration Global economic networkSilk Road – ChinaSilk & porcelainsIndian Ocean – Roman EmpireIndian jewels; peppers, cloves, textiles, African slaves, gold, ivoryMalacca – Malaysiaconnected Pacific Ocean and Indian OceanMultinational/MulticulturalEuro contribution minimal until mid 1500sChina, India, Ottoman Turkey, Safavid Persia and Egypt held dominant roles
10World Trade Before the Age of Exploration Venice & GenoaDuring the Medieval period Venice became very wealthy/powerfulExcellent navyDominated the Mediterranean and Asian tradeSlavesLuxury goodssilksSpicesPlayed important role in exploration of the New WorldManagement of commercial enterprises – Sugar PlantationsDecline of dominanceOttomans overtook trade marketsPortuguese & Dutch challenges on the other sideAtlantic rather than the Mediterranean routes
11Causes of European Exploration Mid-15thCRecuperationBlack DeathPopulation growthGoldDemand for spices & luxury goodsMore gold/silver sources to pay for goodsNew routes – bypass Ottoman held IstanbulDirect access to AsiaChristian FervorVictory over last Muslim kingdom in Spain 1492Convert non-Christians – Asia & AmericasGloryConquest/adventureRenaissance curiosityThirst for knowledgeNatural historyGeographycosmology
12Impact of the Renaissance “God, glory and gold” were the primary motivesChristian Crusaders in the 11th & 14th centuries created European interest in Asia and the Middle EastRise of nation states (“New Monarchs”) resulted in competition for empires and tradePortugal and Spain sought to break the Italian monopoly on trade with Asia.Impact of Renaissance: search for knowledgeRevival of Platonic studies, especially mathematicsAwareness of living “at dawn of a new age”Invention of the printed book: resulted in the spread of accurate texts and maps
13Causes of European Exploration TechnologyAdvances borrowed from the EastCaravel – replaced the galley shipNavigational toolsAstrolabeMagnetic compassMilitary weaponsCannons – made exploration & conquest possiblePtolemy’s GeographyInaccurateEncouraged the idea that sailing west from Eur. to Asia was possible
14Technology Technological advances facilitated sea travel Advances in astronomy helped in charting locations at seaInstrumentsMagnetic compass (ca. 1300): pointed to the magnetic north making it easier to determine direction.A number of instruments were used to determine latitude by measuring the altitude of celestial bodies.Quadrant (ca. 1450): used to determine latitude by measuring the altitude of celestial bodiesMariner’s astrolabe (ca. 1480): used to determine latitude by measuring the altitude of celestial bodiesCross staff (ca. 1550): used to find the latitude by measuring the altitude of the Pole Star above the horizon
15Ships Portuguese caravel (ca. 1450) Lighter, faster ships than the Spanish Galleons and much better suited for exploration along the African CoastCould sail into the windLateen sail and rope riggingsEnabled sails to be quickly and efficiently maneuvered to take advantage of wind powerAxial rudder (side rudder)Provided for improved change of directionGunpowder and cannonsProvided protection against hostile ships and facilitated the domination of indigenous peoples in lands explored
16Empires Portugal Prince Henry - The Navigator Early voyages of the west coast of AfricaConquered the Arab city of Ceuta – MoroccoInitiated Eur. exploration & colonizationMadeiraAzores Mauritania – NW AfricaCape of Good HopeBartholomew Diaz 1487Vasco da Gama 1497Continued on to Calicut – IndiaReturned laden with spices & textilesTrading Posts estab.IndiaViolent conflicts with rulersAlfonso de Albuquerque defeated Malacca, Goa, and other trading centers – laid foundation of Portuguese empire in AsiaBrazilPedro Alvares CabralSighted BrazilRich mineral resources & lucrative sugar plantations2 million African slavesMost important Portuguese colony
18Empires Spain Christopher Columbus Genoese – sailed for Spain, Ferdinand & IsabellaHero or villainExperienced in seafaringTrade and circumventing other countriesDevote ChristianMissionary visionReport to SpainConversion of nativesGold & silverBelieved he reached Asia (until dying day)Contribution had extraordinary impact on world historyConquest and colonization2nd voyageEnslaved the people of HispaniolaForerunner of Encomienda systemInept at governing – led to royal control of his conquered areas
19Empires Spain cont. The Treaty of Tordesillas 1494 Ferdinand Magellan Made by Pope Alexander VIDivided New WorldSpain – everything westPortugal – everything eastImaginary line 370 leagues west of the Cape Verdes IslandsFerdinand MagellanCommissioned by Charles V – further voyages when no gold/silver found in CaribbeanMagellan 1st to circumnavigate the globeRoute to Asia via the AtlanticHorrific 3 yr voyageDisasters at seaStarvationMutiniesDeath of Magellan in the PhilippinesDemonstrated the vastness of the PacificLed Spain to abandon its competition win Portugal for the Asian spice trade
20EmpiresSpain cont.Vasco Nunez de Balboa ( ): Discovered the Pacific Ocean after crossing the Isthmus of Panama in 1513.Spanish Conquistadores: began creating empires by conquering IndiansHernando Cortès ( ): conquered the Aztecs in Mesoamerica by 1521.Francisco Pizarro ( ): conquered the Inca Empire along the Andes mountains in modern-day Peru in 1532
21Empires Spain cont. Hernando Cortes’ Francisco Pizarro Conqueror - MexicoFew men – horses & cannonsFortuitous elements beyond his controlDissention w/n the Aztec empireDemoralized populationWeakened leadershipAztec Empire – large/wealthy/sophisticatedMontezuma & advisors made decisions logical for their culture – paved the way for Spanish victoryFrancisco PizarroIncan conquest – Peru 1531Incans known for engineering & constructionFacing internal dissentionExecuted leader AtahualpaTook until 1570 to gain control
22Empires Spain cont. New World colonies 200,000 Spaniards immigrated in the 16thCsoldiers & driftersEstab large agricultural/ranching estatesSugar plantationsSilver mines – Bolivia & MexicoEncomienda system - forced laborRapid decline of native popBrutal exploitationLed to the death of 1000sExposure to Eur diseaseLand converted from subsistence to cash cropsBartolome’ de Las CasasEmpathized with natives – lamented crueltyArgued for the rights of nativesCharles V responded by abolishing the worst abuses
24Empires Holland – Dutch France & England Dominated world maritime trade – 2nd ½ of 17thCFinancial center since 16thC1602 estab Dutch East India CompanyExpanded their spice marketsCeylonIndonesian archipelagoMonopoly – highly profitable Asian spice tradeNew World tradeBriefly held a colony - New YorkFrance & EnglandLess dramaticJon CabotGenoeseExplored Newfoundland & New England for BritishJacques CartierExplored Quebec for France1st permanent settlement for France in New World