2 I. What were the first rockets used for? Gunpowder was invented in the ninth century by the Chinese.a. In the thirteenth century China, hand held rockets “arrows of flying fire” were set off during religious celebrations.b. These deviceswere used asweapons duringthe Middle Ages
3 c. The first true use of rockets is reported in 1232 1) During the battle of Kai-Keng, the Chinese repelled the Mongol invaders by a barrage of “arrows of flying fire.”2) These fire-arrows were a simple form of a solid-propellant rocket.3) A tube, capped at one end, contained gunpowder. The other end was left open and the tube was attached to a long stick.
4 4) When the powder ignited, the rapid burning of the powder produced fire, smoke, and gas that escaped out the open end and produced a thrust.5) The stick acted like a simple guidance system.
5 2. Modern Daya. In the eighteen century, Indian forces used rockets to defeat the British in battlesb. A single rocket could usually not hit its target, but rockets in large numbers would cause extensive damagec. Colonel William Congreve designed rockets for use bythe British military.d. The Congreve rockets were used by British ships to pound Fort McHenry in the War of This inspired Francis Scott Key to write “The rockets’ red glare,” in “The Star-Spangled Banner.”e. During the end of the 18th century, rockets experienced a revival as weapons of war.
6 II. When did rockets become thought less of as a weapon and more as a means of space travel? 1. In 1898, a Russian physicst, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, proposed the idea of space exploration by rocket.a. Tsiolkovsky published ideas about rocket travel using multistage rocketsb. He suggested that rockets could travel outside the Earth’s atmosphere because their self contained propulsion system would not rely on oxygen.c. Tsiolkovsky suggested the use of liquid propellants for rocket.
7 III. Who are founders of human space flight? 1. Russian engineer Konstantin Tsiolkovsky ( )2. American physicist Robert Goddard ( )3. German physicist Hermann Oberth ( )4. Engineer Wernher Von Braun ( )- Modern Era
8 IV. Tsiolkovsky Contributions 1. Built Russia’s first wind tunnel in 18972. First to say that in order for humans to survive in space, they would need oxygen supplied to them inside a sealed cabin.3. Credited with calculating the speed and amount of fuel a rocket would need to break free from Earth’s gravitational field.4. The Earth is the cradle of the mind, but we cannot live forever in a cradle". - (Konstantin Tsiolkovsky-Kaluga,1911. From a letter.)
9 Tsiolkovsky5. Sputnik, the first artificial Earth satellite, was launched on October 4, 1957, just after the 100th anniversary of his birthday, in honor of Tsiolkovsky.6. The largest crater on the far side of the Moon is named after Tsiolkovsky"Star Trek, The Next Generation"The Oberth Class Scientific Vessel Tsiolkovsky (NCC 53911) in the background
10 V. Robert H. Goddard’s Contributions 1. Known as the father of American Rocketry.2. In his 1919 pamphlet, Goddard stated that a rocket operates with greater efficiency in the vacuum of space than in air3. Worked on building different rocket stages, ignition and fuel systems, guidance control and parachute recovery.
11 Goddard This is the frame from which it was fired on March 16, 1926 4. Launched the first liquid propelled rocket (liquid oxygen and gasoline) in 1926.a. Rocket was 10 pounds and was launched from a cabbage patch in Auburn, Massachusetts.b. It flew for only 2.5 seconds, climbed 41 feet, and landed 184 feet away.c. This was the spark of the Saturn V rocket which would take humans to the moon.
12 Goddard5. Was first to propose taking a rocket to the moon in his book “Method of Reaching Extreme altitudes”6. Came up with concept of liquid propelled rockets.a. Liquid fuel and a liquid oxidizer- The liquid oxidizer replaces gaseous oxygen and allows the fuel to burn.
13 b. Types of liquid fuel are: 1) Alcohol2) Kerosene3) Liquid Hydrogen4) Hydrazinec. Liquid oxidizers are:1) Nitrogen tetroxide2) Liquid oxygen
14 Roswell, New Mexico7. In 1930, Robert Goddard set up the first professional rocket test site in Roswell, New Mexico.8. Worked for US Navy from 1942 until his death in He created boosters to help launch planes from ship decks.
15 VI. Hermann Oberth’s contributions 1. Hands on builder and launcher of rockets like Goddard2. Developed mathematical theories of rocket flight and theorized about effects of spaceflight on humans.3. Popularized the concept of spaceflight through books.4. First introduced idea of anelectric “Moon Car”.5. Introduced concept of SpaceStation where rocketscould be refueled.
16 Hermann Oberth6. Oberth’s interest in rocketry was sparked at the age of 11 when his mother gave him a copy of Jules Verne's From The Earth To The Moon.7. In 1929,, he lost the sight in his left eye during an experiment while working as a technical advisor to German director Fritz Lang on his film, “Girl in the MoonHermann Oberth and Fritz von Hoppel, where hired to authenticate this script
17 Hermann Oberth8. Oberth's vision inspired young German rocketeers to establish the Society for Spaceship Travel (German acronym "VfR") in 1927.9. By invitation of Wernher von Braun, Oberth moved to Huntsville, Alabama in 1955 and became a participant in the early rocket tests. He lived here until his retirement in 1958.10. He traveled from Germany again in 1969 to watch the launch of Apollo 11.Oberth's book The Moon Car saw print in 1959
18 VII. Wernher von Braun’s Contributions 1. When he was 19, von Braun joined the VfR. At the age of 22, he received his doctorate in physics at the University of Berlin.2. Went to work for the German Ordinance Department at Kummersdorf developing liquid fuel rockets.3. Became head of the German Rocket Development Center in Peenemunde with A-3, A-4, A-5 rockets which were forerunners to all later rockets and ballistic missiles.
19 Von Braun a. The A-4 was developed into the V-2 (vengeance Weapon 2). b. It carried 2000 lbs. of explosives, traveled 3,000 MPH, and could reach heights of up to 50 miles.c. First launched successfully in October of 1942, the V-2 was a terrifying weapon.d. In April of 1945 as WWII was being lost by the Germans, von Braun and 126 of his associates surrendered to the Allies , and came to work for the US government under Project Paperclip.Von BraunV2 rocket captured by the Americans
20 Von Braun Redstone rocket 4. Became director of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and constructed a new long range ballistic missile called the Redstone.a. The Redstone was 70 feet tall, twice the size of the V-2b. The Redstone was the rocket for the suborbital Mercuryflightsc. Also developed the Juno-1 which launched Explorer I- America’s answer to Sputnik.EXPLORER I On a Juno-1
21 Von Braun5. Developed the Jupiter-C rocket which could launch a satellite into orbit. It could travel a height of 680 miles, and cover a distance of 3,300 miles
22 Von Braun6. Biggest accomplishment was the Saturn V which would be used to launch manned spaceflights to the moon, it was 363 feet tall and weighed 3,000 tons.7. Before his death, he also worked on the Space Shuttle Program.8. In 1977, he was awarded the National Medial of Science.Saturn V Rocket
24 What about rockets developed after WWII by the soviet Union? 1. Sergei Korolev designed and built the first Soviet liquid-propellant rockets and winged engines, and eventually the first Soviet ICBM.2. On October 4, 1957, a rocket based on the design of the ICBM was used to launch Sputnik I, the first man-made satellite into space.
25 Rockets have launched many people and machines into space. Astronauts have orbited the Earth and landed on the Moon.Space is open to exploration and commercial exploitation.Thanks to NASA for the information included in this presentation.