2A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE EU The European Union has gone through many incarnations since its originsfifty-plus years ago.
3European Coal and Steel Community European Coal and Steel Community *1952: The basis of the EU began with the signing of the Treaty of Paris, establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), to regulate European industry & improve commerce, post WWII. * The six founding states were Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and The Netherlands. *1957: the Treaties of Rome were signed by the six member states, forming: -The European Economic Community (EEC) -The European Atomic Energy Community (Euroatom) * These units worked concurrently with the ECSC.
4The European Community 1967: ECSC, EEC, and EuroAtom merged to form the basis of the EC.1973: the United Kingdom,Denmark, and Irelandjoined the EC.1981: Greece joined.1986: Spain and Portugaljoined.1995: Finland, Sweden, andAustria joined.The European Community
5Goals of the EC To continue to improve Europe’s economy by regulating trade and commerce.To form a single market for Europe'seconomic resources.As these goals were accomplished, othergoals were developed:Environmental movementsRegulatory actsHuman rights concerns.
6THE EUROPEAN UNION1992: the Maastricht Treaty was ratified, which rechartered the EC as the European Union.
7Basis of the EUThe European Union is based on the rule of law and democracy. It is neither a new State replacing existing ones nor is it comparable to other international organisations. Its Member States delegate sovereignty to common institutions representing the interests of the Union as a whole on questions of joint interest. All decisions and procedures are derived from the basic treaties ratified by the Member States.
8Principal Objects of the EU Establish European CitizenshipEnsure freedom, security, and justicePromote economic and social progressAssert Europe’s role in the world
9The EU is run by five institutions, each playing a specific role: European Parliamentelected by the peoples of the Member StatesCouncil of the Unioncomposed of the governments of the Member StatesEuropean Commissiondriving force and executive bodyCourt of Justicecompliance with the lawCourt of Auditorssound and lawful management of the EU budget
10European Parliament Members elected every 5 years 625 members as of July 2003Three essential functions:Legislate laws along w/ CouncilBudget authority along w/ CouncilSupervision of Commission
11Council of the EUComposed of the head of each member country (Prime Minster/President, etc) & the President of the EU Commission1 Minister acts as President, rotating twice yearly2 meetings a year, in President’s countryMain decision making body of the EUResponsibilitiesLegislation & budgetary policies along w/ ParliamentEconomic policiesInternational agreements
12European Commission http://europa.eu.int/comm/index_en.htm Embodies and upholds the general interest of the Union.20 members: 1 President, 2 vice-Presidents & 17 CommissionersElected every 5 years by the Member States after they have been approved by the European Parliament.As the EU’s executive body, it:Drafts legislation for Parliament & Council; Implements legislationGuardian of treaties, along with Court of JusticeRepresents EU internationallyManages the 15 EU agencies
13President of the EU President is appointed (not elected) by the EU Council for a 5-yearterm and confirmedby Parliament.Romano Prodi (Italy),Confirmed Sept. 1999; His term ends 2004Former law/political science professor with many academic publicationsCommissioners:
14Court of Justice 15 judges and 8 advocate generals appointed by member states for 6 year terms.The Court of Justice ensures that Communitylaw is uniformly interpreted and effectively applied.It has jurisdiction in disputes involving Member States, EU institutions, businesses and individuals
15The EU Headquarters Brussels, Belgium Selected as the headquarters of the European Union because of its centralized location in Europe.
16CURRENT EU ISSUES 1. Enlargement: *Ten countries joined the EU in 2004, making 25 countries total.2. The Euro:*The Common Currency for the EU Countries.3. Multilingualism:*20 official languages (as of 2004) for 25 countries.4. Openness, Access and Transparency:*How to get the documents to the people?5. Safety & security of Europe:*Against terrorism.
17ENLARGEMENT: 10 more countries become EU Member States in 2004 country - date of EU applicationCyprus - 3 July 1990Malta - 16 July 1990Hungary - 31 March 1994Poland - 5 April 1994Slovakia - 27 June 1995Latvia - 13 October 1995Estonia - 24 November 1995Lithuania - 8 December 1995Czech Republic - 17 January 1996Slovenia - 10 June 1996
1825 CURRENT EU COUNTRIES Austria Belgium Czech Republic Cyprus Denmark EstoniaFinlandFranceGermanyGreeceHungaryIrelandItalyLatviaLithuaniaLuxembourgMaltaThe NetherlandsPolandPortugalSlovakiaSloveniaSpainSwedenUnited Kingdom
19Applicant Countries whose requests for EU membership are still pending country - date of EU applicationTurkey - 14 April 1987Romania - 22 June 1995Bulgaria - 14 December 1995Croatia
20NORWAY?Norway has never been a member of the EU, but is ‘partners’ with EU for certain economic reasons.Their economy has historically been very good and they had no desire to ‘merge’ with lesser economies.As of 2002, the Norwegian economy began to decline. There is a now a developing majority of Norwegian that want Norway to join the EU.
21SWITZERLAND? Switzerland Just joined UN in 2002. Switzerland hasnever been amember of the EU,but is ‘partners’with EU for certaineconomic reasons.SwitzerlandJust joinedUN in 2002.Swiss Government want Switzerland to join foreconomic reasons but the Swiss people continue tovote against joining the EU.
22THE EUROThe euro – Europe's new single currency - represents the consolidation and culmination of European economic integration.Its introduction on January 1, 1999, marked the final phase of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), a three-stage process that was launched in 1990 as EU member states prepared for the 1992 single market.
23The EURO Early 1990’s1990: Aimed at boosting cross- border business activity, the first stage of EMU lifted restrictions on movements of capital across internal EU borders.1994: The European Monetary Institute was established in Frankfurt to pave the way for the European Central Bank.1999: the Euro was introduced as the single currency for eleven EU member states: Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain.
24: The Euro and the previous national currencies were concurrently used in participating states.2002: The participating countries had their previous national currencies withdrawn permanently as legal tender.EU member states not yet using the Euro as currency: Denmark, Greece, Sweden, United KingdomThe EURO 1999-Present
25What Does it Take to qualify for Membership in the EU: 1 What Does it Take to qualify for Membership in the EU: 1. The candidate country has achieved stability of institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights and respect for and protection of minorities The candidate country has the existence of a functioning market economy, as well as the capacity to cope with competitive pressure and market forces within the Union The candidate country has the ability to take on the obligations of membership, including adherence to the aims of political, economic and monetary union.
26EU PUBLICATIONS * The EU publishes on a multitude of topics in a variety of formats Statistics, parliamentary reports, current events, debate, regulations, and news items all fall within the range of EU publication topics *The type of publications includes periodicals, monographs, and annuals. *The format of publications is either paper, fiche or electronic, with Internet being heavily utilized since 2000.
27Types of PublicationsEU publications fall into a number of EU-specificcategories: Green Papers, White Papers,Bulletins, Communications, Reports,Memorandum, and Press Releases.The main division of these items is between GeneralInformation and Official Documents.
28EUROPA THE SERVER FOR THE EU Born:Name: europa.eu.intParents: EU-institutionsCharacteristic:Portal to all EU institution and bodiesMult-lingual (11 official languages)37 million visitors per month1.5 million documents consulted daily1.3 million documents availablePurpose:Openness and transparancyGive citizens access to informationInvolve as many as possible in the decision making-process
29http://www.europa.eu.int/ “One-stop Shopping” Fully searchable Divided into six mainareas:ABCNewsActivitiesInstitutionsOfficial DocumentsInformation Sources
30EUROPEAN UNION DEPOSITORIES The European Union has a long standing tradition of maintaining European Documentation Centers (EDCs) throughout the EU member countries, with a total of 275 EDCs world-wide.The EU presently supports over fifty depositories in the United States.The earliest of these depositories were established with the creation of the ECSCin the 1950’s.
31EU Depositories Holdings EU Depositories Holdings *Depositories and EDCs automatically receive one copy of a majority of EU produced items free of charge, in the designated language. * The only items that are not part of this agreement are the Technical Reports and the Press Materials issued by the Commission's Offices located outside of Brussels. *The public can purchase official EU documents from the Office for Official Publications (EU-OP). Purchase requests can be made via the internet. *There is a large cache of free current information on EU web page.
32OU has been an EU Depository since 1973 From The EC/EU items were housed in Librarian’s Office in the Great Reading Room until they were moved to the closed stacks of the Government Documents, and shelved under the EU call number. It was useful to have them located in one collection, but difficult to access because of the difficult call numbering system.In 1993, the EU Documents were moved to the Main Library and cataloged under the LC call number. The resources are now accessible from the main computer, but are scattered through-out the building.
33University of Oklahoma EU Center http://www.ou.edu/eucenter/ In 2001, OU received a grant from the European Commission, to support a European Union Center for the school.OU’s EU Center is oneof fifteen in the nation.