Presentation on theme: "The European Union (EU)"— Presentation transcript:
1The European Union (EU) The World’s Strongest Supranational Organization
2What is it?The European Union (EU) is a family of democratic European countries, committed to working together for peace and prosperity.It is not a State intended to replace existing states, but it does represent a greater compromise of sovereignty than any other international organization.The EU is unique; its Member States have set up common institutions to which they delegate some of their sovereignty so that decisions on specific matters of joint interest can be made democratically at European level.This pooling of sovereignty is also called "European integration"
3European Coal and Steel Community Founded in 1951 (Treaty of Paris)Purpose was to reduce potential for conflict between the member states by pooling vital resourcesFore-runner of the EEC, EC, and EU
4History of the EU Phases of growth The historical roots of the European Union lie in the Second World War.Idea of European integration conceived to prevent such killing and destruction from ever happening againFirst proposed by the French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman in a speech on May 9, This date, the "birthday" of what is now the EU, is celebrated annually as Europe DayPhases of growthInitially, the European Economic Community (EEC) consisted of just six countries: Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands (1958)European Communities (EC) (1967)Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom joined in 1973Greece in 1981Spain and Portugal in 1986European Union (EU) (after 1992) (Maastricht Treaty)Austria, Finland and Sweden in 1995Largest enlargement took place with 10 new countries joining May 9, 2004
10How does it work?There are five EU institutions, each playing a specific role:European Parliament (one of two legislative bodies in the EU; elected by the peoples of the Member States) Council of the European Union (EU’s highest Legislative Body; has legislative initiative; is made up of representatives appointed by member states according to a population-based allotment) European Commission (EU’s executive body; one commissioner per country appointed by each government) Court of Justice (ensures compliance with the EU laws) Court of Auditors (manages the EU budget)These are flanked by five other important bodies:European Economic and Social Committee (expresses the opinions of organized civil society on economic and social issues) Committee of the Regions (expresses the opinions of regional and local authorities) European Central Bank (responsible for monetary policy and managing the euro) European Ombudsman (deals with citizens' complaints about maladministration by any EU institution or body) European Investment Bank (helps achieve EU objectives by financing investment projects)
11The Euro The Treaty of Rome (1957) Declared a common market as a European objectiveAim: increase economic prosperity and contribute to "an ever closer union among the peoples of Europe"The Single European Act (1986) and the Treaty on European Union (1992) built on thisintroduced Economic and Monetary Union (EMU)laid the foundations for a single currencyname “Euro” was selected in 1995in January 1999, the exchange rates of the participating currencies were irrevocably set and Euro area Member States began implementing a common monetary policyin January 2002, 12 States in the EU introduced the new euro banknotes and coins
12The Eurozone Coins and banknotes 1st used Jan 1, 2002 Cyprus sheduled to join in 2008Slovakia scheduled to join in 2009Estonia scheduled to join in 2010Sweden is technically obliged to join but the EU has made public that they will not enforce this with regard to SwedenBritain and Denmark have a “derogation” releasing them from having to join
13Impact of the EurozoneWhat impact do you think the Eurozone has on cultural diffusion?What impact do you think the Eurozone has on economic development?Why are some countries avoiding joining?
15Why have bills different sizes & colors? What values are reflected in these “artifacts” that are not found in American money?
16What about Switzerland? Swiss are traditionally suspicious of other countriesSwiss tradition of neutrality (WWI & WWII)self-imposedpermanentarmedIn some ways Switzerland is like the USNationalistic government not interested in ceding sovereigntyEconomic policies are currently designed to protect local industries (esp. agriculture) from foreign competitionInitial cost of joining EU (progressive financial redistribution policy would cost the Swiss)Switzerland has embarked on a policy of building bilateral agreements with the EU rather than joining outright
17Costs of staying out Export problems Inflation problems Capital flight Access to EU markets is not guaranteedInflation problemsEuropeans nervous about the Euro due to expansion of the EU invest in Swiss Francs, inflating the value of the currency and inhibiting Swiss exportsCapital flightHigh construction costs, expensive labor, and skill shortages already make investment in Switzerland unattractiveSeveral multinational corporations, such as Roche, Sulzer and Alusuisse, have frozen planned investment projects in SwitzerlandLarge Swiss companies, including Nestle, are shifting activities out of Switzerland in fear of discrimination by other nationsAlready four out of five employees of the top 15 Swiss companies work in other countriesScientific information lagEU scientific exchange programs accept Swiss citizens only if they fail to fill such exchanges with persons from EU countriesAccumulated bilateral agreements and cooperation may create de-facto incorporation in the EU for Switzerland
23US dominates entertainment industry in Europe Cultural hegemony?
24SUMMARYThe European Union is the strongest supranational organization in the worldshared currency & financial managementlegislative, judicial, and executive bodiesregulatory and planning bodiesThe EU is growing geographically, and its growth suggests a core-domain modelcore and domain are borne out by distribution of incomeThe EU does not appeal to all Europeans (at least not yet)small states in particular seem skepticalRoughly comparable to the US in some wayspopulation slightly larger than that of the USsomewhat more densely settled than the USeconomy is at least as strong as the American economyother social statistics (e.g. literacy, infant mortality & homicide) are as good or better than the US