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EUROPE. MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES WESTERN EXTREMITY OF EURASIA LINGERING WORLD INFLUENCE HIGH DEGREES OF SPECIALIZATION MANUFACTURING DOMINANCE NUMEROUS.

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Presentation on theme: "EUROPE. MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES WESTERN EXTREMITY OF EURASIA LINGERING WORLD INFLUENCE HIGH DEGREES OF SPECIALIZATION MANUFACTURING DOMINANCE NUMEROUS."— Presentation transcript:

1 EUROPE

2 MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES WESTERN EXTREMITY OF EURASIA LINGERING WORLD INFLUENCE HIGH DEGREES OF SPECIALIZATION MANUFACTURING DOMINANCE NUMEROUS NATION-STATES URBANIZED POPULATION HIGH STANDARDS OF LIVING

3 SUBDIVISIONS OF THE REALM Western Europe Eastern Europe British Isles Northern Europe Mediterranean Europe

4 PHYSICAL LANDSCAPES Alpine System Western Uplands Central Uplands North European Lowland

5 Brief historical/political notes The Greek and Roman civilizations The Roman Empire was huge Rome itself was huge At its peak, it had a population that exceeded a million Roman rule meant that peoples in different regions focused on particular goods Local functional specialization Emergence of the Romance languages Italian, French, Spanish, Portugese, Romanian, …

6 More history … Even though Christianity was born in a different realm, the Roman Empire helped spread the religion The fall of the Roman Empire is the beginning of the Dark Ages Until the Reformation and Renaissance in the fifteenth century During its weak period, invaded by the Moors and the Ottoman Turks

7 Beginnings of Modern Europe Agricultural revolution Increase in productivity Laid the foundation for the later industrial revolution Industrial revolution Eighteenth and nineteenth centuries The rise of mercantilism and imperialism European colonies all over the world The hegemony of the British Until the end of the nineteenth century

8 The first half of the 20 th century The increasingly powerful Germany WW I WW II The end of the European hegemony

9 RELATIVE LOCATION At the heart of the land hemisphere Maximum efficiency for contact with the rest of the world Every part of Europe is close to the sea. Navigable waterways Moderate distances

10 RELATIVE LOCATION

11 AGRARIAN REVOLUTION Began in Europe in the 1750s Based on new agricultural innovations Enabled increased food production Enabled sustained population increase

12 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Developed in the UK between Evolved from technical innovations that occurred in British industry Proved to be a major catalyst towards increased urbanization Produced a distinct spatial pattern in Europe

13 INDUSTRIAL LOCATION THEORY Alfred Weber published his work in Examined the influences that affect industrial location Focused on activities that occur at specific points Identified agglomerative and deglomerative forces

14 Particular peoples and particular places concentrating on the production of particular goods Roman Empire -- Parts of North Africa - granaries -- Elba produced iron ore. -- Southern Spain mined and exported silver and lead. AREAL FUNCTIONAL SPECIALIZATION

15 Falling share of the world’s population Fertility at an all-time low Fewer young people Smaller working age population Boom & bust age-dependent Population of Europe

16 Population Growth Rate: 0% Birth Rate: 10 births/1,000 population Death Rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population Labor force: (sources - CIA Fact Book) Industry 41% Agriculture 6% Other (services, etc.) 53% Population profiles: Current snapshots Reveal historical events Enable projections

17

18 POPULATION DENSITY Population Density: persons per square mile Urbanization: 73% EUROPE

19 URBAN TRADITION URBANIZATION RELATED CONCEPTS PRIMATE CITY METROPOLIS CBD

20 The term is a political designation. Refers to a municipal entity that is governed by some kind of administrative organization The largest cities (especially capitals) are: the foci of the state complete microcosms of their national cultures CITIES

21 A country’s largest city Jefferson’s criteria:  Always disproportionately larger than the second largest urban center -- more than twice the size  Expressive of the national culture  Usually (but not always) the capital Examples : Paris, London, Athens PRIMATE CITIES

22 Older Core or Central City The “Burbs” Outer Suburban City METROPOLITAN COMPLEXES

23 Similarities Central core Suburban ring EUROPEAN versus AMERICAN CITIES

24 Differences High suburban density Apartments Public transportation Land scarcity Centralized Urban planning EUROPEAN versus AMERICAN CITIES

25 European Regions Western Europe The British Isles Nordic Europe Mediterranean Europe Eastern Europe

26 Western Europe: Germany Germany of the past The Federal Republic Germany Today

27 Region 1: Germany Role in WWI and WWII Massive rebuilding after WWII The US’ Marshall Plan Germany split into West and East after WWII Reunified after the fall of the Soviet Union Eastern Germany is poorer Capital moved from Bonn to Berlin

28 Region 1: Germany

29

30 France Role in Europe Paris

31 Region 1: France Larger than Germany … as a territory Wonderful water-access to the world Yet, no terrific natural harbors Dominated by Paris Almost 10 million residents And an equal # of American tourists Lyon, second largest city, < 1.5 million people Center of economic activity

32 Benelux Countries Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg

33 Region 1:Benelux In the NW corner Belgium, Netherlands, Luxemburg Also referred to as the low countries High population density The people of Netherlands are called … ? Brussels, capital of Belgium is also the center of EU Luxemburg is a very small state Compares with Singapore

34 British Isles

35 Northern Europe Site and Situation Role in Europe

36 A Few Nordic Folks!

37 MEDITERRANEAN EUROPE

38 SIX COUNTRIES A DISCONTINUOUS REGION ON THE PERIPHERY CULTURAL CONTINUITY DATES FROM GRECO-ROMAN TIMES MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE HOT - DRY SUMMERS WARM/COOL - MOIST WINTERS

39 ITALY MOST POPULATED OF MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES BEST CONNECTED TO THE EUROPEAN CORE MOST ECONOMICALLY ADVANCED DISPLAYS A SHARP NORTH/SOUTH CONTRAST (ANCONA LINE ) MILAN ITALY’S LARGEST CITY AND MANUFACTURING CENTER ALSO THE COUNTRY’S FINANCIAL AND SERVICE-INDUSTRY CENTER

40 ITALY ROME FOUNDED ABOUT 3,000 YEARS AGO ATTAINED AN ESTIMATED POPULATION OF 1 MILLION < THE END OF THE 1 ST CENTURY AD ONLY 30,000 PEOPLE BY THE 13 TH CENTURY BECAME ITALY’S CAPITAL IN 1870 CURRENTLY HAS ABOUT 2.7 MILLION PEOPLE VATICAN CITY AN ENCLAVE WITHIN ROME THE HEADQUARTERS OF ROMAN CATHOLICISM FUNCTIONS AS AN INDEPENDENT ENTITY

41 Milan

42 Venice Levico

43 Venice Pisa

44 REGIONS WESTERN NORTHERN MEDITERRANEAN EASTERN EUROPE

45 EASTERN EUROPE (REGIONAL IDENTIFIERS) EUROPE’S LARGEST REGION ADJOINS 3 OF 4 OTHER EUROPEAN REGIONS CONTAINS THE MOST COUNTRIES INCLUDES EUROPE’S LARGEST STATE INCORPORATES EUROPE’S POOREST COUNTRY IN 1990, NONE OF ITS STATES COULD MEET THE CRITERIA FOR MEMBERSHIP IN THE EU REACHES INTO THE RUSSIAN ZONE OF INFLUENCE

46 Region 5: Eastern Europe A few interesting notes: Magyars (Hungarians) have an Asian connection Some say it is related to the Mongol invasion As a language, Hungarian is related to Finnish and Estonian Romania is the home to Count Dracula Transylvania A major social issue in Romania, the Czech Republic, Poland The Romas (gypsies) Albania is an extremely poor country Moldova is even POORER

47 Olomouc Salzburg

48 KEY CONCEPTS BALKANIZATION ETHNIC CLEANSING DEVOLUTION SHATTER BELT

49 BALKANIZATION FROM THE VERB BALKANIZE, WHICH MEANS TO BREAK UP (AS IN A REGION) INTO SMALLER AND OFTEN HOSTILE UNITS ORIGINATES FROM A MOUNTAIN RANGE IN BULGARIA APPLIED TO THE SOUTHERN HALF OF EASTERN EUROPE, i.e., THE BALKAN COUNTRIES OF THE BALKAN PENINSULA

50 ETHNIC GROUPS IN EASTERN EUROPE

51 ETHNIC CLEANSING REFERS TO THE FORCIBLE OUSTER OF ENTIRE POPULATIONS FROM THEIR HOMELANDS BY STRONGER POWERS BENT ON TAKING THEIR TERRITORIES A B A COUNTRIES BORDER MINORITY POPULATION

52 DEVOLUTION THE PROCESS WHEREBY REGIONS WITHIN A STATE DEMAND AND GAIN POLITICAL STRENGTH AND GROWING AUTONOMY AT THE EXPENSE OF THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT

53 DEVOLUTION IN EUROPE

54 SHATTER BELT A TERM APPLIED TO EASTERN EUROPE BY GEOGRAPHERS TO DESCRIBE A ZONE OF CHRONIC POLITICAL SPLINTERING AND FRACTURING WHY HERE?

55 WHAT DOES THE FUTURE HOLD FOR EUROPE? UNIFICATION? INSTABILITY?

56 Supranationalism A venture involving three or more states Political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives New “Euro”Currency

57 European Supranationalism Why would anyone want to give away international autonomy, one of the most sought after goals in this century? 1944 Benelux Agreement Netherlands Belgium Luxembourg

58 History of European Supranationlism 1947 – MARSHALL PLAN Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC) Council of Europe ECSC Treaty of Rome EEC effective EFTA signed EEC-ESC-EURATOM EEC

59 Primary function of the OEEC To accept and distribute funds allocated under the Marshall Plan Developed by the U.S. to assist the rebuilding of European countries at the end of WW II History of European Supranationlism

60 European Union (EU) Original Members: (12) Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK Established: 7 February 1992 Effective: 1 November 1993 Aimed to coordinate policy among the members in three fields: -- economics -- defense -- justice and home affairs

61 European Union Members Today Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg France Italy Germany Britain Ireland Denmark Greece Spain Portugal Austria Sweden Finland

62 EU Members Non-members Prospective Members

63 Supranationalism Problems Loss of autonomy Disparities in levels of economic development Technical barriers Cultural barriers


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