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Tall el-Hammam Excavation Project

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Presentation on theme: "Tall el-Hammam Excavation Project"— Presentation transcript:

1 Tall el-Hammam Excavation Project
a joint scientific endeavor of the College of Archaeology, Trinity Southwest University and the Department of Antiquities, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan PPT: Middle Bronze Age 2 Defenses, Lower Tall Dr. Steven Collins Dean, College of Archaeology, Trinity Southwest University Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA Copyright 2010 Trinity Southwest University © Copyright 2010 by Trinity Southwest University Press, 5600 Eubank NE, Suite 130, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87111, USA; (505) All rights reserved. Created in the United States of America by Trinity Southwest University Press, a division of CEM, Inc. No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, digital, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from Trinity Southwest University.

2 By clicking through the following PPT animations, you’ll observe the extent and complexities of the Middle Bronze Age 2 lower city defenses at Tall el-Hammam.

3 EARTH/MUDBRICK/STONE RAMPART
GENERAL FEATURES surface-visible/surveyed excavated extrapolated N EARTHEN/ MUDBRICK RAMPART HOUSE Middle Bronze 2 PALACE(?) WATER CISTERN (?) RAMPART EARTH/MUDBRICK/STONE RAMPART CITY WALL TEMPLE(?) HOUSES MONUMENTAL COMPLEX TOWERS RAMPART RAMPART Tall el-Hammam MONUMENTAL TOWER 200m 400m

4 N TALL EL-HAMMAM FORTIFICATION SYSTEMS
EB2/3 City Wall 4m (13 ft.) 5.2m (17 ft.) MB2 City Wall LOWER CITY: EBA, IBA, MBA; 2010 EXCAVATIONS

5 (AVERAGED SECTION BASED ON TRENCH LA.28)
Tall el-Hammam: Lower City Season Five 2010 BRONZE AGE DEFENSES (AVERAGED SECTION BASED ON TRENCH LA.28) N IB/MB1 city wall in situ line MB2 defensive rampart system MB2 house MB2 street MB2 city wall IB house EB2/3 house EB2/3 city wall EB2/3 roadway EB2 fill Chalco/EB1 houses BEDROCK

6 TIERED-SLOPING RAMPART OF MUDBRICK & PACKED EARTH
MIDDLE BRONZE AGE 2 TIERED-SLOPING RAMPART OF MUDBRICK & PACKED EARTH Mudbrick Rampart with hard clay finish MB2 internal stone stabilizer wall MB2 internal stone stabilizer wall City Wall Mudbrick Superstructure MB2 internal stone stabilizer wall EB2/3 City Wall MB2 internal stone stabilizer wall 33 METERS WIDE MB2 City Wall Stone Foundation MB2 Street TALL EL-HAMMAM MB2 CITY DEFENSES LOWER TALL

7 IN SITU AND EXTRAPOLATED COMPONENTS OF THE MB2 LOWER DEFENSIVE SYSTEM
mudbrick internal stone stabilizer walls 36° slope city wall stone foundation in situ line mudbrick MB2 house 36° slope MB2 street MB2 city wall IB house EB2/3 house engineered fill EB2/3 city wall engineered fill 36° slope EB2/3 roadway EB2 fill Chalco/EB1 houses BEDROCK N

8 PRESERVATION FACTOR: 40°
Section: lower Tall el-Hammam, Middle Bronze Age 2 southern defenses at the time of its terminal destruction 33m (100 ft.) in situ line m MB2 defensive rampart system MB2 house MB2 street MB2 city wall IB house EB2/3 house EB2/3 city wall 7.42m rise PRESERVATION FACTOR: 40° EB2/3 roadway EB2 fill Chalco/EB1 houses m BEDROCK N

9 N EB2/3 CITY WALL MB2 CITY WALL MB2 STREET EB3/IB STRUCTURE
MB2 RAMPART/GLACIS STABILIZER WALLS IB1/2 GATE BLOCKAGE EB2/3 GATEWAY EB2/3 CITY WALL MB2 CITY WALL MB2 STREET N EB3/IB STRUCTURE Tall el-Hammam 2010 Season


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