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Tall el-Hammam Excavation Project a joint scientific endeavor of the College of Archaeology, Trinity Southwest University and the Department of Antiquities,

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Presentation on theme: "Tall el-Hammam Excavation Project a joint scientific endeavor of the College of Archaeology, Trinity Southwest University and the Department of Antiquities,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Tall el-Hammam Excavation Project a joint scientific endeavor of the College of Archaeology, Trinity Southwest University and the Department of Antiquities, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan PPT: Middle Bronze Age 2 Defenses, Lower Tall Dr. Steven Collins Dean, College of Archaeology, Trinity Southwest University Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA Copyright 2010 Trinity Southwest University Copyright 2010 Trinity Southwest University © Copyright 2010 by Trinity Southwest University Press, 5600 Eubank NE, Suite 130, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87111, USA; (505) All rights reserved. Created in the United States of America by Trinity Southwest University Press, a division of CEM, Inc. No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, digital, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from Trinity Southwest University.

2 By clicking through the following PPT animations, youll observe the extent and complexities of the Middle Bronze Age 2 lower city defenses at Tall el-Hammam.

3 Tall el-Hammam N 200m400m GENERAL FEATURES surface-visible/surveyed excavated extrapolated Middle Bronze 2 TEMPLE(?) MONUMENTALCOMPLEX EARTHEN/MUDBRICKRAMPART RAMPART EARTH/MUDBRICK/STONE RAMPART RAMPART RAMPART PALACE(?) HOUSE CITY WALL TOWERS HOUSES MONUMENTAL TOWER WATERCISTERN(?)

4 EB2/3 City Wall 5.2m (17 ft.) MB2 City Wall 4m (13 ft.) LOWER CITY: EBA, IBA, MBA; 2010 EXCAVATIONS TALL EL-HAMMAM FORTIFICATION SYSTEMS N

5 BEDROCK EB2/3 city wall IB house EB2 fill EB2/3 roadway IB/MB1 city wall EB2/3 house Chalco/EB1 houses MB2 city wall MB2 street MB2 house BRONZE AGE DEFENSES (AVERAGED SECTION BASED ON TRENCH LA.28) Tall el-Hammam: Lower City Season Five 2010 in situ line MB2 defensive rampart system N

6 EB2/3 City Wall MB2 internal stone stabilizer wall MB2 City Wall Stone Foundation MB2 internal stone stabilizer wall MB2 Street MB2 internal stone stabilizer wall MIDDLE BRONZE AGE 2 TIERED-SLOPING RAMPART OF MUDBRICK & PACKED EARTH TALL EL-HAMMAM MB2 CITY DEFENSES LOWER TALL 33 METERS WIDE City Wall Mudbrick Superstructure Mudbrick Rampart with hard clay finish

7 BEDROCK EB2/3 city wall IB house EB2 fill EB2/3 roadway EB2/3 house Chalco/EB1 houses MB2 city wall MB2 street MB2 house IN SITU AND EXTRAPOLATED COMPONENTS OF THE MB2 LOWER DEFENSIVE SYSTEM internal stone stabilizer walls mudbrick mudbrick engineered fill in situ line city wall city wallstonefoundation 36° slope N

8 BEDROCK EB2/3 city wall IB house EB2 fill EB2/3 roadway EB2/3 house Chalco/EB1 houses MB2 city wall MB2 street MB2 house in situ line Section: lower Tall el-Hammam, Middle Bronze Age 2 southern defenses at the time of its terminal destruction 33m (100 ft.) (100 ft.) MB2 defensive rampart system 7.42m rise m m PRESERVATION FACTOR: 40° N

9 MB2 RAMPART/GLACIS STABILIZER WALLS IB1/2 GATE BLOCKAGE MB2 STREET EB3/IB STRUCTURE MB2 CITY WALL EB2/3 CITY WALL EB2/3 GATEWAY Tall el-Hammam 2010 Season N


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