Presentation on theme: "Warehousing Equipment"— Presentation transcript:
1 Warehousing Equipment Tompkins et al., “Facilities Planning”, John Wiley & Sons, 1996: Chapters 6, 9College-Industry Council on Material Handling Education: Material Handling Equipment Taxonomy:
2 The role of equipment in warehouse operations Reduce cost (labor + space)enhance space utilization by, e.g.,enabling the exploitation of the vertical dimension of the facilityallowing for denser packingallow for more efficient order-picking by, e.g.,increasing the sku densitysupporting the automated transfer of material from storage to sorting and consolidation areaEnhance responsivenessincrease the throughput of the facility, e.g.,establishing a more ergonomic environment/arrangement for the warehouse operatorsfacilitating the parallelization of order pickingby parallelizing the tasks of order-picking and replensihment
3 The role of equipment in warehouse operations (cont.) Maintain Quality of Product and Operationsprovide an orderly storage environmentprovide efficient ways for product tracing and identificationprovide safe and secure material handlingfacilitate order sortation and consolidationestablish and maintain a controlled environment e.g.,temperature controlaccess control
4 Equipment Classification (Tompkins et. al., pgs 170-173) Containers & Unitizing EquipmentStorage and Retrieval EquipmentUnit LoadSmall LoadConveyorsWarehouse docks and dock-related equipmentAutomatic Identification and Communication Equipment
5 For detailed functional descriptions, discussion on supported efficiencies, and pictures College-Industry Council on Material Handling Education: Material Handling Equipment Taxonomy:Tompkins et al., “Facilities Planning”, John Wiley & Sons, 1996: Chapters 6, 9
7 Block Stacking (or Floor Storage) Lane HeightLane Depth(3-deep)LanesAn efficient storage mode whenthere are multiple pallets per SKU;inventory is turned in large increments, I.e., several loads of the same SKU are received or withdrawn at one time.Main problems:Loss of space due to “honeycombing”not effective utilization of the vertical dimension of the facility
8 Selective or Single-Deep or Simple Pallet Rack The “benchmark” storage modeDue to rack supports, each pallet is independently accessible (i.e. it supports totally random access)Trade-off: too many aisles => inefficient space utilization
9 Double-deep rackTwo selective racks placed back-to-back => 2-deep lanesEach lane dedicated to one SKU => space loss in case of SKU’s with odd number of palletsLess aisle space required (upto 50% savings in aisle space)Trade-off: More work and/or specialized equipment for retrieving
10 Other pallet rack types Drive-In/Through rack: 5-10 loads deepBetter space utilizationMore difficult, even dangerous retrievalPallet flow rack: up to 8 pallets deepThe rack shelves are slanted and have rollers, and therefore, every time a pallet is retrieved from a lane, the pallet behind it takes its position.Allows for simultaneous picking and restockingSupports FIFO operationTypically used in high-throughput facilitiesCantilever rack:Supports long items like timber and pipes
11 Unit-Load Retrieval Equipment Key Differentiation factors:aisle width requirementslift height/weight capacityLane depth they can reachdegree of automationcapital expenseMajor typesWalkie StackerCounterbalance Lift TruckNarrow Aisle VehiclesAutomated Storage/Retrieval Machines
12 Small Load Storage and Retrieval Equipment Operator-to-Stock (or Man-to-Part or in-the-aisle) system: the operator travels to the storage location to retrieve materialStock-to-Operator (or Part-to-Man or end-of-aisle) system: the material is mechanically transported to the operator for retrievalAdvantages of STO:higher productivityeasier supervisionbetter item security and protectionDisadvantages of STO:more expensivemore maintenancemore difficult to reconfigure
13 Operator-to-Stock Storage Equipment Bin ShelvingModular Storage Drawers in CabinetsCarton Flow RacksMobile StorageAll the above equipment can also be arranged in mezzanines to get a better exploitation of the building cube.
15 Stock-to-Operator Equipment CarouselsHorizontalVerticalIndependently Rotating RacksMiniload Automated Storage and Retrieval MachineAutomatic DispenserProductivity gainsAllow for extensive parallelization of order retrievalsFocus on extracting rather than traveling and searching
16 Conveyors (Flat) Belt Roller Telescoping Belt Chute Sorting Remarks: DeflectorPush DiverterPop-up Skewed WheelsPop-up RollerTilt trayRemarks:Conveyors change the economics of travel.They can partition physically the warehouse into zones
17 Warehouse docks and dock-related equipment Warehouse docks: The facility interface with the shipping carriersDock configurations and dimensioning
18 Equipment facilitating the interfacing between docks and shipping carriers Dock levelers: compensate the height difference between the carrier platform and the dock doormobile yard rampspermanent adjustable dock boardstruck levelersscissors-type lifting docksBumper pads: absorb the shock from the impact of the shipping trailer with the dock walls (laminated rubber cushions)40,000 lb load traveling 4 mph => 150,000 lb forceDock shelter: a flexible shield that when engaged to the carrier provides a closed-environment interface between it and the inner area of the warehouseenergy savings, increased safety, product protection, etc.
19 Automatic Identification and Communication Equipment Permits real-time, nearly flawless data collection and communication, and therefore, it facilitates and increases the real-time awareness of the location, amount, origin, destination and schedule of the material.
20 Automatic Identification and Recognition Bar coding technology:bar codesbar code readersbar code printersOptical character recognitionRadio Frequency (RF) and Surface Accoustical Wave (SAW) tagsMagnetic StripesMachine Vision
21 Automatic Paperless Communication RF data terminalVoice headsetLight and Computer AidsSmart card