2Anatomie Blood Supply? Lns distribution: Cross over from Rt to Lt but not from Lt. to Rt.Scrotal Lymphatic's disruption.
3Epidemiology Age: 20-35ys. Seminoma patient is older. Don’t forget that yolk sac tumor can occur in children.Where?Social problem.
4Etiology and Risk Factors Intrauterine exposure to Estrogen.Un-descended testis: intra-abdminal > inguinal.Family history : very important.AIDS: RPL and stage is difficult to predict.Stage for stage is ok.Or c h id o p e x y d o e s n o t r e d u c e r i s k i nal l a g e g r o u ps b u t f a c i l i t a t e se x a m i n a t i o
5Intratubular neoplasm? How we detected? Present in the contralateral testis in 10%.Bilateral testicular tumor do exist.
10Isochromosome 12 What is isochromosome? Value? Pathognomonic feature of GCT of all histologic types, whether of gonadal or extragonadal origin.Can be an early marker (reported in insitu tumors).The presence of three or more copies of i(12p) has been correlated with poor prognosis GCT.
11Natural History Seminoma associated with more ureteric obstruction? NSGCT is more aggressive go blood.
13Other Lymph Nodes External Iliacs Obturator. Inguinal . can occur in the external iliac and obturator nodes if the primary tumor invades the epididymis or extends up the spermatic cord, or in inguinal lymph nodes if the tumor extends through the tunica vaginalis to involve the scrotum, or if trans-scrotal exploration has been used.
14Spermatocytic Seminoma Sixth decade.Bilateral more.Indolent course.Treatment surgery.-ve PLABSpermatocytic seminoma represents approximately 5% of all seminomas and warrants special consideration. It generally occurs in the sixth decade. Although it is more likely to be bilateral than typical seminoma (6% vs. 2%), it is nonetheless a fairly indolent malignancy in which metastatic events are distinctly uncommon. Spermatocytic seminoma can be histologically distinguished from classic seminoma by the relative lack of compartmentalization of sheets of cells by fibrous septae, by the marked variation in cell size, and by the absence of lymphocytic infiltration.
21HCG HCG: alpha unit and beta unit. prostate, bladder, ureteral, and renal cancers may show increase in B-HCG elevation.Spurious elevations have been noted in persons using marijuana.Cis-platinum-induced testicular atrophy in the remaining testis, resulting in lower levels of testosterone, with a compensatory hypersecretion of LH to stimulate Leydig cell secretion of testosterone.very high levels of LH may spuriously elevate measured HCG levels. When necessary, measurement of HCG levels 2 weeks after the administration of depotestosterone should rule out this possibility.
22To Make Life More Complicated Neuroendocrine tumors and cancers of the bladder, kidney, lung, head and neck, GI tractSpeciﬁcally gastric, pancreatic, biliary, and colorectal cancers, cervix, uterus, and vulva.
23In addition, there are case reports of elevations in hCG in lymphoma and leukemia.
25HCG produced by Scincytiotrophoblast. Seminoma can produce HCG 5-40% of cases.Not more than 100 IU.
26AFP 3 H Pregnant women (Hamel). Hepatitis. Hepatocellular carcinoma. Similarly, elevations of AFP are typical of hepatocellular carcinoma and certain benign liver diseases and may be seen in gastric and, rarely, in lung, colon, and pancreatic cancers.
27LDH Gene that encodes LDH isoenzyme 1 maps to chromosome 12. The serum level of LDH isoenzyme 1 has been shown to correlate with the number of copies of i(12p) in the tumor, a fairly specific genetic marker of germ cell malignancies.Furthermore, the presence of three or more copies of i(12p) has been correlated with a worse prognosis.
28Very ImportantUp to 30% of patients with early-stage non-seminomatous GCT will have normal serum markers, so the absence of marker elevation should not influence the decision to perform an orchiectomy.Eventhough markers should be done before and After Surgery.
29PET-CTFDG-PET was unable to detect mature teratomas as well as lesions smaller than 5 mm in diameter. Not routinely used or recommended in initial staging.Can be used to differentiate between residual disease and fibrotic bands?
30Other Investigations Brain imaging in Choriocarcinoma. In patients with clear clinical examination andElevated markers don’t forget to investigate the other testis.
44Testicualt Irrdiation Intratubular germ cell tumor.Testicular leukemia or lymphoma.Position is the Key.Penis.Beam arrangement.Energy: deep X- Electron, Photon.Bolus Where???
45Technical consideration Adjuvant radiotherapy to the hemiscrotum and ipsilateral inguinal lymph nodes is recom- mended.The scrotal field is matched to the tattoo at the inferior border of the dog-leg field.
48Non Seminoma Vascular/lymphatic invasion Embryonal carcinoma elements (>30%)Absence of yolk sac elementsAbsence of AFP preorchiectomyLess than 50% teratomaLocal extension into paratesticular structures