Blood Supply? Lns distribution: Cross over from Rt to Lt but not from Lt. to Rt. Scrotal Lymphatic's disruption.
Age: 20-35ys. Seminoma patient is older. Dont forget that yolk sac tumor can occur in children. Where? Social problem.
Intrauterine exposure to Estrogen. Un-descended testis: intra-abdminal > inguinal. Family history : very important. AIDS: RPL and stage is difficult to predict. Stage for stage is ok. Or c h id o p e x y d o e s n o t r e d u c e r i s k i n al l a g e g r o u ps b u t f a c i l i t a t e s e x a m i n a t i o
Intratubular neoplasm? How we detected? Present in the contralateral testis in 10%. Bilateral testicular tumor do exist.
What is isochromosome? Value? Pathognomonic feature of GCT of all histologic types, whether of gonadal or extragonadal origin. Can be an early marker (reported in insitu tumors). The presence of three or more copies of i(12p) has been correlated with poor prognosis GCT.
Seminoma associated with more ureteric obstruction? NSGCT is more aggressive go blood.
HCG: alpha unit and beta unit. prostate, bladder, ureteral, and renal cancers may show increase in B-HCG elevation. Spurious elevations have been noted in persons using marijuana. Cis-platinum-induced testicular atrophy in the remaining testis, resulting in lower levels of testosterone, with a compensatory hypersecretion of LH to stimulate Leydig cell secretion of testosterone.
Neuroendocrine tumors and cancers of the bladder, kidney, lung, head and neck, GI tract Specically gastric, pancreatic, biliary, and colorectal cancers, cervix, uterus, and vulva.
In addition, there are case reports of elevations in hCG in lymphoma and leukemia.
HCG produced by Scincytiotrophoblast. Seminoma can produce HCG 5-40% of cases. Not more than 100 IU.
Pregnant women (Hamel). Hepatitis. Hepatocellular carcinoma. 3 H
Gene that encodes LDH isoenzyme 1 maps to chromosome 12. The serum level of LDH isoenzyme 1 has been shown to correlate with the number of copies of i(12p) in the tumor, a fairly specific genetic marker of germ cell malignancies. Furthermore, the presence of three or more copies of i(12p) has been correlated with a worse prognosis.
Up to 30% of patients with early-stage non- seminomatous GCT will have normal serum markers, so the absence of marker elevation should not influence the decision to perform an orchiectomy. Eventhough markers should be done before and After Surgery.
FDG-PET was unable to detect mature teratomas as well as lesions smaller than 5 mm in diameter. Not routinely used or recommended in initial staging. Can be used to differentiate between residual disease and fibrotic bands?
Brain imaging in Choriocarcinoma. In patients with clear clinical examination and Elevated markers dont forget to investigate the other testis.