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kinds of major clause major co-ordinate sub-ordinate compound sentence

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1 kinds of major clause major co-ordinate sub-ordinate compound sentence
My mother swallowed the medicine after she had opened the bottle. My mother opened the bottle and swallowed the medicine. compound sentence complex sentence

2 and swallowed the medicine
Compound sentences e.g. My mother opened the bottle and swallowed the medicine. contains 2+ clauses: a main clause, e.g. My mother opened the bottle a clause that is related to the main clause by co-ordination, e.g. and swallowed the medicine 1

3 after she had swallowed the medicine
Complex sentences My mother swallowed the medicine after she had opened the bottle. contains 2+ clauses: a main clause, e.g. My mother opened the bottle a clause that is related to the main clause by sub-ordination, e.g. after she had swallowed the medicine 2

4 giving an exception to it
co-ordination one clause expands another clause by: adding some new element Mei played and Ali sang. giving an exception to it Mei played but no-one sang. offering an alternative Mei will play or Ali will sing.

5 co-ordination co-ordinating conjunctions join clauses which are equal in status, i.e. neither depends on the other; each could stand on its own. 1. She lives somewhere here 2. I don’t know where it is.

6 Conjunctions are the words that link the clauses in a compound or complex sentence 3 kinds of conjunction co-ordinating, e.g. and, or, but, for, yet, still e.g. She lives somewhere here but I don’t know where it is. 3

7 subordination subordinating conjunctions join clauses
of unequal status, i.e. the subordinate clause depends on the main clause; i.e. it cannot stand alone. It will dry out after the storm has passed. after the storm has passed it will dry out can stand alone

8 either…or; neither…nor; both…and
Conjunctions 2. Sub-ordinating conjunctions, e.g. because, if, so that, before, after, since e.g. It will dry out after the storm has passed 3. correlative, e.g. either…or; neither…nor; both…and e.g. He neither walks nor runs.

9 subordination subordinating and correlative conjunctions may be simple
because, until etc or complex in order to, as long as etc Please stay until you have to go. Please stay as long as you can. e.g.

10 are sentences which contain, in addition to the main clause,
complex sentences are sentences which contain, in addition to the main clause, one or more subordinate clauses

11 she had opened the bottle
subordination more than one sub-ordinate clause may occur in a sentence, e.g. My mother swallowed the medicine after she had opened the bottle although she hated the taste.

12 she had opened the bottle
subordination Notice that the order can be changed: after she had opened the bottle My mother swallowed the medicine although she hated the taste.

13 she had opened the bottle
subordination Notice that the order can be changed: although she hated the taste. My mother swallowed the medicine after she had opened the bottle

14 she had opened the bottle
subordination Notice that the order can be changed: After she had opened the bottle although she hated the taste. my mother swallowed the medicine

15 subordination kinds of 2. adverbial 3. noun (nominal) subordinate
clauses 4. comparative 1. relative 4

16 who, whom, whose, which, that
relative clauses who, whom, whose, which, that usually introduced by relative pronouns two types of relative clause: 1 restrictive, e.g. The men who were tired rested. non-restrictive, e.g. The men, who were tired, rested.

17 relative clauses restrictive relative clauses define a subset of some thing mentioned in the main clause. The men who were tired rested. not all the men rested – only the tired ones. = The men, who were tired, rested. all the men rested because they were tired = 5

18 adverbial clauses They must change before they go.
say something about the time, place, reason, manner etc of the event expressed in the main clause, e.g. They must change before they go. It will go wherever the river flows. She did it as if she were born to it. 6

19 How? He went out angrily. He went out running like the wind. When? He went out in the afternoon. He went out as soon as he’d finished his lunch. Why? He went out because of the heat. He went out in order to get cool. Where? He went out to the shops. He went out as far as he could possibly go. For how long? He went out for a long time. He went out until the shadows were long.

20 noun clauses noun clauses generally refer to facts, events, or ideas
function like noun phrases and may therefore occur in the main clause wherever a noun phrase may occur, i.e. as Subject, Object and Complement. noun clauses generally refer to facts, events, or ideas

21 noun clauses Subject Verb Object Complement The party is a disaster
That you’re injured The assumption wrong that prices will rise The children knew their spelling how to spell

22 comparative clauses modify some element of the main clause, acting like a degree adverb, e.g. She was happier than I had ever seen her. She has more patience than you have. The time passed more slowly than he would have imagined.

23 Conditional sentences
I will lend you my book if you will lend me your bike. I won’t lend you my book unless you lend me your bike. 7

24 tense in conditionals if clause = present tense,
main clause = future tense e.g. If we play squash I will win ii. if clause = past tense main clause = would e.g.If we played squash I would win. iii. if clause = past perfect main clause = would have e.g. If we had played squash I would have won.

25 Do that again and you’ll regret it
the conditional clause may also be expressed in the following ways: supposing… assuming/provided /given that… in case… in the event that… on condition that… finally conditionality may be expressed in the following way, usually to make threats: Do that again and you’ll regret it

26 jokingly... A: What would happen if I cut off your left ear?
B: I wouldn't be able to hear. A: And what would happen if I cut off your right ear? B: I wouldn't be able to see. A: Why? B: Because my glasses would have fallen off

27 A: Don't you think I sing with feeling?
B: No. If you had any feeling, you wouldn't sing.

28 A:. Harry says that if I had bought you
A: Harry says that if I had bought you some ice-cream at the cinema last night, you would have let me kiss you. B: Nonsense. A: Well, what would I have to give you to get a kiss? B: An anaesthetic!!

29 Little Lawrence, who was a noisy, spoilt child, was running up and down the aisle of an aeroplane.
One annoyed passager stopped him and said: "Listen, kid. Why don't you go outside and play for a while!!“

30 Harold went up to a man at a party, who he thought he recognised, and said:
"It's good to see you again after all these years. But how you've changed! Your hair is different; you've lost weight; you're a little shorter and you've stopped wearing glasses. What happened to you, Mr. Frost? But I'm not Mr. Frost!! Amazing! You've even changed your name!

31 common errors involve conjunctions
although and but are both used in the same sentence, e.g. Although he came early but they had already left. Don’t use both kinds of conjunction at the same time! Although he came early they had already left. He came early but they had already left. or co-ordinate subordinate

32 common errors “the reason why” though not strictly wrong, “why” here is redundant since this is the meaning of “the reason”; there is no need for both.

33 exercise 1b) Counsellors who have dealt with these girls say the lack of parental control and attention is the main cause of this rising tide of thuggery. Most of the girls are from homes with a history of family abuse or (from homes) where (=in which) the parents have marital problems.

34 Even after the girls are convicted and sent to homes or placed on probation, many parents refuse to see that their child is developing into a full-fledged criminal. “Some just leave their kids with us and expect us to perform miracles” “If the young person’s undesirable values and erroneous methods of solving her problems are not corrected early, there will be dire consequences.”

35 restrictive non-restrictive
Counsellors who have dealt with these girls… (from homes) where (=in which) the parents have marital problems. non-restrictive Counsellor Lindy Ong, who has set up a support group in a church for parents with problem teens, said…

36 reason: because “they’re just kids”
adverbial clauses: reason: because “they’re just kids” time: Even after the girls are convicted and sent to homes or placed on probation.. there is no adverbial clause of place; the beginning of sentence 15 looks like one: In a research bulletin issued by the Subordinate Courts however, this is an adverbial phrase in which is embedded a restrictive relative clause In a research bulletin (that was) issued by the Subordinate Courts


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