Presentation on theme: "kinds of major clause major co-ordinate sub-ordinate compound sentence"— Presentation transcript:
1kinds of major clause major co-ordinate sub-ordinate compound sentence My mother swallowed the medicine after she had opened the bottle.My mother opened the bottle and swallowed the medicine.compound sentencecomplex sentence
2and swallowed the medicine Compound sentencese.g. My mother opened the bottleand swallowed the medicine.contains 2+ clauses:a main clause, e.g. My mother opened the bottlea clause that is related to the main clause by co-ordination, e.g.and swallowed the medicine1
3after she had swallowed the medicine Complex sentencesMy mother swallowed the medicine after she had opened the bottle.contains 2+ clauses:a main clause, e.g. My mother opened the bottlea clause that is related to the main clause by sub-ordination, e.g.after she had swallowed the medicine2
4giving an exception to it co-ordinationone clause expands another clause by:adding some new elementMei played and Ali sang.giving an exception to itMei played but no-one sang.offering an alternativeMei will play or Ali will sing.
5co-ordinationco-ordinating conjunctions join clauses which are equal in status, i.e.neither depends on the other;each could stand on its own.1. She lives somewhere here2. I don’t know where it is.
6Conjunctionsare the words that link the clauses in a compound or complex sentence3 kinds of conjunctionco-ordinating, e.g.and, or, but, for, yet, stille.g. She lives somewhere here but I don’t know where it is.3
7subordination subordinating conjunctions join clauses of unequal status, i.e. the subordinate clause depends on the main clause;i.e. it cannot stand alone.It will dry out after the storm has passed.after the storm has passedit will dry outcan stand alone
8either…or; neither…nor; both…and Conjunctions2. Sub-ordinating conjunctions, e.g.because, if, so that, before, after, since e.g.It will dry out after the storm has passed3. correlative, e.g.either…or; neither…nor; both…ande.g. He neither walks nor runs.
9subordination subordinating and correlative conjunctions may be simple because, until etcorcomplexin order to, as long as etcPlease stay until you have to go.Please stay as long as you can.e.g.
10are sentences which contain, in addition to the main clause, complex sentencesare sentences which contain, in addition to the main clause,one or moresubordinate clauses
11she had opened the bottle subordinationmore than one sub-ordinate clause may occur in a sentence, e.g.My mother swallowed the medicineaftershe had opened the bottlealthoughshe hated the taste.
12she had opened the bottle subordinationNotice that the order can be changed:aftershe had opened the bottleMy mother swallowed the medicinealthoughshe hated the taste.
13she had opened the bottle subordinationNotice that the order can be changed:althoughshe hated the taste.My mother swallowed the medicineaftershe had opened the bottle
14she had opened the bottle subordinationNotice that the order can be changed:Aftershe had opened the bottlealthoughshe hated the taste.my mother swallowed the medicine
16who, whom, whose, which, that relative clauseswho, whom, whose, which, thatusually introduced by relative pronounstwo types of relative clause:1 restrictive, e.g.The men who were tired rested.non-restrictive, e.g.The men, who were tired, rested.
17relative clausesrestrictive relative clauses define a subset of some thing mentioned in the main clause.The menwho were tiredrested.not all the men rested – only the tired ones.=The men,who were tired,rested.all the men rested because they were tired=5
18adverbial clauses They must change before they go. say something about the time, place, reason, manner etc of the event expressed in the main clause, e.g.They must change before they go.It will go wherever the river flows.She did it as if she were born to it.6
19How? He went out angrily.He went out running like the wind.When? He went out in the afternoon.He went out as soon as he’d finished his lunch.Why? He went out because of the heat.He went out in order to get cool.Where? He went out to the shops.He went out as far as he could possibly go.For how long? He went out for a long time.He went out until the shadows were long.
20noun clauses noun clauses generally refer to facts, events, or ideas function like noun phrases and may therefore occur in the main clause wherever a noun phrase may occur, i.e. as Subject, Object and Complement.noun clauses generally refer tofacts, events, or ideas
21noun clauses Subject Verb Object Complement The party is a disaster That you’re injuredThe assumptionwrongthat prices will riseThe childrenknewtheir spellinghow to spell
22comparative clausesmodify some element of the main clause, acting like a degree adverb, e.g.She was happier than I had ever seen her.She has more patiencethan you have.The time passed more slowly than he would have imagined.
23Conditional sentences I will lend you my bookif you will lend me your bike.I won’t lend you my bookunless you lend me your bike.7
24tense in conditionals if clause = present tense, main clause = future tensee.g. If we play squash I will winii. if clause = past tensemain clause = woulde.g.If we played squash I would win.iii. if clause = past perfectmain clause = would havee.g. If we had played squash I would have won.
25Do that again and you’ll regret it the conditional clause may also be expressed in the following ways:supposing…assuming/provided /given that…in case…in the event that…on condition that…finallyconditionality may be expressed in the following way, usually to make threats:Do that again and you’ll regret it
26jokingly... A: What would happen if I cut off your left ear? B: I wouldn't be able to hear.A: And what would happen if I cut off your right ear?B: I wouldn't be able to see.A: Why?B: Because my glasses would have fallen off
27A: Don't you think I sing with feeling? B: No.If you had any feeling, you wouldn't sing.
28A:. Harry says that if I had bought you A: Harry says that if I had bought you some ice-cream at the cinema last night, you would have let me kiss you.B: Nonsense.A: Well, what would I have to give you to get a kiss?B: An anaesthetic!!
29Little Lawrence, who was a noisy, spoilt child, was running up and down the aisle of an aeroplane. One annoyed passager stopped him and said:"Listen, kid. Why don't you go outside and play for a while!!“
30Harold went up to a man at a party, who he thought he recognised, and said: "It's good to see you again after all these years. But how you've changed! Your hair is different; you've lost weight; you're a little shorter and you've stopped wearing glasses. What happened to you, Mr. Frost?But I'm not Mr. Frost!!Amazing! You've even changed your name!
31common errors involve conjunctions although and but are both used in the same sentence, e.g.Although he came early but they had already left.Don’t use both kinds of conjunction at the same time!Although he came early they had already left.He came early but they had already left.orco-ordinatesubordinate
32common errors“the reason why”though not strictly wrong, “why” here is redundant since this is the meaning of “the reason”; there is no need for both.
33exercise 1b)Counsellors who have dealt with these girls say the lack of parental control and attention is the main cause of this rising tide of thuggery.Most of the girls are from homes with a history of family abuse or (from homes) where (=in which) the parents have marital problems.
34Even after the girls are convicted and sent to homes or placed on probation, many parents refuse to see that their child is developing into a full-fledged criminal.“Some just leave their kids with us and expect us to perform miracles”“If the young person’s undesirable values and erroneous methods of solving her problems are not corrected early, there will be dire consequences.”
35restrictive non-restrictive Counsellors who have dealt with these girls…(from homes) where (=in which) the parents have marital problems.non-restrictiveCounsellor Lindy Ong, who has set up a support group in a church for parents with problem teens, said…
36reason: because “they’re just kids” adverbial clauses:reason: because “they’re just kids”time: Even after the girls are convicted and sent to homes or placed on probation..there is no adverbial clause of place; the beginning of sentence 15 looks like one:In a research bulletin issued by the Subordinate Courtshowever, this is an adverbial phrase in which is embedded a restrictive relative clauseIn a research bulletin (that was) issued by the Subordinate Courts