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1 kinds of major clause co-ordinate major My mother opened the bottle and swallowed the medicine. My mother swallowed the medicine after she had opened.

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Presentation on theme: "1 kinds of major clause co-ordinate major My mother opened the bottle and swallowed the medicine. My mother swallowed the medicine after she had opened."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 kinds of major clause co-ordinate major My mother opened the bottle and swallowed the medicine. My mother swallowed the medicine after she had opened the bottle. compound sentencecomplex sentence sub-ordinate

2 2 contains 2+ clauses: 1a main clause, e.g. My mother opened the bottle 2a clause that is related to the main clause by co-ordination, e.g. and swallowed the medicine e.g. My mother opened the bottle and swallowed the medicine.

3 3 My mother swallowed the medicine after she had opened the bottle. contains 2+ clauses: 1a main clause, e.g. My mother opened the bottle 2a clause that is related to the main clause by sub-ordination, e.g. after she had swallowed the medicine

4 4 co-ordination one clause expands another clause by: adding some new element Mei played and Ali sang. giving an exception to it offering an alternative Mei played but no-one sang. Mei will play or Ali will sing.

5 5 co-ordinating conjunctions join clauses which are equal in status, i.e. neither depends on the other; each could stand on its own. 1.She lives somewhere here 2.I dont know where it is. 1.She lives somewhere here 2.I dont know where it is. co-ordination

6 6 1.co-ordinating, e.g. and, or, but, for, yet, still e.g. She lives somewhere here but I dont know where it is. are the words that link the clauses in a compound or complex sentence 3 kinds of conjunction

7 7 subordinating conjunctions join clauses of unequal status, i.e. the subordinate clause depends on the main clause; i.e.it cannot stand alone. It will dry out after the storm has passed. it will dry out after the storm has passed can stand alone

8 8 2.Sub-ordinating conjunctions, e.g. because, if, so that, before, after, since e.g. It will dry out after the storm has passed 3. correlative, e.g. either…or; neither…nor; both…and e.g. He neither walks nor runs.

9 9 subordinating and correlative conjunctions may be simple complex or because, until etc in order to, as long as etc Please stay until you have to go. Please stay as long as you can. e.g.

10 10 are sentences which contain, in addition to the main clause, one or more subordinate clauses

11 11 more than one sub-ordinate clause may occur in a sentence, e.g. My mother swallowed the medicine after she had opened the bottle although she hated the taste.

12 12 Notice that the order can be changed: My mother swallowed the medicine after she had opened the bottle although she hated the taste.

13 13 Notice that the order can be changed: My mother swallowed the medicine after she had opened the bottle although she hated the taste.

14 14 Notice that the order can be changed: my mother swallowed the medicine After she had opened the bottle although she hated the taste.

15 15 kinds of subordinate clauses 3. noun (nominal) 4. comparative 2. adverbial 1. relative

16 16 two types of relative clause: 1restrictive, e.g. The men who were tired rested. 2non-restrictive, e.g. The men, who were tired, rested. who, whom, whose, which, that usually introduced by relative pronouns

17 17 restrictive relative clauses define a subset of some thing mentioned in the main clause. The men who were tired rested. = not all the men rested – only the tired ones. The men, who were tired, rested. = all the men rested because they were tired

18 18 They must change before they go. It will go wherever the river flows. She did it as if she were born to it. say something about the time, place, reason, manner etc of the event expressed in the main clause, e.g.

19 19 How? He went out angrily. He went out running like the wind. When? He went out in the afternoon. He went out as soon as hed finished his lunch. Why? He went out because of the heat. He went out in order to get cool. Where? He went out to the shops. He went out as far as he could possibly go. For how long?He went out for a long time. He went out until the shadows were long.

20 20 function like noun phrases and may therefore occur in the main clause wherever a noun phrase may occur, i.e. as Subject, Object and Complement. noun clauses generally refer to facts, events, or ideas noun clauses generally refer to facts, events, or ideas

21 21 SubjectVerbObjectComplement The partyisa disaster That youre injured isa disaster The assumptioniswrong The assumptionisthat prices will rise The childrenknewtheir spelling The childrenknewhow to spell

22 22 modify some element of the main clause, acting like a degree adverb, e.g. She has more patience than you have. She was happier than I had ever seen her. The time passed more slowly than he would have imagined.

23 23 I will lend you my book if you will lend me your bike. I wont lend you my book unless you lend me your bike.

24 24 tense in conditionals i. if clause = present tense, main clause = future tense e.g. If we play squash I will win ii.if clause = past tense main clause = would e.g.If we played squash I would win. iii.if clause = past perfect main clause = would have e.g. If we had played squash I would have won.

25 25 the conditional clause may also be expressed in the following ways: supposing… assuming/provided /given that… in case… in the event that… on condition that… finally conditionality may be expressed in the following way, usually to make threats: Do that again and youll regret it

26 26 A: What would happen if I cut off your left ear? B: I wouldn't be able to hear. A: And what would happen if I cut off your right ear? B: I wouldn't be able to see. A: Why? B: Because my glasses would have fallen off

27 27 A: Don't you think I sing with feeling? B: No. If you had any feeling, you wouldn't sing.

28 28 A: Harry says that if I had bought you some ice-cream at the cinema last night, you would have let me kiss you. B: Nonsense. A: Well, what would I have to give you to get a kiss? B: An anaesthetic!!

29 29 Little Lawrence, who was a noisy, spoilt child, was running up and down the aisle of an aeroplane. One annoyed passager stopped him and said: "Listen, kid. Why don't you go outside and play for a while!!

30 30 Harold went up to a man at a party, who he thought he recognised, and said: "It's good to see you again after all these years. But how you've changed! Your hair is different; you've lost weight; you're a little shorter and you've stopped wearing glasses. What happened to you, Mr. Frost? But I'm not Mr. Frost!! Amazing! You've even changed your name!

31 31 common errors involve conjunctions although and but are both used in the same sentence, e.g. Although he came early but they had already left. He came early but they had already left. Although he came early they had already left. Dont use both kinds of conjunction at the same time! co-ordinate subordinate or

32 32 though not strictly wrong, why here is redundant since this is the meaning of the reason; there is no need for both. common errors the reason why

33 33 Counsellors who have dealt with these girls say the lack of parental control and attention is the main cause of this rising tide of thuggery. exercise 1b ) Most of the girls are from homes with a history of family abuse or (from homes) where (=in which) the parents have marital problems.

34 34 Even after the girls are convicted and sent to homes or placed on probation, many parents refuse to see that their child is developing into a full-fledged criminal. Some just leave their kids with us and expect us to perform miracles If the young persons undesirable values and erroneous methods of solving her problems are not corrected early, there will be dire consequences.

35 35 Counsellors who have dealt with these girls… Counsellor Lindy Ong, who has set up a support group in a church for parents with problem teens, said… (from homes) where (=in which) the parents have marital problems. non- restrictive restrictive

36 36 adverbial clauses: reason: because theyre just kids time:Even after the girls are convicted and sent to homes or placed on probation.. there is no adverbial clause of place; the beginning of sentence 15 looks like one: however, this is an adverbial phrase in which is embedded a restrictive relative clause In a research bulletin issued by the Subordinate Courts In a research bulletin (that was) issued by the Subordinate Courts


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