2forms of speech quotations quotations usually involve two clausesclause 1clause 2whose saying(=reporting clause)the sayingegdirectJohn saidI’m going homeindirectJohn saidthat he was going homeexceptfree direct speech(1 clause)
3direct speech: reporting someone’s wording The two clauses – who said + what they said –can occur in any order, i.e.‘What’s going on?’ Ali demanded.what was saidwho saidAli demanded, ‘What’s going on?’and…what was saidwho said
4‘What’s going on?’ Ali demanded. Subject and verb order in the reporting clause can be reversed IF the reporting clause comes last‘What’s going on?’ Ali demanded.SV‘What’s going on?’ demanded Ali .VS
5punctuation in direct speech ‘I am going home,’ said John, ‘Are you coming?’punctuationmarks areplacedinside thequotationmarkscommabeforeor afterthe quotedwords;
6words within wordsa quote within a quote is enclosed in quotation marks that are not the sameas those already in usee.g. “What did Ma say?” asked Mei.“Ma said ‘Come home’,” Ali replied.
7indirect speech: reporting someone’s meaning John said (that) he was going home.warningThe two clauses– who said + what they said –cannot occur in any order;the reporting clause (i.e. the one that identifies who said) must come first.
8grammatical features of indirect speech When we say something we identify persons, things, places and times with reference to the speech situation.e.g. Sue said, “I stayed here last year”I stayed here last yearSueAi Lee
9When we report the meaning of the saying through indirect speech, we must transform all references to the speech situation - time, place and persons.e.g. Sue said she had stayed there the year before
10transforming references to persons people refer to themselves using the personal pronoun (I/me). This 1st person pronoun has to be transformed into a 3rd person pronoun (he/she)
11pronouns (personal and demonstrative) in indirect speech John said,“I am coming.”e.g.John said he was coming“I know this trickof yours,”said AliceAlice said she knew that trick of his.
12time and place in indirect speech tomorrowbecomesthe following dayyesterdaythe day before(the previous day)today/tonightthat day/nightherethere
13time and place in indirect speech e.g.John said,“I can walk here tonight.”John said he could walk there that night.
14tense/modality in indirect speech present tensebecomespast tensepresent continuouspast continuouspresent perfectpast perfectcancouldshall/willshould/wouldmay/mightmightmust/ has tohad to
15tense / modality in indirect speech John said, “I am coming.”John said he was comingJohn said, “We left yesterday.”John said they had left the day before.John said, “We must go tomorrow.”John said they had to go the next day.
16reported questions in indirect speech in most question forms the order of Subject and auxiliary verb is: auxiliary followed by Subject, e.g.“When will he be coming?” she askedAuxSWhen a question is reported indirectly then the order is Subject followed by auxiliary, e.g.She asked when he would be comingSAux
17“Help yourselves,” he said reported commands“Help yourselves,” he saidHelp yourselvesHe told (invited) them to help themselvesHe told (invited) us to help ourselves
18free speech free direct speech ‘Coming out tonight?’ ‘No, I’ve got to work.’in free direct speech the reporting clause (who said) disappearsa literary devicefree indirect speechShe wouldn’t go out tonight, she thought. She had work to do.
19free indirect speech has features of both direct & indirect speech She wouldn’t go out tonight, she thought. She had work to do.the reporting clause can come after the quote;the quote contains mixed references to time, place and persons.
20the do-er of the action – the chaser – is the boy Unit 11Active and passive1.The boy chased the girl The girl was chased by the boy.the do-er of the action – the chaser – is the boyin clause 1 the –er role is expressed bya noun phrase – The boyin clause 2 the –er role is expressed by a prepositional phrase – by the boyclause 1 is in the active;clause 2 is in the passive.2
21Unit 11why use the passive?to speak impersonally, without assigning someone or something the responsibility for the event.e.g. The girl was chased.The window was smashed.This makes our message seem detached and objective3
22Making the active sentence passive Unit 11Making the active sentence passiveactivesubjectverbobjectThe boy saw the girl (didn’t he?)The girl was seen by the boy (wasn’t she?)subjectverbobjectpassive4
23The ship sailed at midnight warningnot all verbs can be expressed as either active or passive. Some verbs can only be expressed as active, i.e. most intransitive verbs, e.g.The ship sailed at midnight
24common errorsinverting subject and auxiliary in reported questions, e.g.When will they be coming?She asked when would they be coming.She asked when they would be coming.
25jokingly...Dad, today the teacher asked me if I had any brothers or sisters.That’s nice of her to take an interest in you. What did she say when you told her you are an only child?She said, “Thank goodness.”
26At a restaurant Waiter, what are these coins doing in my soup? Well, sir, you said you would stop coming to this restaurant unless there was some change in the meals.
27What kind of ants can be found in houses? OccupANTS
28A teacher asked his class to write an essay about a football match A teacher asked his class to write an essay about a football match. A minute later all the students were writing except for one child.The teacher looked at her paper.It said, “The game was cancelled because of rain.”
29Why are you putting a bandage on your pay cheque? Because my salary has just been cut.
30Task a)Lin said she did not know why she had been so honoured, although she said that she had been wearing all her badges from when she was in the air force. She described how, when they had got on the plane, the crew had taken her on first, carrying her on with a lift. She recalled that when she first boarded, she and the pilot had been the only people sitting in the plane.
31Changing from direct to indirect speech make incomplete/unpunctuated sentences into complete/punctuated sentences.Omit filler words such as really and er.Use a range of verbs to precede or follow. what was spoken, e.g. described, recalled.Change from first person to third person.Change from present to past, past to past perfect
32text in direct speech vs text in indirect speech informalimmediatecreates sense of charactersometimes difficult to followIndirect:formalremovedless sense of charactereasier to follow
33Task b) 1. No one wants to take the blame for losing the file 2. The play is considered an object in its own right, distinct from its author3. There is no single subject for this statement4. He was not injured deliberately, or by an animate agent, so there is no clear subject5. Someone must have broken the window, but the structure suggests that no one wants to take responsibility for it, or the agent is not known
346. Who conducted the research is not considered relevant. 7. The passive is used to sound factual.8. This is reporting a scientific fact, with no need to know who did the heating.
35changing from passive to active Regrettably,(I regret that)I lost your file.Regrettably, your file has been lost.you will be paid $5000 so that it can be replaced.I will pay you $5000 so that you can replace it.Shakespeare wrote Macbeth in 1606.Macbeth was written in 1606.
36“The pilot must have seen the badges on my jacket,” said Lin. Lin surmised/speculated that the pilot had seen the badges on her jacket.Lin claimed that the pilot had almost certainly seen the badges on her jacket.certainty (opinion)must;surmise; speculate
37“I’m in a wheelchair so I must be lifted into the plane,” explained Lin. Lin explained that, because she was in a wheelchair, she had to be lifted into the plane.Lin explained that, because she was in a wheelchair, she must be lifted into the plane0bligation;must;have to
38“I’m in a wheelchair so I must be lifted into the plane,” explained Lin. Lin explained that, because she is in a wheelchair, she must be lifted into the plane.0bligation;must;have toLin explained that, because she is in a wheelchair, she has to be lifted into the plane.