Presentation on theme: "direct speech reports someones Direct and indirect speech indirect speech reports someones wording meaning."— Presentation transcript:
direct speech reports someones Direct and indirect speech indirect speech reports someones wording meaning
forms of speech quotations quotations usually involve two clauses whose saying (=reporting clause) the saying eg John saidIm going home John saidthat he was going home direct indirect except free direct speech (1 clause) clause 1clause 2
The two clauses – who said + what they said – can occur in any order, i.e. direct speech: reporting someones wording Whats going on? Ali demanded. Ali demanded, Whats going on? and… who said what was said who said
Subject and verb order in the reporting clause can be reversed IF the reporting clause comes last Whats going on? demanded Ali. SV Whats going on? Ali demanded. SV
punctuation in direct speech I am going home, said John, Are you coming? punctuation marks are placed inside the quotation marks comma before or after the quoted words;
words within words a quote within a quote is enclosed in quotation marks that are not the same as those already in use a quote within a quote is enclosed in quotation marks that are not the same as those already in use e.g. What did Ma say? asked Mei. Ma said Come home, Ali replied.
indirect speech: reporting someones meaning John said (that) he was going home. The two clauses – who said + what they said – cannot occur in any order; the reporting clause (i.e. the one that identifies who said) must come first. warning
grammatical features of indirect speech When we say something we identify persons, things, places and times with reference to the speech situation. e.g. Sue said, I stayed here last year I stayed here last year SueAi Lee
When we report the meaning of the saying through indirect speech, we must transform all references to the speech situation - time, place and persons. e.g. Sue said she had stayed there the year before
transforming references to persons people refer to themselves using the personal pronoun (I/me). This 1 st person pronoun has to be transformed into a 3rd person pronoun (he/she)
pronouns (personal and demonstrative) in indirect speech e.g. John said he was coming John said, I am coming. I know this trick of yours, said Alice Alice said she knew that trick of his.
tomorrowbecomesthe following day yesterdaythe day before (the previous day) today/tonightthat day/night herethere time and place in indirect speech direct indirect
e.g. time and place in indirect speech John said, I can walk here tonight. John said he could walk there that night.
present tense becomes past tense present continuous past continuous present perfectpast perfect cancould shall/willshould/would may/mightmight must/ has tohad to tense/modality in indirect speech direct indirect
tense / modality in indirect speech John said, I am coming. John said he was coming John said, We left yesterday. John said they had left the day before. John said, We must go tomorrow. John said they had to go the next day.
reported questions in indirect speech When will he be coming? she asked She asked when he would be coming in most question forms the order of Subject and auxiliary verb is: auxiliary followed by Subject, e.g. When a question is reported indirectly then the order is Subject followed by auxiliary, e.g. Aux S S
reported commands Help yourselves He told (invited) them to help themselves He told (invited) us to help ourselves Help yourselves, he said
in free direct speech the reporting clause (who said) disappears free direct speech Coming out tonight? No, Ive got to work. a literary device free indirect speech She wouldnt go out tonight, she thought. She had work to do.
free indirect speech has features of both direct & indirect speech the reporting clause can come after the quote; the quote contains mixed references to time, place and persons. She wouldnt go out tonight, she thought. She had work to do.
Active and passive 1.The boy chased the girl. 2. The girl was chased by the boy. in clause 1 the –er role is expressed by a noun phrase – The boy in clause 2 the –er role is expressed by a prepositional phrase – by the boy clause 1 is in the active; clause 2 is in the passive. the do-er of the action – the chaser – is the boy
why use the passive? to speak impersonally, without assigning someone or something the responsibility for the event. e.g. The girl was chased. The window was smashed. This makes our message seem detached and objective
Making the active sentence passive passive subject active The boy sawthe girl (didnt he?) The girlwas seenby the boy (wasnt she?) verbobject subject verbobject
not all verbs can be expressed as either active or passive. Some verbs can only be expressed as active, i.e. most intransitive verbs, e.g. warning The ship sailed at midnight
common errors inverting subject and auxiliary in reported questions, e.g. When will they be coming? She asked when would they be coming. She asked when they would be coming.
Dad, today the teacher asked me if I had any brothers or sisters. Thats nice of her to take an interest in you. What did she say when you told her you are an only child? She said, Thank goodness.
At a restaurant Waiter, what are these coins doing in my soup? Well, sir, you said you would stop coming to this restaurant unless there was some change in the meals.
What kind of ants can be found in houses? OccupANTS
A teacher asked his class to write an essay about a football match. A minute later all the students were writing except for one child. The teacher looked at her paper. It said, The game was cancelled because of rain.
Why are you putting a bandage on your pay cheque? Because my salary has just been cut.
Task a) Lin said she did not know why she had been so honoured, although she said that she had been wearing all her badges from when she was in the air force. She described how, when they had got on the plane, the crew had taken her on first, carrying her on with a lift. She recalled that when she first boarded, she and the pilot had been the only people sitting in the plane.
Changing from direct to indirect speech make incomplete/unpunctuated sentences into complete/punctuated sentences. Omit filler words such as really and er. Use a range of verbs to precede or follow. what was spoken, e.g. described, recalled. Change from first person to third person. Change from present to past, past to past perfect
text in direct speech vs text in indirect speech Direct: informal immediate creates sense of character sometimes difficult to follow Indirect: formal removed less sense of character easier to follow
Task b) 1. No one wants to take the blame for losing the file 2. The play is considered an object in its own right, distinct from its author 3. There is no single subject for this statement 4. He was not injured deliberately, or by an animate agent, so there is no clear subject 5. Someone must have broken the window, but the structure suggests that no one wants to take responsibility for it, or the agent is not known
6. Who conducted the research is not considered relevant. 7. The passive is used to sound factual. 8. This is reporting a scientific fact, with no need to know who did the heating.
changing from passive to active Regrettably, your file has been lost. Regrettably, (I regret that) I lost your file. I will pay you $5000 so that you can replace it. you will be paid $5000 so that it can be replaced. Shakespeare wrote Macbeth in Macbeth was written in 1606.
The pilot must have seen the badges on my jacket, said Lin. Lin surmised/speculated that the pilot had seen the badges on her jacket. Lin claimed that the pilot had almost certainly seen the badges on her jacket. certainty (opinion) must; surmise; speculate
Im in a wheelchair so I must be lifted into the plane, explained Lin. Lin explained that, because she was in a wheelchair, she had to be lifted into the plane. Lin explained that, because she was in a wheelchair, she must be lifted into the plane 0bligation; must; have to
Im in a wheelchair so I must be lifted into the plane, explained Lin. Lin explained that, because she is in a wheelchair, she must be lifted into the plane. 0bligation; must; have to Lin explained that, because she is in a wheelchair, she has to be lifted into the plane.