Presentation on theme: "Presented by: Hassan Sulaiman Abdelaziz Adnani. “In the past, a traditional classroom, with its emphasis on grammatical competence and explicit knowledge."— Presentation transcript:
Presented by: Hassan Sulaiman Abdelaziz Adnani
“In the past, a traditional classroom, with its emphasis on grammatical competence and explicit knowledge of language rules, did not provide occasions for learners to communicate…” -Adair-Hauck & Donato, 2002
“Unfortunately, many students who spent years learning only the formal properties of the language (sound system, verb conjugations, rules of syntax, vocabulary lists) could not, in the end, exchange information, express ideas or feelings, construct and control problem solving, or develop and nurture a social relationship in a second language.” -Adair-Hauck & Donato, 2002
It is through communication that we are able to improve our world, to prosper, and to enjoy it. - Cooper (1993) Communicative competence stresses the need to know how, when, and why to say what to whom. -Standards of FL Learning, 1996 Importance of Communicative Competence
“ Grammar is a piano I play by ear. All I know about grammar is its power.” Grammar is a piano I play by ear. All I know about grammar is its power. Joan Didion “Second and Foreign language learners want to learn language as it is really used – in both formal and informal settings, and in speech and writing – by native speakers of English.” - Coelho Learning/teaching grammar in context….
Why is it important to know grammar? “I never made a mistake in grammar but one in my life and as soon as I done it I seen it.”I never made a mistake in grammar but one in my life and as soon as I done it I seen it. Carl Sandburg 1) to assess and remediate the errors and error patterns of second-language learners.errors and error patterns 2) the points of grammar can be used as the basis for teaching sentence structure and vocabulary.vocabulary
What is grammar? “It is well to remember that grammar is common speech formulated”It is well to remember that grammar is common speech formulated Somerset Maugham Grammar refers to the language patterns that indicate relationships among words in sentences.
Grammar includes…. Grammar is not a time of waste” Grammar is not a time of waste Nancy Cartwright Morphology – the study of word structure Syntax – the study of word combinations or sentence structure
What do the two major ways to teach grammar known as Inductive and Deductive techniques mean? Induction: ……………………………………………………………… ……....……………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………… Deduction: Task 1
Deductive : Students learn grammar rule Use Rule Inductive: Use grammar rule Learn Rule Deductive vs. Inductive
Deductive Approach: General rule Specific examples Practice ( Top-down Approach )
Inductive Approach: Specific examples Practice General rule ( Bottom- up Approach )
Explains the rule to the learners. Provides NO CONTEXT or COMMUNICATIVE PURPOSE for the grammar. Focuses on form first and then meaning. Drills students to learn the rule mechanically. Assumes all responsibility for student learning. When grammar is taught deductively, the teacher…
Allows the learner to formulate and discover the rule (“to induct”). Provides a CONTEXT and PURPOSE for use. Focuses on meaning first and form second. Helps learners discover the rule through meaningful communication. Empowers the students to problem solve and learn how to learn a language. Source: Donato, 2002 When grammar is taught inductively, the teacher…
“Rarely is the question asked: Is our children learning?” January 11, 2000 From a speech delivered in Florence, South Carolina, and reported in the Los Angeles Times on January 14, George w. bush Speaking:
“ You teach a child to read, and he or her will be able to pass a literacy test” February 21, 2001 From a speech delivered in Townsend, Tennessee. Reported by The New Republic (March 5, 2001 issue). George w. bush Speaking:
“The education issue ought to be discussed about” December 15, 2000 Speaking to press during a meeting with Louisiana senator John Breaux in Austin, Texas.
Explaining Grammar rules. Organizing meaningful grammar practice. Integrating new grammar with the existing grammar knowledge. Dealing with grammar errors Integrating grammar knowledge with teaching communicative skills Main Problems Facing Teachers:
Transposition. E.g. I'll go to the chicken to fry the kitchen. Omission. E.g. He a teacher at school. Redundancy. E.g. Did he went to school last year? Overgeneralization. E.g. Mom goed to work. Ellipsis. Went where? Tag. E.g. Nice fellow. That one. Anaphoric start. E.g. This guy, he is cool. Grammatical errors:
the art of arranging a sequence of teaching actions to take the learners from the state of grammatical ignorance to the state of grammatical knowledge. Logic of teaching grammar:
1. Teaching Interrogative Sentences through Writing interviews and dialogues: Forming questions. Replying with appropriate answers; grammatically correct sentences.
2. Substitution Drill Target SentenceWordInitial Sentence HavingAre you enjoying yourself? calledWhat’s the name of this animal? NobodyAli is the fastest
Target SentenceWordInitial Sentence Are you having a good time? HavingAre you enjoying yourself? What is this animal called? calledWhat’s the name of this animal? Nobody is faster than Ali. NobodyAli is the fastest
3. Teaching tenses (Past Progressive Tense): What were you doing when….?
1. ………… is played by two players. 2. ………… are written by poets. 3. ………… were built in Egypt. 4. ………… was being cooked. 4. Headless sentences (Passive Voice):
What way do we use to teach grammar in Over To You? Why? How? Task 2
The book adopts an inductive rather than deductive approach to presenting grammatical items. It is a rule discovery path: the learners study examples and from these examples derive an understanding of the rule until applying it becomes automatic. What?
Students are actively involved in the learning process rather than being simply passive recipients; they are likely to be more attentive and motivated.Rules that students discover for themselves are more likely to fit their existing natural structures. the rules more meaningful and memorable. Why?
Students are encouraged to listen or read several times to complete different tasks. These tasks encourage them to discover grammar rules themselves and to move from controlled practice to freer, more personalized use of the target language. How?
Research indicates teaching grammar in isolation does not transfer into real communication Grammar is best taught/practiced in communicative contexts Supportive feedback is more helpful than overt correction Students may need many opportunities to hear, read, practice a new structure before they internalize or produce it– months, years How can we teach grammar?
Use materials and plan activities that feature repeated language patterns Use the content of lessons to introduce grammar concepts Provide learners with the tools they need to talk about language Specific strategies to use
When Teaching Grammar there always should be: Motivational context. Learner interaction with others. Learner activity. A well-structured knowledge base. Conclusion & Recommendations:
Gradual introduction with careful steps and plenty of modelling. Personalise the lesson/grammar point. Create a meaningful context for language use.