Presentation on theme: "BASICS OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR"— Presentation transcript:
1BASICS OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRESENT TENSE BE, DEMONSTRATIVES, POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES, PRESENT CONTINOUS, CAN, PREPOSITIONSFIRST BIMESTER
2PRESENT TENSE BEThe verb BE has three forms: AM, IS, ARE, which we have to use according to the pronoun or subject.TO BEOccupationsNounsAdjectivesPlaces
3AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES SubjectVerb FormExampleIAMI am a teacher.YouAREYou are a student.HeISHe is in the lab.SheShe is my sister.ItIt is a city.WeWe are friends.TheyThey are doctors.
4They are not in the school NEGATIVE SENTENCESYou can make negative sentences similar to the sentences before. The only different is to add NOT after am, is, are, as you can see in the following chart.She is not sadThey are not in the school
5NEGATIVE SENTENCES I am not I`m not He She is not It He`s not = He isn’tShe’s not = She isn’tIt’s not = It isn’tWeYou are notTheyWe’re not = We aren’tYou’re not = You aren’tThey’re not = They aren’t
6YES / NO QUESTIONSIn English we have to kind of questions: Yes/No questions and Wh-questions.The Yes / No Questions are called that because the answers always start with Yes or NoRemember to answer Yes/No questions you have to pay attention to the subject.
7YES / NO QUESTIONS Affirmative Statement: Yes / No question: Short Answers:Full /Complete Answers:John and Peter students.John and Peter students?Yes, they are / No, they aren’tYes, they are students. / No they are not students.Mary tall and thin.Mary tall and thin?Yes, she is / No, she isn’tYes, she is tall and thin. / No, she is not tall and thinareAreisIs
8WH - QUESTIONSThe wh-questions look for information accoding to the question word.In this kind of questions you never answer Yes or No, because they are asking for some information. The answer is a statement with the information according to the question word.
9WH - QUESTIONS Wh-word Information about… Example What Things Name OccupationsActivitiesWhat is this? It is a book.What is your name? Roberth.What do you do? I am a driver.What is he doing? He’s workingWhoPeopleWho is the director of the school? Carlos Samaniego.WherePlacesWhere is he? In the house.HowStateForm / mannerHow are you? I am sad.How is Loja? It is small.
10REVIEW Statement Negative Statements Yes/No Question Short Answers I am a teacher.I am not a teacher.Am I a teacher?Yes, you are / No, you are notYou are a student.You are not a student.Are you a student?Yes, I am / No, I am notHe is in the lab.He is not in the lab.Is he in the lab?Yes, he is / No, he is notShe is my sister.She is not my sister.Is she my sister?Yes, she is / No, she is notIt is a city.It is not a city.Is it a city?Yes, it is / No, it is notWe are friends.We are not friends.Are we friends?Yes, we are / No, we are notThey are doctors.They are not doctors.Are they doctors?Yes, they are / No they are not
11DEMONSTRATIVES This is a blackboard These are papers We use THIS / THESE when the objects are near to the speaker.This is a blackboardThese are papersTHIS +Singular NounsTHESE + Plural Nouns
12DEMONSTRATIVES That is a lake. Those are mountains We use THAT / THOSE when the objects are far from the speakers.That is a lake.Those are mountainsTHAT + Singular NounsTHOSE + Plural Nouns
13DEMONSTRATIVES Questions What is that? That is an airplane. Is that a bird?No, it is an airplane.What are those?Those are booksAre those books?Yes, they are books.
14PLURAL NOUNS Noun ending Forming the plural Examples s, x, ch or sh Add -esboss - bosses tax - taxes bush - bushesconsonant + yChange y to i then Add –esfly - flies try - tries curry – curriesmost othersAdd -scat - cats face - faces day – days
15IRREGULAR PLURAL Noun type Forming the plural Examples Ends with -fe Change f to v then Add –sknife - knives life - lives wife - wivesEnds with –fChange f to v then Add –eshalf - halves wolf - wolves loaf - loavesEnds with - oAdd –espotato - potatoes tomato - tomatoes volcano - volcanoes
16IRREGULAR PLURAL Noun type Forming the plural Examples ALL KINDS Change the vowel or Change the word or Add a different endingman - men foot - feet child - children person - people tooth - teeth mouse - miceUnchangingSingular and plural are the samesheep deer fish (sometimes)
17POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES I MyYou YourHe HisShe Her +It ItsWe OurThey Their NOUN
18POSSESSIVE ADJTECTIVES His shirt is newHer pants are blueThis is her catThis is our house
19POSSESSIVE FORM ‘S Kevin’s wife is Rose. His wife is Rose. Charlie’s book is black.The Child’s mother is happy
20PREPOSITION OF PLACE IN (dentro de) In the house in a shop In a room in a townIn a car in a gardenON (sobre una superficie)On a shelf on a wallOn a plate on the tableOn a balcony on a doorAT (lugar específico)At the bus station at homeAt the door at the topAt work at the end of
21PRESENT CONTINOUSThe present continous tense is used to describe activities that happen now, that means activities that are develop in the moment of speakingSubjectBE-ING FORMIAmSingingHeSheItIsWeYouTheyAre
22PRESENT CONTINOUS AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE YES/NO QUESTIONS I am dancing I am not dancingAm I dancing?You are eatingYou are not eatingAre you eating?He is sleepingHe is not sleepingIs he sleeping?She is readingShe is not readingIs she reading?It is runningIt is not runningIs it running?We are walkingWe are not walkingAre we walking?They are studyingThey are not studyingAre they studying?
23RULES Verb ending in... How to make the -ING form Examples 1 vowel + 1 consonantDouble the consonant, then add –INGswim - swimming hit - hitting get – getting1 vowel + 1 consonant + E-Remove E, then add –INGcomecoming lose - losing live – living[anything else]Add –INGsay - saying go - going walk - walking
24CAN / CAN’T Can is used to show ability He can play football He can’t play the pianoThey can danceHe can swimHe can skate
25NEGATIVE AND QUESTIONS AFFIRMATIVENEGATIVEYES/NO QUESTIONSSHORT ANSWERSI can cookI can not cookCan I cook?Yes, you can / No,you can´tYou can danceYou can not danceCan you dance?Yes I can / No I can’tHe can playHe can not playCan he play?Yes, he can / No, he can`tShe can swimShe can not swimCan she swim?Yes, she can / No, she can’tIt can runIt can not runCan it run?Yes, it can / No, it can’tWe can singWe can not singCan we sing?Yes, we can / No, we can’tThey can walkThey can not walkCan they walk ?Yes, they can / No, they can’t