Presentation on theme: "Coffee, Caffeine and Cardiovascular Disease"— Presentation transcript:
1 Coffee, Caffeine and Cardiovascular Disease Ahmed El-SohemyCanada Research Chair in NutrigenomicsDepartment of Nutritional SciencesUniversity of Toronto
2 Diet Genes Nutrigenomics: Using genomic information and techniques in molecular genetics & genomics to addressissues important to nutrition and health.DietGenesFood preferences
3 Why bother with genetics/genomics? Challenges for Nutritional EpidemiologyMeasurement errorConfounding (residual)Recall Bias (case-control)
4 Is Coffee associated with CVD? RiskNo Effect Risk
5 Is Coffee associated with CVD? Coffee or associated lifestyle?Are coffee abstainers at risk?Does risk depend on age?Which component of coffee?There are a number of important issues that often need to be addressed regarding the epidemiology of coffee and heart disease, which might explain some of the inconsistencies in studiesIn some populations, coffee is assoicated with unhealthy lifstyle factors such as smoking and inactivity, factors of which may be associated with the disease. Therefor its possible that previous associations might have been due to residual confoundingIt has been proposed that the higher risk of heart disease among the group with the lowest intake might be due to individuals with underlying diseases who are limiting their coffee intake 12,14.Some studies report that young individuals may be more sensitive to the effects of coffeeor alteratively, cofee becomes a less significant health factor. Therefor studies made up of predominately younger subjects would more likely report an associatiion compared to studies consisting of older subjects.
6 Bioactives in coffee aliphatic acids magnesium potassium caffeine melanoidinsThis is especially difficult given the numerous compounds found in a single cup of coffee, which may have benefical or adverse effects on the heart.Of all these compounds however, caffeine has been one which has been strongly implicated in the development of hdx.diterpenoidspolyphenols
7 Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) Caffeine has been consumed in some form for thousands of years and is currenlty the most widely consumed stimulant in the world with an estimated 80 to 90% of adults reporting regular consumption of caffeine-containing beverages and foods.Sources of caffeine.Intakes vary by courntry and individual
16 Costa Rica Study 2013 cases (myocardial infarction) 2013 population-based controls- matched (age, sex, area of residence)Data collection:- food frequency questionnaire- health and lifestyle questionnaire- fasting blood sample (DNA)
17 CYP1A2 Genotype Distribution Controls%CasesA/AA/CC/C464310454411rapidslow
30 Health Outcome Coffee Genes Genotype A Increase Genotype B No effect Genotype CGenotype BIncreaseDecreaseNo effect
31 Caffeine Consumption Habits Study Healthy Men and Women aged years (n=940)Food Frequency QuestionnaireCaffeine consumptionCaffeine Consumption Habits Questionnaire- Acute effects of caffeine- Caffeine withdrawal symptoms- Limiting or avoiding caffeine
32 DRD2 C957T Genotype and “Elevated Mood” Among Men and Women **** P<0.05** P<0.005
33 DRD2 C957T Genotype and Caffeine Intake Among Men and Women *This is the old one when there were a total of ~640 subjects HOWEVER, this analysis excluded mood disorder* P<0.05
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