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Ahmed El-Sohemy Department of Nutritional Sciences University of Toronto Coffee, Caffeine and Cardiovascular Disease Canada Research Chair in Nutrigenomics.

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Presentation on theme: "Ahmed El-Sohemy Department of Nutritional Sciences University of Toronto Coffee, Caffeine and Cardiovascular Disease Canada Research Chair in Nutrigenomics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ahmed El-Sohemy Department of Nutritional Sciences University of Toronto Coffee, Caffeine and Cardiovascular Disease Canada Research Chair in Nutrigenomics

2 DietGenes Nutrigenomics: Using genomic information and techniques in molecular genetics & genomics to address issues important to nutrition and health. Food preferences

3 Confounding (residual) Measurement error Recall Bias (case-control) Why bother with genetics/genomics? Challenges for Nutritional Epidemiology

4 Risk No Effect Is Coffee associated with CVD?

5 Coffee or associated lifestyle? Are coffee abstainers at risk? Does risk depend on age? Which component of coffee? Is Coffee associated with CVD?

6 magnesium potassium polyphenols caffeine aliphatic acids diterpenoids melanoidins caffeine Bioactives in coffee

7 Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine)

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12 Coffee CVD Caffeine Metabolism SNPs Caffeine Target SNPs

13 Coffee CVD Caffeine Metabolism SNPs Caffeine Target SNPs

14 Caffeine CYP1A2 1-methylxanthine 1-methyluric acid 5-acetylamino-6- formylamino-3- methyluracil 1,7-dimethyluric acid Paraxanthine

15 Genetic Variation in CYP1A A C slow fast

16 Costa Rica Study 2013 cases (myocardial infarction) 2013 population-based controls - matched (age, sex, area of residence) Data collection: - food frequency questionnaire - health and lifestyle questionnaire - fasting blood sample (DNA)

17 CYP1A2 Genotype Distribution slow rapid CYP1A2 Genotype Controls % Cases % A/A A/C C/C

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19 * * P<0.05 Coffee Intake and Risk of Myocardial Infarction Cornelis et al., JAMA 295: , 2006

20 A/A A/C + C/C * P<0.05 * * Cornelis et al., JAMA 295: , 2006 Coffee Intake and Risk of Myocardial Infarction

21 A/A A/C + C/C Subjects <50 Years of Age Coffee Intake and Risk of Myocardial Infarction * P<0.05 * * * * Cornelis et al., JAMA 295: , 2006

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24 Personalized Dietary Advice Public Health Recommendations vs

25 Recommended Maximum Caffeine Intake (Health Canada)

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29 Caffeine Polyphenols Diterpenes ADR ADORA HTT GRK HTR COMT CETP PLTP LDLR ACAT SREBP GST ACE TNF NF B VCAM1 PKC PPARG PDE CREB GLUT PKA GLP1R GLUT FAS1 ACE NOX G6PT1 Genetic modifiers of exposure Genetic modifiers of biological effect CHD Risk Flavonoids CYP1A2 FMO CYP2A6 NAT2 CYP2E1 UGT SULT CYP1A2 CYP3A4 CYP2D6 CYP1A1 UGT SULT CYP2C9 CYP2E1 UGT GST SULT Curr. Opin. Lipidol, 18: 13-19, 2007

30 Increase Decrease No effect Genes Genotype A Genotype C Genotype B Health Outcome Coffee

31 Caffeine Consumption Habits Study Healthy Men and Women aged years (n=940) Food Frequency Questionnaire - Caffeine consumption Caffeine Consumption Habits Questionnaire - Acute effects of caffeine - Caffeine withdrawal symptoms - Limiting or avoiding caffeine

32 * P<0.05 ** * ** P<0.005 DRD2 C957T Genotype and Elevated Mood Among Men and Women

33 * P<0.05 * DRD2 C957T Genotype and Caffeine Intake Among Men and Women

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35 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Marilyn Cornelis Leah Cahill Karen Eny Bénédicte Fontaine-Bisson Ilana Platt Stephen Ozsungur Clare Toguri Canada Research Chairs Canadian Institutes of Health Research Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council Advanced Foods and Materials Network Centres of Excellence Hyeon-Joo Lee Lindsay Stewart Daiva Nielsen Alejandra Navarro-Allende Susana Huang Sarah Herd Darren Brenner Bibiana Garcia-Bailo Hannia Campos Edmond Kabagambe Tom Wolever CCD Investigators Paul Corey David Jenkins


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