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Chemical Engineering 2012. Announcements Ethics of Synthetic Biology Paragraph Due Today – Please to by the end.

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Presentation on theme: "Chemical Engineering 2012. Announcements Ethics of Synthetic Biology Paragraph Due Today – Please to by the end."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemical Engineering Summer@Brown 2012

2 Announcements Ethics of Synthetic Biology Paragraph Due Today – Please email to vince_siu@brown.edu by the end of the day.vince_siu@brown.edu Bridge Competition will take place Friday, August 10 at 9 am in CIT 219.

3 Overview What is Chemical Engineering? Mass Balance Problems Case Study: High Fructose Corn Syrup Lab Tour

4 Two types of chemical engineers Chemical “Process” Engineers – Design, manufacture and operate plants and machinery on industrial scale Chemical “Product” Engineers – Develop or improve large-scale production of various products

5 Scaling-up Production Process Ammonia Production Haber Process – 3H 2 (g) + N 2 (g)  2NH 3 (s) (  H = -92.22 kJ/mol) Fertilizer Plant produces 760,000 tonnes of ammonia each year.

6 Chemistry vs. Chemical Engineering How are they different? Chemists: Design new molecules and synthesizes new formulas – Small scale: Work in grams of materials Chemical Engineers: Design equipment and processes for large-scale chemical manufacturing – Large scale: Work in tonnes of materials

7 What is Chemical Engineering? A. Designing a landfill B. Testing a large scale mixing blade for mixing bread dough C. Designing a new chemical formulation for a fertilizer D. Planning an assembly line for lithium ion batteries All of the above except for C

8 What is Chemical Engineering? Basic sciences PLUS engineering fundamentals Two Main Goals: Convert raw materials into valuable products Design and manufacture devices Tools of the Trade: Chemical reactions (making and breaking of bonds) Catalysis (accelerating chemical reactions) Separation, purification of complex chemical mixtures

9 Goal 1: Convert Raw Materials into Valuable Products Crude Oil  Gasoline, Jet Fuel, Monomers Monomers  Polymers (ethylene  polyethylene)  Plastics Silicon crystals  Semiconductors, integrated circuits Inorganic Precursors  Ceramics Corn Starch  High Fructose Corn Syrup

10 Goal 2: Design and Manufacture Devices Novel materials processes – Kevlar, Gore-Tex, Carbon fiber, Spider silk Energy devices – Li ion batteries, fuel cells, solar devices Waste treatment solutions – Treating septic waste, oil spills

11 August 28, 1859 - Titusville, Pennsylvania

12 Lubbock, Texas Oil Refinement: The start of Chemical Engineering

13 Large Scale Production Haifa, Israel - Oil Refinery 9 million tons (66 million barrels) of crude oil/ year

14 Chemical Engineering; In a Modern World

15 How Chemical Engineering is Affecting our World Today Fuel – Creating and stretching supplies of fossil fuels Cleaner Energy – Non-petroleum energy supply Lithium ion batteries, Solar panels Nuclear “Plastics make it possible” – creating plastics for EVERYTHING. Bottles, bags, styrofoam, clothing, medical devices….. – And now plastics made from plant starch (bio degradable) Plastic Continent

16 How Chemical Engineering is Affecting our World Today Large Scale Production – making products and materials more efficiently for a growing population (diapers, laundry detergent, tires) Convenient and abundant food – Processing it more efficiently Powering Computers – Innovating materials for computer parts to make them work better and faster – Computer chips, to thin film liquid crystal displays Healing Diseases & Extending life – Large scale production of penicillin, flu vaccine, insulin, creating safer sun screen

17 Chemical Engineers are in Demand Top 10 College Degrees by Starting Salary – #2 behind petroleum engineering With growing demand for – Oil – Green energy – Medical devices and medicine – Pollution treatment Along with a growing # of retiring baby boomers Many new developing positions for Chemical Engineering

18 Chemical Engineering: The gateway engineering Opportunities for: – Management, Marketing, Business Examples Linus Pauling – Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1954, Nobel Peace Prize, 1962 Jack Welch – Former CEO of GE Lee Raymond – ExxonMobile chairman and CEO Victor Mills – Invented first disposable diaper Robert Gore – Inventor of Gore-Tex Samuel Bodeman – Former United States Secretary of Energy (2005-2009)

19 A Chemical Engineer’s Curriculum Lots of Math, Chemistry and Physics Fundamental Classes – Heat and Mass Transfer – Chemical Thermodynamics – Chemical Kinetics – Fluid Mechanics – Unit Operations: chemical reactors, bioreactors, distillation columns, heat exchangers – Design Chemical Process – integrate process units with regard to economics, safety and environmental impact

20 Job Opportunities And many more…

21 Chemical Engineering: The Fundamentals

22 Time is Money Chemical Engineers are usually trying to make a process faster, cheaper, sustainable and more economical – Examples Mixing Soap with sound instead of mixing blades Less hazardous waste – Green plastics (biodegradable) – Less toxic by products from Battery manufacturing

23 Tricks of the Trade: Black Box Theory Device, system or object which can be viewed solely in terms of its input, output and transfer characteristics with little to no knowledge of its inner workings Examples: – Computer programming; software testing – Finance: market prediction – Climate change: weather prediction – Physics: Particle Physics Hadron Collider – Human mind: fMRI Biological systems… Black box theory has been used in many fields of science and engineering: Including Chemistry A + BA - B

24 Input/Feed: Ingredients A, B Output: Soap Process: Mixing A + B (SEPARATED)  A + B (mixed) Process: Heating A(75C)  A(30C) Blackbox

25 Looking at your Input and Output Input/Output: Process Streams Mass flow rate, m, (kg/h) Volumetric flow rate, V, (L/min)...... Measurement Gauges What is ρ? A.Density B.Molar mass C.Atomic weight Relate these two equations with…

26 Blackbox m 1, V 1 Measure.. m 2, V 2 Measure.. Soap Mixing Vat Input/Feed: Ingredients A, B Output: Soap Process: Mixing A + B (SEPARATED)  A + B (mixed) Process: Heating A(75C)  A(30C) Unit Operations

27 M in Measure. M out Measure. M in ≠ M out.. Why? Trouble Shooting? 1.Incorrect measurement: Broken Gauges 2.Leaks 3.Soap stuck to the sides of the Vat Soap Mixing Vat Input/Feed: Ingredients A, B Output: Soap

28 The volumetric flow rate of CCl 4 (  = 1.595 g/cm 3 ) in a pipe is 100.0 cm 3 /min. What is the mass flow rate of the CCl 4 ?.... A. 15.95 g/min B.15.95 cm3/min C. 159.5 g/min D. 159.5 cm3/hr

29 Conservation of Mass What goes in must come out!! At steady state, accumulation in system = 0: No reaction:

30 Each year 50,000 people move into a city, 75,000 people move out, 22,000 are born and 19,000 die. Write a balance on the population of the city. City 50,000 People/year 75,000 People/year 22,000 People/year 19,000 People/year Write a mass balance equation for the city

31 City 50,000 People/year 75,000 People/year 22,000 People/year 19,000 People/year Is this a Black Box Question? A.Yes B.No Input Generation Consumption Output

32 A feed stream of pure liquid water enters an evaporator at a rate of 0.5 kg/s. Three streams come from the evaporator: a vapor stream and two liquid streams. The flow-rate of the vapor stream was measured to be 4 X 10 6 L/min and its density was 0.004 kg/m 3. The vapor stream enters a turbine, where it loses enough energy to condense fully and leave as a single stream. One of the liquid streams is discharged as waste, the other is fed into a heat exchanger, where it is cooled. This stream leaves the heat exchanger at a rate of 0.1893 kg/s. Calculate the flow rate of the discharge and the efficiency of the evaporator. Question 3: Mass Balance

33 One thousand kilograms per hour of a mixture of benzene (B) and toluene (T) containing 50% benzene by mass is separated by distillation into two fractions. The mass flow rate of benzene in the top stream is 450 kg B/h and that of toluene in the bottom stream is 475 kg T/h. The operation is at steady state. Write balances on benzene and toluene to calculate the unknown component flow rates in the output streams. Question 4

34 Question 5 Two methanol-water mixtures are contained in separate flasks. The first mixture contains 40.0 wt% methanol, and the second contains 70.0 wt% methanol. If 200 g of the first mixture is combined with 150 g of the second, what are the mass (m) and composition of the product? m (g) x (g CH 3 OH/g) 1-x (g H 2 O/g) 150g 200g

35 Case Study: High Fructose Corn Syrup From Corn to your… Everything

36 High Fructose Corn Syrup Milestones – 1957 – Process developed by Richard O. Marshall and Earl R. Kooi – Up until 1970: sucrose used as a main sweetener – 1975 – 1985 – HFCS introduced to processed foods and soft drinks – Common forms: HFCS 42 and HFCS 55

37 High Fructose Corn Syrup in our Food Beverages: Soft Drinks, Juice, Gatorade, Milk, Vitamin Water Baked goods: Bread, Pastries, Crackers, Granola bars Breakfast Cereal Fruit: Canned, Fruit cups Condiments: Salad Dressing, Ketchup, Peanut butter Soft Drinks95% Baked Goods25% Diary30% Processed Foods45%

38 High Fructose Corn Syrup and Our Health Health Concerns – Links to Obesity Cardiovascular disease Diabetes – Studies show weight gain in rats who consume HFCS is higher than in rats consuming the same amount of calories of natural sugar

39 Sold in a bushel: 56 pounds of wet corn (48.1 lb of dry corn + 7.9 lb of water) Milling Process Corn Oil1.6 lb Cornmeal2.5 lb Animal Feed12.5 lb Starch31.5 lb Water7.9 lb Processing Corn

40 ExtractWeight/BushelCost/PoundCost/Bushel Corn Oil1.6 lb$0.27/lb$0.43/bushel Cornmeal2.5 lb$0.132/lb$0.33/bushel Animal Feed12.5 lb$0.044/lb$0.55/bushel Starch31.5 lb?? Water7.9 lb------- $1.31/bushel Raw MaterialWeight/BushelCost/PoundCost/Bushel Wet Corn56 lb$0.047/lb Cost Analysis of Harvesting Corn What is the Cost to produce one bushel of Wet Corn: Units Conversion 56 lbs$0.047 1 lbs X =$2.63 1 Bushel X $2.63/bushel A. $0.26B.$2.63C. $2.36D. $3.84

41 Corn Starch High Fructose Corn Syrup Liquefication (Mash) – G-G-G-G-G-G G, G-G, G-G-G Saccharification – G-G, G-G-GG, G, G, G, G Isomerization – Glucose Fructose α-amylase Glucoamylase Glucose isomerase

42 Corn Starch Other Extracts Starch Purification Liquefaction Saccharification Isomerization Separator 55% HFCS42% HFCS α-amylase plant glucoamylase plant glucoisomerase plant 3 hrs, pH 6-7, Initial: 300F, 30 min, Heat: 185F, 30 min, Cool: 140F, 30 min 40-90 hours, pH 4, 140F 30 min process, pH 7, 140-150F

43 Composition% Fructose% Glucose% Solid HFCS 42425870 HFCS 55554570 Raw MaterialWeight/BushelCost/lbCost/Bushel HFCS 4231.5 lb$0.18/lb$5.67 HFCS 5531.5 lb$0.20/ lb$6.30

44 ExtractWeight/BushelCost/PoundCost/Bushel Corn Oil1.6 lb$0.27/lb$0.43/bushel Cornmeal2.5 lb$0.132/lb$0.33/bushel Animal Feed12.5 lb$0.044/lb$0.55/bushel Starch31.5 lb$0.18/lb$5.67/bushel Water7.9 lb------- $7.42/bushel Raw MaterialWeight/BushelCost/PoundCost/Bushel Wet Corn56 lb$0.047/lb$2.63/bushel Cost Analysis of Harvesting Corn


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