Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

GEA KM18 Urbanization Urban Energy Systems Findings from the Global Energy Assessment Note: All material presented here is from GEA Chapter 18, available.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "GEA KM18 Urbanization Urban Energy Systems Findings from the Global Energy Assessment Note: All material presented here is from GEA Chapter 18, available."— Presentation transcript:

1 GEA KM18 Urbanization Urban Energy Systems Findings from the Global Energy Assessment Note: All material presented here is from GEA Chapter 18, available at suggested citation: Grubler, A., X. Bai, T. Buettner, S. Dhakal, D. J. Fisk, T. Ichinose, J. E. Keirstead, G. Sammer, D. Satterthwaite, N. B. Schulz, N. Shah, J. Steinberger and H. Weisz, 2012: Chapter 18 - Urban Energy Systems. In Global Energy Assessment - Toward a Sustainable Future, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA, and IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria, pp

2 GEA KM18 Urbanization Global Energy Assessment Multi-stakeholder “IPCC of energy” Focus on energy challenges, options, transitions Assess linkages: access/poverty, development, security, health, climate Policy guidance (normative scenarios) First ever assessment of urbanization: KM18

3 GEA KM18 Urbanization The world is already today predominantly urban (~3/4 of final energy) 2. 2.Rural populations are likely to peak at 3.5 billion and decline after 2020 (all long-term energy growth will be urban) 3. 3.City dwellers have often lower direct energy and carbon footprints 4. 4.Important deficits in urban energy and carbon accounting (embodied energy, import/export balance) jeopardize effective policies 5. 5.Cities have specific sustainability challenges & opportunities (high density enables demand/supply management but calls for low waste/~zero-impact systems) Vast improvement potentials (> x 2), but most require management of urban form and systemic change (recycling, cascading, energy- transport, land-use-transport systems integration,..) Governance Paradox: - largest leverage from systemic change, - but requires overcoming policy fragmentation and dispersed, uncoordinated decision taking Main Messages

4 GEA KM18 Urbanization How Urban is the World AD2000?

5 GEA KM18 Urbanization Urban and Rural Population Projections (Millions) GEA-H, GEA-M, GEA-L and UN WUP, 2010

6 GEA KM18 Urbanization Population by Settlement Type/Size Number of agglomerations in 2005 growth dominated by small & medium sized cities!

7 GEA KM18 Urbanization The world is already today predominantly urban (~3/4 of final energy) 2. 2.Rural populations are likely to peak at 3.5 billion and decline after 2020 (all long-term energy growth will be urban) 3. 3.City dwellers have often lower direct energy and carbon footprints 4. 4.Important deficits in urban energy and carbon accounting (embodied energy, import/export balance) jeopardize effective policies 5. 5.Cities have specific sustainability challenges & opportunities (high density enables demand/supply management but calls for low waste/~zero-impact systems) Vast improvement potentials (> x 2), but most require management of urban form and systemic change (recycling, cascading, energy- transport, land-use-transport systems integration,..) Governance Paradox: - largest leverage from systemic change, - but requires overcoming policy fragmentation and dispersed, uncoordinated decision taking Main Messages

8 GEA KM18 Urbanization Annex-I: Per Capita Urban Direct Final Energy Use (red= above national average, blue = below national average) n=132

9 GEA KM18 Urbanization Non-Annex-I: Per Capita Urban Direct Final Energy Use (red= above national average, blue = below national average) n=68

10 GEA KM18 Urbanization Path Dependent Urban Energy – Incomes

11 GEA KM18 Urbanization Direct and Embodied Urban Energy Use in Asian Cities

12 GEA KM18 Urbanization Urban Energy & GHG Accounting Conundrums Tradeoffs between comprehensiveness, policy relevance, & data availability; Key: systems boundaries Production accounting -- clear methodology (IPCC/OECD) -- data availability (>200 cities) -- policy/benchmark relevant (industry, buildings, transport) Consumption accounting -- comprehensiveness (with full accounting) -- intricate methodological issues (no agreed standard, local prices vs national, vs multi-regional I-O) -- data nightmare (estimates for only few megacities)

13 GEA KM18 Urbanization The world is already today predominantly urban (~3/4 of final energy) 2. 2.Rural populations are likely to peak at 3.5 billion and decline after 2020 (all long-term energy growth will be urban) 3. 3.City dwellers have often lower direct energy and carbon footprints 4. 4.Important deficits in urban energy and carbon accounting (embodied energy, import/export balance) jeopardize effective policies 5. 5.Cities have specific sustainability challenges & opportunities (high density enables demand/supply management but calls for low waste/~zero-impact systems) Vast improvement potentials (> x 2), but most require management of urban form and systemic change (recycling, cascading, energy- transport, land-use-transport systems integration,..) Governance Paradox: - largest leverage from systemic change, - but requires overcoming policy fragmentation and dispersed, uncoordinated decision taking Main Messages

14 GEA KM18 Urbanization Urban Energy Poverty, Access, & Policy Costs 14

15 GEA KM18 Urbanization China - Air Pollution (SO 2 ) Exposure

16 GEA KM18 Urbanization Urban Air Pollutants Concentrations 16

17 GEA KM18 Urbanization Europe – Energy Demand Densities blue = renewable supply density threshold 79% EEU >66% of energy demand

18 GEA KM18 Urbanization Urban Density and Car Mobility Average over cities of the cited area reference year 1991 Individual cities, reference year 2001 Cities in Asia and South America Cities in USA and Australia Cities in Europe Weak correlation above density threshold Low density “penalty”

19 GEA KM18 Urbanization Urban Energy and Exergy Efficiency Vienna 2007

20 GEA KM18 Urbanization The world is already today predominantly urban (~3/4 of final energy) 2. 2.Rural populations are likely to peak at 3.5 billion and decline after 2020 (all long-term energy growth will be urban) 3. 3.City dwellers have often lower direct energy and carbon footprints 4. 4.Important deficits in urban energy and carbon accounting (embodied energy, import/export balance) jeopardize effective policies 5. 5.Cities have specific sustainability challenges & opportunities (high density enables demand/supply management but calls for low waste/~zero-impact systems) Vast improvement potentials (> x 2), but most require management of urban form and systemic change (recycling, cascading, energy- transport, land-use-transport systems integration,..) Governance Paradox: - largest leverage from systemic change, - but requires overcoming policy fragmentation and dispersed, uncoordinated decision taking Main Messages

21 GEA KM18 Urbanization Stylized Hierarchy in Urban Energy/GHG Drivers and Policy Leverages 1.Spatial division of labor (trade, industry structure, bunkers) 2.Income (consumption) 3.Efficiency of energy end-use (buildings, processes, vehicles, appliances) 4.Urban form (density↔public transport↔car ownership↔functional mix) 5.Fuel substitution (imports) 6.Energy systems integration (co-generation, heat-cascading) 7.Urban renewables Decreasing order of importance Increasing level of urban policy leverage

22 GEA KM18 Urbanization SynCity Simulations of Urban Policy Leverages 22

23 GEA KM18 Urbanization The world is already today predominantly urban (~3/4 of final energy) 2. 2.Rural populations are likely to peak at 3.5 billion and decline after 2020 (all long-term energy growth will be urban) 3. 3.City dwellers have often lower direct energy and carbon footprints 4. 4.Important deficits in urban energy and carbon accounting (embodied energy, import/export balance) jeopardize effective policies 5. 5.Cities have specific sustainability challenges & opportunities (high density enables demand/supply management but calls for low waste/~zero-impact systems) Vast improvement potentials (> x 2), but most require management of urban form and systemic change (recycling, cascading, energy- transport, land-use-transport systems integration,..) Governance Paradox: - largest leverage from systemic change, - but requires overcoming policy fragmentation and dispersed, uncoordinated decision taking Main Messages

24 GEA KM18 Urbanization GEA KM18 Authors & Resources Lead Authors: Xuemei Bai, Thomas Buettner, Shobhakar Dhakal, David J. Fisk, Arnulf Grubler (CLA), Toshiaki Ichinose, James Keirstead, Gerd Sammer, David Satterthwaite, Niels B. Schulz, Nilay Shah, Julia Steinberger, Helga Weisz Contributing Authors: Gilbert Ahamer*, Timothy Baynes*, Daniel Curtis*, Michael Doherty, Nick Eyre*, Junichi Fujino*, Keisuke Hanaki, Mikiko Kainuma*, Shinji Kaneko, Manfred Lenzen, Jacqui Meyers, Hitomi Nakanishi, Victoria Novikova*, Krishnan S. Rajan, Seongwon Seo*, Ram Manohar Shrestha*, P.R. Shukla*, Alice Sverdlik (*Contributors to GEA KM18 city energy data base) Resources: Online: Chapter 18 (main text) Supporting material: GEA KM18 working papers and city energy data base A. Grubler and D. Fisk (eds), Energizing Sustainable Cities: Assessing Urban Energy, Earthscan (2012)

25 GEA KM18 Urbanization 25


Download ppt "GEA KM18 Urbanization Urban Energy Systems Findings from the Global Energy Assessment Note: All material presented here is from GEA Chapter 18, available."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google