Presentation on theme: "session outline today’s topic: tense group work: revising the tenses"— Presentation transcript:
1session outline today’s topic: tense group work: revising the tenses evaluating classroom activities;BREAKdeveloping teaching activities;discussion and feedback;self evaluation (Learning Log).2
2two forms of the present tense 1. simple present2. present continuous(or progressive)1
3simple present tensethe form of the simple present tense is the same as the base (dictionary) form of the verb with all Subjects except3rd person singular (pronouns or nouns referring to a 3rd party) e.g.I read regularly we read regularlyyou read regularly you read regularlyshe reads regularly they read regularly
4an exception the verb “to be” Subject be form I am hungry you are she iswethey
5the meaning of the simple present tense the simple present tense is used when the event expressed by the verb is:habitual, e.g. I walk to work every day.timeless, e.g. The sun rises in the east.typical, e.g. He lives in Singapore.I like sweets.
6other uses of the simple present tense certain kinds of con/texts also use this form:sports commentary, e.g. He shoots! He scores! It’s a goal!newspaper headlines, e.g. Minister quits job.dramatic recounts, e.g. I creep forward and a cat rushes out.stage directions, e.g. Curtain rises. Chorus enters from stage left.
7other uses of the simple present tense a future event may be expressed using the simple present tense on condition that some other element in the sentence shows that the event lies in the future, e.g.I begin work next week.When she rings I’ ll answer.
8present continuous tense the form of thepresent continuous tensethe present continuous tense consists of:be V-ingthe present tense of the verb be as auxiliarythe -ing form of the lexical verb e.g. writingI am reading a good book at the moment.(You are reading…She is reading…)
9present continuous tense: meaning the event is in progressthe event expressed by the lexical verb must belong to the category – doing or saying e.g.They’re watching the clock.She’s studying grammar this term.but not* She is knowing all about grammar.* She is being hungry* He is having black hair
10other uses of the present continuous tense as with the simple present tense, a future event may be expressed using the present continuous tense on condition that some other element in the sentence shows that the event lies in the future, e.g.We’re visiting Sentosa in the holidays.
11forms of the past tense 1. simple past tense consists of: the base form ed (for regular verbs)e.g. They walked to school.meaning: the eventi) is completed orii) was habitual in the past1
12forms of the past tense 2. past continuous tense consists of: be (past) V-ing (pres. part.)e.g. They were walking to school
13past continuous ※ ※ past now walk saw e.g. They were walking to school when they saw an accident.※ ※past nowwalksawmeaning: a past event is related to some other event that also occurred around this time.
14present perfect have (pres.) + V-ed (past participle) the present perfect tense is formed by:have (pres.) + V-ed (past participle)e.g. I have/ she has been illsince last Saturday.
15present perfectI have / she has lived in Singapore since 1990※ ※NOWmeaning: an event which began in the past continues into the present1
16present perfect continuous formed by:have (pres.) + been + V-ing (pres. part.)e.g. He has been living in Singapore for one yearsome verbs do not occur in the present perfect continuous (only in the present perfect), i.e. sensing verbs and verbs of being /having (poss.) e.g.I have been knowing her for a long time.I have been having a cat for two weeks.
17present perfect continuous I have been waiting for two hours.※ ※6 p.m now (8 p.m.)meaning: the event began in the past and is not necessarily complete, i.e. it may continue into the present.1
18past perfect formed by: had + V-ed (past participle) e.g. By 8.45 everyone had arrived so the class began.presentdistant past pastarrive begin
19past perfect When she had finished she poured herself a drink. ※ ※ ※more distant past past presentfinish pourmeaning: a past event is related to an event that occurred even earlier in the past.1
20past perfect continuous formed by:had been V-ing (pres. part.)e.g. He had been living in Singapore before he moved to Hong Kong.distant past past presentliving moved
21past perfect continuous It began to rain after I had been walking for an hour※ ※ ※period in the past past event presentwalk beginmeaning: a past event is related to an earlier event which continued for some time.1
22the forms of tenses present tense past tense pres.part past. part -ed-ingworksworkedisworkingwashashadbeensimplecontinuousperfectperfect +continuous
23meaning of the tenses tense present past simple event is usual -s event is completed -edcontinuousevent is currently ongoing:is V-ingevent is ongoing in the past: was V-ingperfectevent began in the past & continues presently:has -edevent is related to an even earlier past event: had -edevent began in the past and is not necessarily complete; i.e. it may continue into the present: has been V-ingevent is related to an earlier event which went on for some time: had been V-ing
24incorrect use of tenses sequences of tenses:We had a police force whose duty is to protect us.We have a police force whose duty is to protect us.ORWe had a police force whose duty was to protect us.1
25incorrect use of tenses using have in the continuous (present or past)e.g. *She’s having a cold.*They were having lots of money.She has a cold.They had lots of money.Generally speaking, continuous tenses are not permitted with verbs of being (including have =possess)
26incorrect use of tenses using past perfect tense where no earlier event in the past is implied,e.g. I had read that book years ago.When no event earlier in the past is relevant, then the simple past tense should be used, i.e.I read that book years ago.
27a useful reference Greenbaum & Quirk, pp.47-69 Rediscover Grammar by David Crystal London: Longman. (nd.) pp.76-83
28Learning Logcomplete summary sheet (p.7)complete Unit 5 (p.21 ff)
29simple present Ships regularly cross the Atlantic. The unsinkable sinks!The tale of the Titanic is one that never ceases to fascinate.If it becomes at all doubtful…
30simple past The White Star liner Titanic…set out from… …it was normal for ships to travel at full speed…
31past continuous…he was trying to send messages to the wireless station in Newfoundland…Frederick Fleet was looking from the crow’s nest when he saw something…
32exercise (c)had been excited past perfect were excited simple past (completed event)They was no S-V concord They were S-V concordhave arrived present perfect arrived simple past (completed event)had .. been able past perfect were..able to simple pastto continuousthey fish simple present they fished simple past (completed event)
33exercise (c)must dig present + obligation had to dig past + obligationgive simple present gave simple pastthey thanks simple present they thanked simple past
34ways of telling about the future: will + infinitive (‘simple future’)going to + infinitiveabout to + infinitiveexpressions of time (adverbials) used with present tense
35to plan or predict events to make offers (inclination)to make suggestions (inclination)for emphasis (determination)
36I shall wait for you / I’ll wait for you infinitive = (to+) the base form of the lexical verbe.g. The class will finish soon.The class’ll finish soon.I shall wait for you / I’ll wait for you
37present continuous form of go + infinitive form of lexical verb this form is typically usedfor events that are imminent:e.g.We’re going to crash!
38However, it may be used with a distant event on condition that an adverbial expression of time is added, e.g.He’s going to be a train driver when he grows up.
39expresses immediacy, i. e expresses immediacy, i.e. an event that is on the point of happening, e.g.The plane is about to leave.
40other expressions of future events time adverbial + simple present tense,e.g. I begin my holiday tomorrow.time adverbial + present continuous, e.g. I am beginning my holiday tomorrow.
41forms of the future tense future will / be going tosimplewill takebe going / about to takecontinuouswill + be + V -ingis going to + V-ingwill be takingis going to be takingperfectwill have + V-edis going to have + V-edwill have takenis going to have takenperfect contin.will have been + V-ingis going to have been + V-ingwill have been taking;is going to have been taking
42meaning of the future forms simple * will work* be going toannounce plans /predictions;future fulfillment of present intention or causecontinuouswill be workingis going to be workingperfectwill have workedis going to have workedthe past viewed from a future perspectiveperfect continis going to have been workingthe past viewed from a perspective of filfillment in the future
43Use of would instead of will to express future: e.g. A meeting is planned for tomorrow.It would begin at 10 a.m. It will begin at 10 a.m.
44forms of the tenses present -s past -ed future will / be going to simpleworksworkedwill workcontinuousbe + V-ingis workingwas workingwill be workingis going to workperfecthave + V-edhas workedhad workedwill have workedis going to have..perfect contin.have + be + V-inghas been workinghad been workingwill have been working;is going to have been working
45Dear Guests,During the Lunar New Year period from 4th-7th February we would be showing movies on the Big Screen in the lobby. Please refer to the front desk for the movies and screening times. Tea, coffee and soft drinks would be served.The café and restaurant would operate on the following days: Friday 4th Feb: 7.00am-3.00pmSaturday 5th Feb: closedAs both café and restaurant would be closed in the evenings may we invite you to join us for a meal in the lobby.Yours sincerely
46tense usage in the extract from Kate Atkinson’s Behind the Scenes at the Museum simple presentsimple futurefuture continuousconditional1goes, fades, are left, liewould happen, would recognise2reappears, puts,pins, sleeps3are, sails, hangswill creep, will suck4spatters, am, is,takes, spendwill disappearwill be extinguishedgoing to wake, going to save, going to takekey: facts; possibilities; fears; hopes
47jokingly...Customer: Waiter, there's only one piece of meat on my plate.Waiter: Just a minute, Sir.I’m going to cut it in two.
48Patient: Doctor, help me. My heart is Patient: Doctor, help me. My heart is beating very fast and I feel terrible. I think I’m going to die.Doctor: Nonsense. That's the last thing you'll do.
49Two fish were swimming together in a river. Fish A: Look, it's starting to rain.Fish B: Quick. Let's swim under the bridge, or we’ll get wet.