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session outline today’s topic: tense group work: revising the tenses

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1 session outline today’s topic: tense group work: revising the tenses
evaluating classroom activities; BREAK developing teaching activities; discussion and feedback; self evaluation (Learning Log). 2

2 two forms of the present tense
1. simple present 2. present continuous (or progressive) 1

3 simple present tense the form of the simple present tense is the same as the base (dictionary) form of the verb with all Subjects except 3rd person singular (pronouns or nouns referring to a 3rd party) e.g. I read regularly we read regularly you read regularly you read regularly she reads regularly they read regularly

4 an exception the verb “to be” Subject be form I am hungry you are she
is we they

5 the meaning of the simple present tense
the simple present tense is used when the event expressed by the verb is: habitual, e.g. I walk to work every day. timeless, e.g. The sun rises in the east. typical, e.g. He lives in Singapore. I like sweets.

6 other uses of the simple present tense
certain kinds of con/texts also use this form: sports commentary, e.g. He shoots! He scores! It’s a goal! newspaper headlines, e.g. Minister quits job. dramatic recounts, e.g. I creep forward and a cat rushes out. stage directions, e.g. Curtain rises. Chorus enters from stage left.

7 other uses of the simple present tense
a future event may be expressed using the simple present tense on condition that some other element in the sentence shows that the event lies in the future, e.g. I begin work next week. When she rings I’ ll answer.

8 present continuous tense
the form of the present continuous tense the present continuous tense consists of: be V-ing the present tense of the verb be as auxiliary the -ing form of the lexical verb e.g. writing I am reading a good book at the moment. (You are reading…She is reading…)

9 present continuous tense: meaning
the event is in progress the event expressed by the lexical verb must belong to the category – doing or saying e.g. They’re watching the clock. She’s studying grammar this term. but not * She is knowing all about grammar. * She is being hungry * He is having black hair

10 other uses of the present continuous tense
as with the simple present tense, a future event may be expressed using the present continuous tense on condition that some other element in the sentence shows that the event lies in the future, e.g. We’re visiting Sentosa in the holidays.

11 forms of the past tense 1. simple past tense consists of:
the base form ed (for regular verbs) e.g. They walked to school. meaning: the event i) is completed or ii) was habitual in the past 1

12 forms of the past tense 2. past continuous tense consists of:
be (past) V-ing (pres. part.) e.g. They were walking to school

13 past continuous ※ ※ past now walk saw
e.g. They were walking to school when they saw an accident. ※ ※ past now walk saw meaning: a past event is related to some other event that also occurred around this time.

14 present perfect have (pres.) + V-ed (past participle)
the present perfect tense is formed by: have (pres.) + V-ed (past participle) e.g. I have/ she has been ill since last Saturday.

15 present perfect I have / she has lived in Singapore since 1990 ※ ※ NOW meaning: an event which began in the past continues into the present 1

16 present perfect continuous
formed by: have (pres.) + been + V-ing (pres. part.) e.g. He has been living in Singapore for one year some verbs do not occur in the present perfect continuous (only in the present perfect), i.e. sensing verbs and verbs of being /having (poss.) e.g. I have been knowing her for a long time. I have been having a cat for two weeks.

17 present perfect continuous
I have been waiting for two hours. ※ ※ 6 p.m now (8 p.m.) meaning: the event began in the past and is not necessarily complete, i.e. it may continue into the present. 1

18 past perfect formed by: had + V-ed (past participle)
e.g. By 8.45 everyone had arrived so the class began. present distant past past arrive begin

19 past perfect When she had finished she poured herself a drink.
※ ※ ※ more distant past past present finish pour meaning: a past event is related to an event that occurred even earlier in the past. 1

20 past perfect continuous
formed by: had been V-ing (pres. part.) e.g. He had been living in Singapore before he moved to Hong Kong. distant past past present living moved

21 past perfect continuous
It began to rain after I had been walking for an hour ※ ※ ※ period in the past past event present walk begin meaning: a past event is related to an earlier event which continued for some time. 1

22 the forms of tenses present tense past tense pres.part past. part
-ed -ing works worked is working was has had been simple continuous perfect perfect + continuous

23 meaning of the tenses tense present past simple event is usual -s
event is completed -ed continuous event is currently ongoing: is V-ing event is ongoing in the past: was V-ing perfect event began in the past & continues presently: has -ed event is related to an even earlier past event: had -ed event began in the past and is not necessarily complete; i.e. it may continue into the present: has been V-ing event is related to an earlier event which went on for some time: had been V-ing

24 incorrect use of tenses
sequences of tenses: We had a police force whose duty is to protect us. We have a police force whose duty is to protect us. OR We had a police force whose duty was to protect us. 1

25 incorrect use of tenses
using have in the continuous (present or past) e.g. *She’s having a cold. *They were having lots of money. She has a cold. They had lots of money. Generally speaking, continuous tenses are not permitted with verbs of being (including have =possess)

26 incorrect use of tenses
using past perfect tense where no earlier event in the past is implied, e.g. I had read that book years ago. When no event earlier in the past is relevant, then the simple past tense should be used, i.e. I read that book years ago.

27 a useful reference Greenbaum & Quirk, pp.47-69
Rediscover Grammar by David Crystal London: Longman. (nd.) pp.76-83

28 Learning Log complete summary sheet (p.7) complete Unit 5 (p.21 ff)

29 simple present Ships regularly cross the Atlantic.
The unsinkable sinks! The tale of the Titanic is one that never ceases to fascinate. If it becomes at all doubtful…

30 simple past The White Star liner Titanic…set out from…
…it was normal for ships to travel at full speed…

31 past continuous …he was trying to send messages to the wireless station in Newfoundland… Frederick Fleet was looking from the crow’s nest when he saw something…

32 exercise (c) had been excited past perfect were excited simple past (completed event) They was no S-V concord They were S-V concord have arrived present perfect arrived simple past (completed event) had .. been able past perfect were..able to simple past to continuous they fish simple present they fished simple past (completed event)

33 exercise (c) must dig present + obligation had to dig past + obligation give simple present gave simple past they thanks simple present they thanked simple past

34 ways of telling about the future:
will + infinitive (‘simple future’) going to + infinitive about to + infinitive expressions of time (adverbials) used with present tense

35 to plan or predict events
to make offers (inclination) to make suggestions (inclination) for emphasis (determination)

36 I shall wait for you / I’ll wait for you
infinitive = (to+) the base form of the lexical verb e.g. The class will finish soon. The class’ll finish soon. I shall wait for you / I’ll wait for you

37 present continuous form of go + infinitive form of lexical verb
this form is typically used for events that are imminent: e.g.We’re going to crash!

38 However, it may be used with a distant event on condition that an adverbial expression of time is added, e.g. He’s going to be a train driver when he grows up.

39 expresses immediacy, i. e
expresses immediacy, i.e. an event that is on the point of happening, e.g. The plane is about to leave.

40 other expressions of future events
time adverbial + simple present tense, e.g. I begin my holiday tomorrow. time adverbial + present continuous, e.g. I am beginning my holiday tomorrow.

41 forms of the future tense
future will / be going to simple will take be going / about to take continuous will + be + V -ing is going to + V-ing will be taking is going to be taking perfect will have + V-ed is going to have + V-ed will have taken is going to have taken perfect contin. will have been + V-ing is going to have been + V-ing will have been taking; is going to have been taking

42 meaning of the future forms
simple * will work * be going to announce plans /predictions; future fulfillment of present intention or cause continuous will be working is going to be working perfect will have worked is going to have worked the past viewed from a future perspective perfect contin is going to have been working the past viewed from a perspective of filfillment in the future

43 Use of would instead of will to express future:
e.g. A meeting is planned for tomorrow. It would begin at 10 a.m.  It will begin at 10 a.m. 

44 forms of the tenses present -s past -ed future will / be going to
simple works worked will work continuous be + V-ing is working was working will be working is going to work perfect have + V-ed has worked had worked will have worked is going to have.. perfect contin. have + be + V-ing has been working had been working will have been working; is going to have been working

45 Dear Guests, During the Lunar New Year period from 4th-7th February we would be showing movies on the Big Screen in the lobby. Please refer to the front desk for the movies and screening times. Tea, coffee and soft drinks would be served. The café and restaurant would operate on the following days: Friday 4th Feb: 7.00am-3.00pm Saturday 5th Feb: closed As both café and restaurant would be closed in the evenings may we invite you to join us for a meal in the lobby. Yours sincerely

46 tense usage in the extract from Kate Atkinson’s Behind the Scenes at the Museum
simple present simple future future continuous conditional 1 goes, fades, are left, lie would happen, would recognise 2 reappears, puts, pins, sleeps 3 are, sails, hangs will creep, will suck 4 spatters, am, is, takes, spend will disappear will be extinguished going to wake, going to save, going to take key: facts; possibilities; fears; hopes

47 jokingly... Customer: Waiter, there's only one piece of meat on my plate. Waiter: Just a minute, Sir. I’m going to cut it in two.

48 Patient: Doctor, help me. My heart is
Patient: Doctor, help me. My heart is beating very fast and I feel terrible. I think I’m going to die. Doctor: Nonsense. That's the last thing you'll do.

49 Two fish were swimming together in a river.
Fish A: Look, it's starting to rain. Fish B: Quick. Let's swim under the bridge, or we’ll get wet.


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