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1 todays topic: tense group work: revising the tenses evaluating classroom activities; BREAK developing teaching activities; discussion and feedback;

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Presentation on theme: "1 todays topic: tense group work: revising the tenses evaluating classroom activities; BREAK developing teaching activities; discussion and feedback;"— Presentation transcript:

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2 1 todays topic: tense group work: revising the tenses evaluating classroom activities; BREAK developing teaching activities; discussion and feedback; self evaluation (Learning Log).

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4 3 the form of the simple present tense is the same as the base (dictionary) form of the verb with all Subjects except 3 rd person singular (pronouns or nouns referring to a 3 rd party) e.g. I read regularlywe read regularly you read regularlyyou read regularly she reads regularlythey read regularly

5 4 the verb to be Subjectbe form Iamhungry youarehungry sheishungry wearehungry youarehungry theyarehungry

6 5 the simple present tense is used when the event expressed by the verb is: timeless, e.g. The sun rises in the east. typical, e.g. He lives in Singapore. I like sweets. habitual, e.g. I walk to work every day.

7 6 certain kinds of con/texts also use this form: sports commentary, e.g. He shoots! He scores! Its a goal! newspaper headlines, e.g. Minister quits job. dramatic recounts, e.g. I creep forward and a cat rushes out. stage directions, e.g. Curtain rises. Chorus enters from stage left.

8 7 a future event may be expressed using the simple present tense on condition that some other element in the sentence shows that the event lies in the future, e.g. I begin work next week. When she rings I ll answer.

9 8 the present continuous tense consists of: I am reading a good book at the moment. (You are reading…She is reading…) 1.the present tense of the verb be as auxiliary 2.the -ing form of the lexical verb e.g. writing be + V-ing

10 9 the event is in progress but not * She is knowing all about grammar. * She is being hungry * He is having black hair the event expressed by the lexical verb must belong to the category – doing or saying e.g. Theyre watching the clock. Shes studying grammar this term.

11 10 as with the simple present tense, a future event may be expressed using the present continuous tense on condition that some other element in the sentence shows that the event lies in the future, e.g. Were visiting Sentosa in the holidays.

12 11 1. simple past tense consists of: the base form + -ed (for regular verbs) meaning: the event i) is completed or ii) was habitual in the past e.g. They walked to school.

13 12 2. past continuous tense consists of: be (past) + V-ing (pres. part.) e.g. They were walking to school

14 13 meaning: a past event is related to some other event that also occurred around this time. past now walk saw e.g. They were walking to school when they saw an accident.

15 14 the present perfect tense is formed by: e.g. I have/ she has been ill since last Saturday. have (pres.) + V-ed (past participle)

16 15 I have / she has lived in Singapore since 1990 meaning: an event which began in the past continues into the present 1990 NOW

17 16 formed by: have (pres.) + been + V-ing (pres. part.) some verbs do not occur in the present perfect continuous (only in the present perfect), i.e. sensing verbs and verbs of being /having (poss.) e.g. I have been knowing her for a long time. I have been having a cat for two weeks. e.g. He has been living in Singapore for one year

18 17 I have been waiting for two hours. meaning: the event began in the past and is not necessarily complete, i.e. it may continue into the present. 6 p.m. now (8 p.m.)

19 18 formed by: had + V-ed (past participle) e.g. By 8.45 everyone had arrived so the class began. distant past past arrive begin present

20 19 When she had finished she poured herself a drink. more distant past past present finish pour meaning: a past event is related to an event that occurred even earlier in the past.

21 20 formed by: distant pastpastpresent living moved e.g. He had been living in Singapore before he moved to Hong Kong. had been V-ing (pres. part.)

22 21 period in the past past event present walkbegin meaning: a past event is related to an earlier event which continued for some time. It began to rain after I had been walking for an hour

23 22 the forms of tensesforms present tensepast tensepres.partpast. partpres. part -s-ed-ing-ed works worked isworking wasworking hasworked hadworked hasbeenworking hadbeenworking

24 23 tensepresentpast simpleevent is usual -sevent is completed -ed continuous event is currently ongoing: is V-ing event is ongoing in the past: was V-ing perfectevent began in the past & continues presently: has -ed event is related to an even earlier past event: had -ed perfect continuous event began in the past and is not necessarily complete; i.e. it may continue into the present: has been V-ing event is related to an earlier event which went on for some time: had been V-ing meaningmeaning of the tenses

25 24 sequences of tenses: We had a police force whose duty is to protect us. We have a police force whose duty is to protect us. We had a police force whose duty was to protect us. OR

26 25 using have in the continuous (present or past) e.g.*Shes having a cold. *They were having lots of money. She has a cold. They had lots of money. Generally speaking, continuous tenses are not permitted with verbs of being (including have =possess)

27 26 using past perfect tense where no earlier event in the past is implied, e.g. I had read that book years ago. I read that book years ago. When no event earlier in the past is relevant, then the simple past tense should be used, i.e.

28 27 Greenbaum & Quirk, pp Rediscover Grammar by David Crystal London: Longman. (nd.) pp.76-83

29 28 1.complete summary sheet (p.7) 2.complete Unit 5 (p.21 ff)

30 29 simple present Ships regularly cross the Atlantic. If it becomes at all doubtful… The tale of the Titanic is one that never ceases to fascinate. The unsinkable sinks!

31 30 simple past The White Star liner Titanic…set out from… …it was normal for ships to travel at full speed…

32 31 past continuous … he was trying to send messages to the wireless station in Newfoundland… Frederick Fleet was looking from the crows nest when he saw something…

33 32 exercise (c) had been excitedpast perfectwere excitedsimple past (completed event) they fishsimple present they fishedsimple past (completed event) had.. been able past perfect were..able to simple past to continuous have arrivedpresent perfect arrivedsimple past (completed event) They was no S-V concord They wereS-V concord

34 33 exercise (c) must digpresent + obligation had to digpast + obligation they thankssimple presentthey thankedsimple past givesimple present gavesimple past

35 34 will + infinitive (simple future) going to + infinitive about to + infinitive expressions of time (adverbials) used with present tense ways of telling about the future:

36 35 to plan or predict events to make offers (inclination) to make suggestions (inclination) for emphasis (determination)

37 36 infinitive = (to+) the base form of the lexical verb e.g. The class will finish soon. The classll finish soon. I shall wait for you / Ill wait for you

38 37 present continuous form of go + infinitive form of lexical verb this form is typically used for events that are imminent: e.g. Were going to crash!

39 38 Hes going to be a train driver when he grows up. However, it may be used with a distant event on condition that an adverbial expression of time is added, e.g.

40 39 expresses immediacy, i.e. an event that is on the point of happening, e.g. The plane is about to leave.

41 40 time adverbial + simple present tense, e.g. I begin my holiday tomorrow. time adverbial + present continuous, e.g. I am beginning my holiday tomorrow.

42 41 formsforms of the future tense future will / be going to simplewill take be going / about to take continuous will + be + V -ing is going to + V-ing will be taking is going to be taking perfect will have + V-ed is going to have + V-ed will have taken is going to have taken perfect contin. will have been + V-ing is going to have been + V-ing will have been taking; is going to have been taking

43 42 meaning of the future forms formmeaning simple * will work * be going to announce plans /predictions; future fulfillment of present intention or cause continuous will be working is going to be working future fulfillment of present intention or cause perfect will have worked is going to have worked the past viewed from a future perspective perfect contin is going to have been working the past viewed from a perspective of filfillment in the future

44 43 Use of would instead of will to express future: e.g. A meeting is planned for tomorrow. It would begin at 10 a.m. It will begin at 10 a.m.

45 44 formsforms of the tenses present -s past -ed future will / be going to simpleworksworkedwill work continuous be + V-ing is workingwas workingwill be working is going to work perfect have + V-ed has workedhad workedwill have worked is going to have.. perfect contin. have + be + V- ing has been working had been working will have been working; is going to have been working

46 45 Dear Guests, During the Lunar New Year period from 4 th -7 th February we would be showing movies on the Big Screen in the lobby. Please refer to the front desk for the movies and screening times. Tea, coffee and soft drinks would be served. The café and restaurant would operate on the following days: Friday 4 th Feb: 7.00am-3.00pm Saturday 5 th Feb: closed As both café and restaurant would be closed in the evenings may we invite you to join us for a meal in the lobby. Yours sincerely

47 46 tense usage in the extract from Kate Atkinsons Behind the Scenes at the Museum simple presentsimple futurefuture continuous conditional 1goes, fades, are left, lie would happen, would recognise 2reappears, puts, pins, sleeps 3are, sails, hangswill creep, will suck 4spatters, am, is, takes, spend will disappear will be extinguished going to wake, going to save, going to take key: facts; possibilities; fears; hopes

48 47 Customer: Waiter, there's only one piece of meat on my plate. Waiter: Just a minute, Sir. Im going to cut it in two.

49 48 Patient: Doctor, help me. My heart is beating very fast and I feel terrible. I think Im going to die. Doctor: Nonsense. That's the last thing you'll do.

50 49 Two fish were swimming together in a river. Fish A: Look, it's starting to rain. Fish B: Quick. Let's swim under the bridge, or well get wet.


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