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1 Predicate Actants Valency-controlled by Arabic verbs Presented by Dina EL KASSAS Paris VII University, France Miniya University, Egypt

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Presentation on theme: "1 Predicate Actants Valency-controlled by Arabic verbs Presented by Dina EL KASSAS Paris VII University, France Miniya University, Egypt"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Predicate Actants Valency-controlled by Arabic verbs Presented by Dina EL KASSAS Paris VII University, France Miniya University, Egypt The Second International AUC OXF Conference on Languages and Linguistics

2 2 Overview Theoretical framework Syntactic functions Arabic complex predicate syntactic structure Conclusion Perspective

3 3 Theoritical Framework Semantic Representation synthesissynthesissynthesissynthesis multistratalmultistratalmultistratalmultistratal Deep Syntactic Representation Surface Syntactic Representation Deep Morphological Representation Surface Morphological Representation Meaning Text Theory

4 4 Surface Syntactic Representation (SSyntR) (Part of speech) (Part of speech (Part of speech) flexionnel categories surface syntactic relation (SSyntR)

5 5 Example ʔ akala ate (V) Voice: active Mode: indicative Tense: past tuffah at appel (N) Def: indef Num: singular walad boy (N) Def: def Num: singular subjectdir-obj ʔ akala al+walad+u tuffah at+a+n (V)PAST DEF+(N)+NOM(N)+ACC+INDEF The boy ate an apple.

6 6 SSyntRel controlled by verb valency 1)Subject 2)Propositional Subject 3)Direct object 4)Indirect object 5)Pseudo object 6)Oblique object I 7)Oblique object II 8)Prépositionnel Agent 9)Quotative complement 10)Attribute 11)Copredicate subject 12)Copredicate object 13)Propositionnel object I 14)Propositionnel object II Actancial relations Circonstancial relations 15)Circonstanciel complement 16)Circonstanciel aspect complement Other Relations 17)Adjonctionnel relation 18)Parenthetic relation 19)Proleptic relation 20)Relation of reduplication

7 7 Grammaticalised biclausal constructions [V1V2] (V1) (V2) Jonction (V) Voice : active Mode : indicative Tense : (V) Voice : active Mode : indicative Tense : (present)

8 8 Some grammaticalised jonctions Kaana_V V Static _V V phase _V V PCU _V V modal _V Inna_V V_V subordinate

9 9 Verbal jonctionnel SSyntRel kaana (N) (V) (PRO) Verbal jonctionnel (V) Voice : active, Mode : indicative, Tense : (V) Voice : active, Mode : indicative, Tense : subject kaana al+ ʔ at faal+ujal ʕ abuun {humu} (V)PAST DEF+(N)PL+NOM(V)PRESENT (PRO) was les enfantsplay {they} Children was playing. (كان الأولاد يلعبون) Kaana_V «[kaana N S1 ] P1 [V PRO S2 ] P2 »

10 10 Some asyndetic grammaticalised jonctions Kaana_V V Static _V V phase _V V PCU _V V modal _V Inna_V V_V subordinate

11 11 Attributive SSyntRel ʔ amsaa (N) (V) (PRO) Attributive (V) Voice : active, Mode : indicative, Tense : (V) Voice : active, Mode : indicative, Tense : subject ʔ amsaa al+ ʔ at faal+ujal ʕ abuun {humu} (V)PAST DEF+(N)PL+NOM(V)PRESENT (PRO) pass the nightles enfantsplay {they} Children passed the night playing. (أمسى الأولاد يلعبون) V static _V «[ ʔ amsaa N S1 ] P1 [V PRO S2 ] P2 »

12 12 Other examples asbaha al+ ʔ awlaad+u jal ʕ abuun {humu} (V)PAST DEF+(N)+NOM (V)PRESENT {PRO} pass the morning children play {they} Ø kaana al+ ʔ awlaad+ujal ʕ abuun {humu} kaana al+ ʔ awlaad+u jal ʕ abuun {humu} adhaaal+ ʔ awlaad+u jal ʕ abuun {humu} baataal+ ʔ awlaad+u jal ʕ abuun {humu} V static _V

13 13 A particularity of kaana kaanaal+ ʔ awlaad+ujamsuun {humu}jal ʕ abuun {humu} Children was spending night playing. (كان الأولادُ يمسون يلعبون) kaana (N) (V) (PRO) Verbal jonctionnel (V) Voice : active, Mode : indicative, Tense : subject (V) attributive subject (PRO) (V) Voice : active, Mode : indicative, Tense: present (V) Voice : active, Mode : indicative, Tense: present «[kaana N S1 ] P1 [Static Verb PRO S2 ] P2 [V PRO S3 ] P3 » V static _V

14 14 Some asyndetic grammaticalised jonctions Kaana_V V Static _V V phase _V V PCU _V V modal _V Inna_V V_V subordinate

15 15 Phase verbs in Traditional arabic grammar (TAD) I TAD mixed together sixteen verbs under the name of kaada and its sisters (كاد وأخواتها). These verbs are categorised also as incomplete verbs (أفعال ناقصة). They are also called verbs of approximation and strarting. (أفعال المقاربة والشروع). According to the traditional analyse, this group of verbs governed an ʔ ism a substantive in the nominative case and a propositional χabar. The syntactic head of the so-called χabar is a verb in present tense, governing a subjective pronoun corefering with the ʔ ism. That mean that these verbs has a predicate syntactic actant. V phase _V

16 16 Phase verbs in Traditional arabic grammar (TAD) II According to their semantic, these verbs are subdivised to: Inchoative verbs : e.g. bada ʔ a, ʔ aχaða and qaama Evaluative verbs: e.g. kaada, arafa, karuba et awaka nearly, almost. Verbs expressing the desir that an action occur when the opposite is apprehended: e.g. ʕ asaa, harij, uχlawlaq on the condition that/ hoping that. V phase _V

17 17 Direct-objectival SSyntRel and phase verbs A phase verb may governed one of the following syntactic structures: (V) subj (N) dir-obj ʔ an (CONJ) conj-sub (V 2 ) (V)SUBJ subject (PRO) (V) dir-obj masdar (N masdar ) (V) dir-obj (PREP) prepositionnel masdar (N masdar ) V phase _V

18 18 But inchoative verbs governed also this construction V phase _V

19 19 The [V1V2] and inchoative verbs Object complement relation ʔ a χ aða = start (V1) Voice : active Mode : indicative Tense : past subject zajd dir-obj-propositionnel 1 juðaakiru = study (V2) Voice : active Mode : indicative Tense : present subject (PRO) ʔ a χ aðazajd+u+njuðaakiru {huwa} (V)PAST(N)+NOM+INDEF(V)PRESENT startZaydstudy {he} Zayd start studying. (اخذ زيدٌ يذاكر) (N) V phase _V

20 20 Another Example ʔ aqbala 1 | qaama 1 al+ ʔ awlaad+uja ʕ maluun {humu} (V)PASTDEF+(N)+NOM(V)PRESENT Startchildrenwork (they) Children start working. (أقبل | قام الأولاد يعملون)vs ʔ aqbala 2 | qaama 2 al+ ʔ awlaad+u (V)PASTDEF+(N)+NOM Came nearer | stand upchildren Children came nearer |stant up. (أقبل| قام الأولاد) V phase _V

21 21 Some asyndetic grammaticalised jonctions Kaana_V V Static _V V phase _V V PCU _V V modal _V Inna_V V_V subordinate

22 22 Valency of PCU verbs By PCU verbs, we refere to the group named zanna estimate and its sisters (ظن وأخواتها) and the group called ʔ araa see and its sisters (أرى وأخواتها). Verbe PCU (V2) dir-obj propositionnel 2 (V) Voice: x Mode: y, Tense: z (V) Voix: indicative Mode: y, Tense: z ʔ anna (PREPé) (PRO) prolepse Prep-evidentiality (N) V PCU _V

23 23 The construction [V1 V2] and PCU verbs juðaakiru prolepse ʔ anna (PRO) prep-evidentiality walad hasiba Dir-obj-prop2 ʔ anna subject (PRO) copredicate (V3) Dir-obj (N)PL, DEF (PRO) (V1) Dir-obj-prop2 (V2) hasibazajd+u+n ʔ annaal+ ʔ awlaad+a juðaakiruun {humu} (V)PAST (N)+NOM+INDEF(PREPe) DEF+(N)+ACC(V)PRESENT (PRO) thoughtZayd aboutchildrenstudy {they} Zayd thought children was studying. (حسب زيد أن الأولاد يذاكرون) (V1) (N)PL, DEF (V2) hasiba juðaakiru walad Direct-object complement V PCU _V

24 24 Some asyndetic grammaticalised jonctions Kaana_V V Static _V V phase _V V PCU _V V modal _V V_V subordinate Inna_V

25 25 Objective-copredicative SSyntR taraktu (V)ind, past subject ʔ anaa (PRO)1,SG dir-obj walad (N,masc) PL,DEF obj-copred la ʕ iba (V)ind, present subject huwa (PRO) taraktu { ʔ anaa}al+ ʔ awlaad+ajal ʕ abuun {humu} (V1)PASTDEF+(N)+ACC(V2)PRESENT left {I}les enfantsplay {they} I left children playing. (تركت الأولادُ يلعبون) V modal _V

26 26 Some asyndetic grammaticalised jonctions Kaana_V V Static _V V phase _V V PCU _V V modal _V V_V subordinate Inna_V

27 27 A particular subordinated construction ðaakir { ʔ anta}tan ʤ aha { ʔ anta}(V)Imperative If you study you will success. Study to success. (ذاكر تنجح) ðaakir = study (V1) Voice : active Mode : imperative subject ʔ anta cicronstancial tan ʤ aha = success (V2) Voice : active Mode : imperative subject ʔ anta (N)

28 28 Another example: An indirect speech [sa ʔ altu#hu { ʔ anaa}]P1 [maaðaa juriidu {huwa}]P2 (V1)PAST#(PRO) (ADV) (V2)PRESENT asked#him {I}whatwants {he} I asked him what did he want. Je lui ai demandé ce quil voulait. (سألته ماذا يريد)

29 29 Some asyndetic grammaticalised jonctions Kaana_V V Static _V V phase _V V PCU _V V modal _V V_V subordinate Inna_V

30 30 ʔ i nnas group verb or a preposition inna subject (PRO) copredicate (V) dir-obj (N) (PRO) ((V)ind, past ʔ inna {huwa}al+ ʔ awlaad+a ʔ akaluu {humu} al+tuffaah+a (ka ʔ anna | la ʕ alla) al+ ʔ awlaad+a ʔ akaluu {humu} al+tuffaah+a (V) prolepse inna prep-evidential (N) case = accusative (PRO) (PREPe)

31 31 Conclusion Predominance of parataxis aspect in arabic Particular interpropositionnel syntactic relation

32 32 Perspective An exhaustive inventory of verbs admitting a finite verb as a syntactic actant. More studies about the parataxis aspect of arabic language.

33 33 Thank you


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