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DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 161 Unit 16 Psychological Effects of Aging Nurse Aide I Course.

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Presentation on theme: "DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 161 Unit 16 Psychological Effects of Aging Nurse Aide I Course."— Presentation transcript:

1 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 161 Unit 16 Psychological Effects of Aging Nurse Aide I Course

2 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 162 Psychological Effects Of Aging This unit deals with the feelings, emotional stress and psychological adjustments that are part of the aging process. It explores the physical and psychosocial needs of residents, and teaches the skills that the nurse aide will need to develop to provide understanding and compassionate care.

3 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 163 Psychological Effects Of Aging (continued) Other topics covered include: age appropriate behavior, sexuality, reality orientation, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, confusion and developmental disabilities.

4 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 164

5 5 16.0Discuss ways to meet the resident’s basic human needs for life and mental well-being.

6 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 166 Physical Needs For Survival And Care To Be Given Oxygen –elevate head of bed –assist to sit up in chair –report to supervisor if resident is cyanotic or short of breath –assist with breathing exercises

7 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 167 Physical Needs For Survival And Care To Be Given (continued) Food –Feed residents unable to feed themselves

8 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 168 Physical Needs For Survival And Care To Be Given (continued) Food –Serve food with proper temperature in friendly manner in pleasant environment in appropriate amounts –Make sure dentures are in place

9 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 169 Physical Needs For Survival And Care To Be Given (continued) Water –make available within resident’s reach –provide fresh water at periodic intervals

10 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1610 Physical Needs For Survival And Care To Be Given (continued) Shelter –provide for warmth with extra blankets –be sure residents are dressed properly –avoid drafts or drafty areas

11 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1611 Physical Needs For Survival And Care To Be Given (continued) Sleep –Minimize noise and lights during hours of sleep –Give back rub to relax resident

12 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1612 Physical Needs For Survival And Care To Be Given (continued) Sleep (continued) –Report complaints of pain to supervisor –Listen to concerns or worries the resident may wish to express –Leave night light on in the resident’s room, if requested

13 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1613 Physical Needs For Survival And Care To Be Given (continued) Elimination –Assist to bathroom as needed –Provide bedpan and/or urinal –Provide for privacy

14 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1614 Physical Needs For Survival And Care To Be Given (continued) Elimination (continued) –Change soiled linen immediately –Following routine for bowel and bladder retraining as directed

15 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1615 Physical Needs For Survival And Care To Be Given (continued) Activity –ROM exercises as directed –Turn and reposition at least every two hours

16 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1616 Physical Needs For Survival And Care To Be Given (continued) Activity –Assist with activity as directed –Encourage movement –Encourage interesting recreational activities

17 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1617 Safety And Security Needs Provide for warmth Establish familiar surroundings –explain procedures –talk about “their” room –keep your promises –provide a safe environment –promote use of personal belongings

18 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1618 Safety and Security Needs (continued) Maintain order and follow routines, assisting resident to participate in establishing routine as often as possible

19 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1619 Safety and Security Needs (continued) Assist to reduce fear and anxiety –listen to resident’s worries and report to supervisor –ease concerns when possible –check on residents frequently Avoid rushing and assist resident in gentle manner

20 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1620 Love and Affection Needs Friendship Social Acceptance Closeness Meaningful relationships with others Love Sexuality

21 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1621 Love and Affection Needs (continued) Belonging –Need met by family/support system –Friends may meet this need

22 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1622 Love and Affection Needs (continued) The nursing staff as family: take time to greet residents when you see them sit and visit for a few minutes when time allows show interest in residents

23 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1623 Love and Affection Needs (continued) The nursing staff as family (continued) : display human warmth with a gentle touch show acceptance of an individual for his or her unique qualities provide care in a kind, friendly, considerate manner

24 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1624 Self-Esteem Needs Value, worth or opinion of oneself Seeing oneself as useful Being well thought of by others

25 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1625 Self-Esteem Needs (continued) Nurse aide’s responsibilities –call resident by proper name –praise accomplishments –discuss current issues –request resident’s opinion –show respect and approval

26 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1626 Need for Self-Actualization (experiencing one’s potential) Cannot occur until all other needs are met A feeling that a person is what one wants to be Rarely is this need totally met

27 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1627 Need for Self-Actualization (experiencing one’s potential) (continued) Ways to help residents to meet this need: –assist to participate in meaningful activities –assist to dress and help with grooming –encourage independence –encourage socialization

28 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1628 Need for Self-Actualization (experiencing one’s potential) (continued) Ways to help residents to meet this need (continued) : –share goals with residents and praise their success or accomplishments –know what resident has accomplished in his/her lifetime and talk about these things

29 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1629 Spiritual Needs Residents have the right to worship and express their faith freely.

30 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1630 Spiritual Needs (continued) Guidelines for the nurse aide: –respect resident’s beliefs –respect resident’s religious objects –inform residents of the time and place for religious services

31 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1631 Spiritual Needs (continued) Guidelines for the nurse aide (continued) : –assist resident to attend religious services –provide privacy for members of the clergy and residents –welcome members of the clergy

32 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1632

33 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Identify eight defense mechanisms that could be used by a resident in response to stress.

34 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1634 Coping Mechanisms Established early in life as part of personality List of defense mechanisms (unconscious behaviors) –Projection - blaming others –Rationalization - false reason for situation

35 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1635 Coping Mechanisms (continued) List of defense mechanisms (unconscious behaviors) (continued) –Denial - pretending a problem doesn’t exist –Compensation - making up for a situation in some other way

36 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1636 Coping Mechanisms (continued) List of defense mechanisms (unconscious behaviors) (continued) –Displacement - transferring feelings about one person to another person –Daydreaming - escape from reality

37 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1637 Coping Mechanisms (continued) List of defense mechanisms (unconscious behaviors) (continued) –Identification - idolizing another and trying to copy him/her –Sublimation - redirecting feelings to constructive activity

38 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1638

39 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Recognize how age, illness and disability affect sexuality.

40 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1640 Sexuality Expressed by individuals of all ages A way to show feminine or masculine qualities –Clothing styles and colors –Hairstyles –Hobbies and interests –Sexual habits (continue into old age) –Gestures

41 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1641 Sexuality (continued) May be expressed by: –Sexual intercourse –Caressing, touching, holding hands –Masturbation Is a right of all residents to experience

42 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1642 Guidelines For The Nurse Aide In Dealing With Resident Sexuality Assist to maintain sexual identity by dressing residents in clothing appropriate for men or women Assist with personal hygiene

43 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1643 Guidelines For The Nurse Aide In Dealing With Resident Sexuality (continued) Assist to prepare for special activities by “dressing up” –selecting attractive clothing –fixing hair in a special way –applying cosmetics –wearing a special perfume or aftershave

44 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1644 Guidelines For The Nurse Aide In Dealing With Resident Sexuality (continued) Help to develop a positive self-image Show acceptance and understanding for resident’s expression of love or sexuality –provide privacy –always knock prior to entering a room at any time –assure privacy when requested

45 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1645 Guidelines For The Nurse Aide In Dealing With Resident Sexuality (continued) Never expose the resident Accept the resident’s sexual relationships

46 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1646 Guidelines For The Nurse Aide In Dealing With Resident Sexuality (continued) Provide protection for the non- consenting resident Be firm but gentle in your rejection of a resident’s sexual advances

47 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1647 Possible Effects Of Injury Or Illness On Sexuality Disfiguring surgery may cause a person to feel: –unattractive and ugly to others –mutilated and deformed –unworthy of love or affection

48 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1648 Possible Effects Of Injury Or Illness On Sexuality (continued) Chronic illness and certain medications can affect sexual functioning

49 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1649 Possible Effects Of Injury Or Illness On Sexuality (continued) Disorders that cause impotence –diabetes mellitus –spinal cord injuries –multiple sclerosis –alcoholism

50 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1650 Possible Effects Of Injury Or Illness On Sexuality (continued) Surgery can have both physical and/or psychological effects –removal of prostate or testes –amputation of a limb –removal of uterus –removal of ovaries –removal of a breast –colostomy –ileostomy

51 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1651 Possible Effects Of Injury Or Illness On Sexuality (continued) Disorders affecting the ability to have sex: –stroke –nervous system disorders –heart disease

52 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1652 Possible Effects Of Injury Or Illness On Sexuality (continued) Disorders affecting the ability to have sex: –chronic obstructive pulmonary disease –circulatory disorders –arthritis or conditions affecting mobility/ flexibility

53 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1653

54 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Identify developmental tasks associated with aging.

55 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1655 Developmental Tasks Of Aging Adjustment to: –retirement –reduced income –death of friends –death of spouse –physical changes –loss of independence

56 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1656 Developmental Tasks Of Aging (continued) Creating new friendships and relationships Loss of vitality Integrating life experiences Preparation for death

57 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1657

58 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Identify symptoms of depression and define the nurse aide’s role in caring for a depressed resident.

59 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1659 Depression Reasons for depression –Loss of independence –Death of spouse or friend –Loss of job or home –Decreased memory –Terminal illness

60 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1660 Common Signs And Symptoms Of Depression Change in sleep pattern Loss of appetite and weight loss Crying, withdrawal from activities, appearing sad

61 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1661 Nurse Aide’s Role In Caring For The Depressed Resident Listen to feelings Encourage to reminisce Involve in activities Encourage friends and family to visit Report changes in eating, elimination or sleeping patterns

62 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1662 Nurse Aide’s Role In Caring For The Depressed Resident (continued) Avoid pitying the resident Help to focus on reality Monitor eating and drinking Promote self-esteem Report observations to supervisor

63 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1663

64 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Identify the issues to be considered when elderly are unable to provide for their own needs in their own homes.

65 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1665 Issues Involving Care Of The Elderly Amount of care needed Cost Nutritional needs Relationship with family/support system Location of family/support system Medical care needs

66 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1666 Issues Involving Care Of The Elderly (continued) The elderly person may experience: –Living with a group of people –Less independence –Structured lifestyle –Less privacy –Difficulty adapting to change

67 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1667 Issues Involving Care Of The Elderly (continued) Decision made by individual or family for long-term care may cause stress

68 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1668

69 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Utilize the resident’s family or established support system as a source of emotional support.

70 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1670 Emotional Support for Residents Family/support system meets needs for: –Safety –Security –Love –Belonging –Esteem

71 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1671 Emotional Support for Residents (continued) Family/support system provides: –Comfort –Support –Relief from loneliness –Contact with familiar people and things –Mental stimulation –Reasons to live

72 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1672 Ways To Promote Family Involvement Include in care conferences Encourage to do some or all of personal grooming Provide outside picnic areas, playground equipment, gardens

73 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1673 Ways To Promote Family Involvement (continued) Provide area for family/support system parties Invite families to scheduled activities Encourage to assist with feeding if appropriate

74 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1674 Ways To Promote Family Involvement (continued) Encourage to bring special foods or beverages for resident if allowed Encourage time together

75 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1675 Responsibilities of the Nurse Aide when Dealing with Family/Support System Members Greet the family/support system Address family members by name Make family and friends feel welcome Provide for privacy Keep lines of communication open

76 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1676 Responsibilities of the Nurse Aide when Dealing with Family/Support System Members (continued) Understand that family and friends will do or say things to try and please the resident Use tact in dealing with family complaints and requests that you cannot honor

77 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1677 Responsibilities of the Nurse Aide when Dealing with Family/Support System Members (continued) Assist families to understand the facility and how it works Provide explanations for family questions or report to supervisor to assist the family with questions

78 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1678 Responsibilities of the Nurse Aide when Dealing with Family/Support System Members (continued) Reassure family as they cope with resident’s actions, problems and concerns

79 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1679

80 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Identify the symptoms displayed by residents with dementia.

81 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1681 Dementia (Group Of Symptoms) Defined as a progressive loss of mental functioning

82 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1682 Dementia (Group Of Symptoms) (continued) Two categories of dementia –1 st Category: Primary No known cause Irreversible May be treated but not completely cured

83 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1683 Dementia (Group Of Symptoms) (continued) Two categories of dementia –1 st Category: Primary Examples of diseases causing dementia –Alzheimer’s disease –Parkinson’s disease –Huntington’s Chorea (genetic)

84 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1684 Dementia (Group Of Symptoms) (continued) Two categories of dementia –2 nd Category: Secondary Usually has known cause Treatable Reversible to some degree

85 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1685 Dementia (Group Of Symptoms) (continued) Two categories of dementia –2 nd Category: Secondary Examples of secondary causes of dementia –depression –minor stroke –thyroid dysfunction –medication induced

86 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1686 Symptoms Of Dementia Confusion Inability to reason accurately Recent memory loss Detailed long-term memory Repetitious speech Self-centered behavior Agitation Disorientation Confabulation

87 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1687

88 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Review the psychosocial characteristics and care needs of a person with Alzheimer’s disease.

89 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1689 Alzheimer’s Disease Defined as a progressive, 3-stage, incurable disease that involves changes in brain tissue Responsible for about half of the dementia seen Symptoms usually occur in people years of age

90 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1690 Alzheimer’s Disease (continued) Affects more women than men Always ends in death 3-15 years after symptoms begin

91 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1691 Alzheimer’s Disease: Signs And Symptoms Irreversible loss of memory Speech and writing difficulties Disorientation Difficulty walking –loss of balance –short steps –spatial disorientation

92 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1692 Alzheimer’s Disease: Signs And Symptoms (continued) Deterioration of mental functions –Unable to make decisions –Loss of ability to make judgments –Changes in behavior restless angry depressed irritable

93 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1693 Alzheimer’s Disease: Signs And Symptoms (continued) Possible seizures Coma and death

94 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1694 Alzheimer’s Disease: Considerations For Care Assist to be as active as possible Encourage in activities of daily living Orient to reality Protect from injury

95 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1695 Alzheimer’s Disease: Considerations For Care (continued) Maintain calm, consistent environment Complete ADL at the same time each day Use reality orientation

96 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1696 Alzheimer’s Disease: Considerations For Care (continued) Same caregivers assigned to resident Involve in simple, limited activities Follow routines Treat with patience and compassion

97 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1697 Alzheimer’s Disease: Considerations For Care (continued) Support family Communicate with simple phrases Don’t pose questions or ask to make choices

98 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 1698

99 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Discuss disorders that cause confusion for residents.

100 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Confusion Symptom or side effect of many disorders Disorders causing confusion –Stroke –Arteriosclerosis –Dementia –Alzheimer’s Disease –Huntington’s Chorea

101 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Confusion (continued) Other Causes –Drug reactions –Depression –Environmental changes –Vision and/or hearing loss –Dehydration –Poor nutrition –Decreased oxygen levels in blood –Head injury

102 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Confusion (continued) Condition can be permanent or temporary

103 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Reality Orientation Used For Confusion Includes: –Facing resident and speaking clearly and slowly –Greeting the resident by name with each interaction –Identifying yourself with each interaction

104 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Reality Orientation Used For Confusion (continued) Includes: –Explaining care in simple terms prior to giving care –Frequently orienting the resident to the day, month, date, and time –Giving short, simple instructions

105 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Reality Orientation Used For Confusion (continued) Includes: –Encouraging residents to wear glasses or hearing aides –Communicating with touch and clear and simple comments and questions

106 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Reality Orientation Used For Confusion (continued) Includes: –Encouraging use of radio, television, newspapers, and magazines –Maintaining resident’s routine

107 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Reality Orientation Used For Confusion (continued) Includes: –Giving only one direction at a time –Keeping the environment calm and relaxed

108 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Reality Orientation Used For Confusion (continued) Includes: –Providing clocks, calendars and bulletin boards to remind residents of time and activities –Discussing current topics

109 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Reality Orientation Used For Confusion (continued) Includes: –Reminiscing –Showing resident self-image in mirror –Providing recreational activities which reinforce reality orientation

110 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Reality Orientation Used For Confusion (continued) Includes: –Dressing residents during the day and assisting them to stay on a day-night schedule

111 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 16111

112 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Identify basic skills the nurse aide will need to use when caring for residents with developmental disabilities.

113 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Developmental Disabilities Diagnoses –Mental retardation –Cerebral palsy

114 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Developmental Disabilities (continued) Guidelines for Care –Treat the individual with respect and dignity –Encourage residents to: make personal choices do as much as possible for themselves

115 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Developmental Disabilities (continued) Guidelines for Care (continued) –Encourage residents to: use age appropriate personal skills achieve their potential interact with others

116 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Developmental Disabilities Guidelines for Care –Do not: act as resident’s parent create dependency label or categorize residents –Do provide privacy –Do build resident’s self-esteem

117 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 16117

118 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Identify ways to assist residents with cognitive impairments.

119 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Ways To Assist Stressed Residents Listen to concerns Observe and report nonverbal messages Treat with dignity and respect Attempt to understand behavior

120 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Ways To Assist Stressed Residents (continued) Be honest and trustworthy Never argue with residents Attempt to locate source of stress Support efforts to deal with stress

121 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Ways To Assist Demanding Residents Attempt to discover factors responsible for behavior Display a caring attitude Listen to verbal and nonverbal messages Give consistent care

122 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Ways To Assist Demanding Residents (continued) Spend some time with the resident Agree to return to see the resident at a specific time and keep your promise

123 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Ways To Assist Agitated Residents Encourage to talk about fears Remind resident of past ability to cope with change Encourage to ask questions about concerns

124 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Ways To Assist Agitated Residents (continued) Involve in activities that promote self-esteem Observe for safety and to prevent wandering away Assign small tasks Use reality orientation

125 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Ways To Assist Residents Displaying Paranoid Thinking Reassure the resident that you will provide for his or her safety Realize behavior is based on fear Avoid agreeing or disagreeing with comments Provide calm environment Involve in reality activities

126 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Ways To Assist Combative Residents Display a calm manner Avoid touching the resident Provide privacy for out-of-control residents Secure help if necessary

127 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit Ways To Assist Combative Residents (continued) Do not ignore threats Protect yourself from harm Listen to verbal aggression without argument

128 DFS Approved Curriculum-Unit 16128


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