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تفکر و مديريت استراتژيک سير تحولات سبكهاي مديريتي CRAFTSMANSHIP ( استاد كاري و صنعتگري ) MASS PRODUCTION ( توليد انبوه ) QUALITY & PARTICIPATION ERA.

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Presentation on theme: "تفکر و مديريت استراتژيک سير تحولات سبكهاي مديريتي CRAFTSMANSHIP ( استاد كاري و صنعتگري ) MASS PRODUCTION ( توليد انبوه ) QUALITY & PARTICIPATION ERA."— Presentation transcript:

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2 تفکر و مديريت استراتژيک

3 سير تحولات سبكهاي مديريتي CRAFTSMANSHIP ( استاد كاري و صنعتگري ) MASS PRODUCTION ( توليد انبوه ) QUALITY & PARTICIPATION ERA ( دوران كيفيت و مشاركت ) JAPAN IS MASTER IN QUALITY QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (ISO9000) QUALITY MANAGEMENT AS INTERNATIONAL PHILOSOPHY (TQM) GLOBALIZATION (BUSINESS EXCELLENCE) SHEWHART CHRUZB ISHIKAWA DEMING JURAN توليد محدود كيفيت مطلوب توليد انبوه نزول كيفيت كنترل محصولات استاندارد و كنترل كفيت FREDRICK TAILOR 1900 1950197519801990 NOW كميت كيفيت مشاركت 8

4 در توجه به نيازها و منافع مشتري، جدي تر در توجه به نيازها و منافع مشتري، جدي تر در توسعة قابليتها به سمت سازمانهاي فراجو ، نزديك تر در توسعة قابليتها به سمت سازمانهاي فراجو ، نزديك تر در پذيرش تغيير و تحول، مشتاق تر در پذيرش تغيير و تحول، مشتاق تر در استفادة از تكنولوژي اطلاعاتي و ارتباطي، مهياتر در استفادة از تكنولوژي اطلاعاتي و ارتباطي، مهياتر در ارائة راه حلها، نوآورتر در ارائة راه حلها، نوآورتر در تبديل ايده به عمل، سريعتر در تبديل ايده به عمل، سريعتر در اعمال تغييرات اساسي، تواناتر در اعمال تغييرات اساسي، تواناتر در واكنش به محيط، منعطف تر در واكنش به محيط، منعطف تر ويژگيهاي سازمانهاي امروز

5 سيستم ها اجزاء + روابطهدف سيستم های بسته ( مكانيكي ) سيستم های باز ( ارگانيك ) سازه هاي ايستا سيستم های مكانيكي ساده مکانيزم های خودکنترلي سيستم های تک سلولی سيستم های گياهی سيستم های حيوانی سيستم های انسانی سيستم های اجتماعی سيستم های انتزاعی سيستم های روي خود بسته ( ديالوژيك ) كاركرد / رفتار / عملکرد سيستم ساختار سيستم ] اجزاء و روابط [ محيط اختيار و حق انتخاب انسان

6 سازمان پديدهاي اجتماعي به شمار ميرود كه آگاهانه هماهنگ شده، و با حد و مرز نسبتاً مشخص، براي تحقق هدف يا اهدافي مشترك فعاليت مينمايد. سازمان عبارت از فرآيندي نظام يافته از روابط متقابل افراد براي دست يافتن به هدفهاي معين است. تعريف سازمان

7 سازمان و محيط سازمان مشتريان تامين کنندگان گروه هاي فشار عمومي شرکا رقبا اتحاديه هاي کارگري جهاني اقتصادي سياسي اجتماعي تکنولوژيکي Remote environment competitive environment Task environment

8 موارد قابل ملاحظه جهانی شدن و روندهای جهانی تغییر سریع خواسته ها و نیازهای مشتریان و بازار عصر اطلاعات و ظهور تکنولوژیهای نوین اطلاعاتی و ارتباطی مسائل زیست محیطی وقانونی 7

9 مفهوم اوليه كلمه استراتژي واژه استراتژي را كه از لغت يوناني استراتژيا (ريشه اين لغت نيز كلمه استراتگوس به معناي فرمانده لشكري – كشوري است) گرفته شده و ابتدا در علوم نظامي مطرح شده است ، مي توان بدين شكل تعريف كرد : استراتژي (Strategy) ، مجموعه اي از اهداف اصلي و سياستها و برنامه هاي كلي به منظور نيل به اين اهداف است به گونه اي كه قادر به تبيين اين موضوعات باشد كه در چه كسب و كاري (Business) و چه نوع سازماني فعاليت مي كنيم و يا مي خواهيم فعاليت نماييم. ( كجا مي خواهيم برويم و چگونه مي خواهيم به آنجا برسيم. استراتگوس هنر جنگ

10 استراتژی چیست؟ هنر جنگيدن خصوصاً برنامه ريزي حرکات ارتش و زرادخانه و... در موقعيت هاي مختلف؛ طرح فعاليت ها يا سياست ها در کسب و کار، امور سياسي و...(Oxford Dictionary) تعريف مي کند که يک کسب و کار در چه شرايطي است و در چه شرايطي مي خواهد باشد و چه نوع شرکتي است و چه نوع شرکتي مي خواهد باشد. (Andrews) روشي که شرکت تلاش مي کند خود را از رقبايش در جهت مثبت متمايز سازد. (Ohmae) استراتژي تعيين اهداف پايه ا ي بلندمدت و سازگارسازی فعاليت ها و تخصيص منابع لازم براي دستيابي به اين اهداف است. (Alfred Chandler) استراتژي الگويي در يک رشته از تصميم هاست. (Henry Mintzberg) ايده ها و فعاليت هايي براي محقق ساختن آينده. (Macmillan & Tampoe) مجموعه اقداماتی که شرکت ها و سازمان ها برای دستیابی به اهداف بلندمدت خود با توجه به شرایط انجام می دهند

11 استراتژی چیست؟ برنامه واحد، همه جانبه و تلفيقي که با توجه به ضعفها و قوتها داخلي سازمان و فرصتها و تهديدات محيطي روش سازمان را در دستيابي به اهداف بلندمدت (کسب مزیت استراتژیک) تعيين و نحوه حرکت در اين مسير را تعريف مينمايد. حال هدف A B C D E O1 O2 O3 O4 استراتژي هنر خلق ارزش است. استراتژي چارچوب فکري، مدل مفهومي، و ايدههاي برتري را فراهم ميسازد که به مديران شرکت اجازه ميدهد تا فرصتهاي ارائه ارزش به مشتريان را شناسايي کرده و آنرا در ازاي کسب سود، به مشتري تحويل دهند. استراتژي روشي است که سازمان بوسيله آن کسب و کار خود را تعريف کرده و منابع خود را با هم ترکيب ميکند. Normann, R. and Ramirez, R., From Value Chain to Value Constellation:Designing Interactive Strategy, Harvard Business Review, July-August 1993, p.65.

12 طراحي / برنامهريزي اجرا کنترل هنر و علم فرموله کردن، اجرا و ارزيابي تصميمات ترکيبي بين وظيفهاي که سازمان را قادر ميسازد به اهداف بلندمدت خود دست يابد. مديريت استراتژيک

13 5 P S strategy 5 P S strategy Perspective Ploy Plan Pattern Position استراتژي از نظر مینتزبرگ,

14 صفآرايي-Ploy بالاترين درجه از هنر جنگاوري ، در غلبه بدون جنگ بر دشمن است. سرعت ، جوهره جنگ ميباشد. واكنش سريع ، تعيين كننده مرگ يا زندگي است. بالاترين درجه از هنر جنگاوري ، در غلبه بدون جنگ بر دشمن است. سرعت ، جوهره جنگ ميباشد. واكنش سريع ، تعيين كننده مرگ يا زندگي است.

15 4- 4- 2 Fair Play = Values Goal الگو-Pattern ورزش فوتبال = Mission قاعدهمند است : پارادايم ( درك – شناخت – فرهنگ – باورها – داناييها ) ساختارمند ، روشمند و پايشپذير است – نياز به طرح ريزي دارد. جهت دار است – نياز به ابزارهاي خاص خود دارد – سلسله اقداماتي را درپي دارد. تداوم رفتار است – سناريونويسي ميخواهد

16 موقعيت/جايگاه-Position شناسايي موقعيت رقابتي – استراتژيهاي رقابتي – رقابتپذيري ملت ها – رقابت پذيري سازمان ها,

17 Planنقشه-

18 Goal Strategic Gap=Sg Problem= Mission Values فرهنگ باور شخصيت ايدئولوژي بايدها نبايدها فرهنگ باور شخصيت ايدئولوژي بايدها نبايدها ديدگاه-Perspective A a b B α

19 Planning approach Reactive Inactive Active/proactive Interactive

20 Definition: Strategic management consists of the analysis, decisions, and actions an organization undertakes in order to create and sustain competitive advantages. Key Attributes of Strategic Management: Directs the organization toward overall goals and objectives. Involves the inclusion of multiple stakeholders in decision making. Needs to incorporate short-term and long-term perspectives. Recognizes tradeoffs between efficiency and effectiveness. Strategic Management Concepts

21 Strategic Management Analysis Strategic goals (vision, mission, strategic objectives) Internal and external environment of the firm Strategic decisions What industries should we compete in? How should we compete in those industries? Actions Allocate necessary resources Design the organization to bring intended strategies to reality

22 Strategic Management Strategic management is the study of why some firms outperform others How to compete in order to create competitive advantages in the marketplace How to create competitive advantages in the market place Unique and valuable Difficult for competitors to copy or substitute Sustainable competitive advantage cannot be achieved through operational effectiveness alone.(JIT,benchmarking,BPR, outsourcing) Operational effectiveness means performing similar activities better than rivals. Sustainable competitive advantage is possible only by performing different activities from rivals or performing similar activities in different ways.

23 Ambidexterity Managers challenge to both align resource to take advantage of existing product markets as well as proactively explore new opportunities.(different altitude).

24 Strategic Management Process Adapted from Exhibit 1.2 Realized Strategy and Intended Strategy: Usually Not the Same Source:H. Mintzberg and J. A. Waters, Of Strategies, Deliberate and Emergent, Strategic Management Journal 6 (1985), pp. 257-72.

25 فرايند تلفيق استراتژىها Unrealised Strategy Emergent Straegy Deliberae Strategy Intended Strategy Realised Strategy مورد نظر تحقق نيافته سنجيده تحقق يافته نوظهور برخورد استراتژيك با تفاوت ها به معنى يكپارچه سازى دو استراتژى متفاوت است. امروزه استراتژيست ها نياز دارند استراتژى هاى تعيين شده و نوظهور را باهم در آميزند تا بتوانند به بهترين پيامدهاى ممكن دست يابند.

26 Corporate Governance Corporate governance: the relationship among various participants in determining the direction and performance of corporations Shareholders Management (led by the CEO) Board of directors

27 Stakeholder Management Two views of stakeholder management Zero sum Stakeholders compete for attention and resources of the organization Gain of one is a loss to the other Symbiosis Stakeholders are dependent upon each other Mutual benefits Crowd sourcing???

28 The Game of Business As in sports, business organizations that win consistently excel at preparation, planning, and execution. Strategy is the business word for game plan.

29 A business idea has two defining characteristics. First, a good business idea meets an unmet need in the market. Second, a good business idea drives transactions.(Whatever product we offer to customers, they must be willing to exchange their money for our product or service.) The link between our business idea and the assets we select is our business strategy

30 The result of our idea-asset connection is the income the business generates. The lifeblood of a business is the cash flow, which is used to replenish the assets and develop new ideas to keep the business going. If an asset does not contribute to generating income, we should get rid of it!

31 What Is Our Business Idea? For Wal-Mart the business idea is low prices,

32 Sometimes it is important to say no to a business idea, if it does not fit our plan.

33 Vision & Mission Strategy Formulation External Opportunities & Threats Internal Strengths & Weaknesses Long-Term Objectives Alternative Strategies Strategy Selection(JV,AQ,MER) Strategy Formulation / Analysis Strategic Assessment Strategic Intent Strategic Choice Market/ product/ area

34 جنبههاي در هم تنيده برنامهريزي استراتژيک نيت استراتژيک ارزيابي وضعي ت انتخاب استراتژيک محرک فرايند طراحي / برنامهريزي استراتژي ايجاد مسير براي استراتژي پاسخ به سوال : قصد رفتن به کجا را داريم؟ اگر انتخاب نکنيم استراتژياي وجود ندارد پيوند به عمل و اقدام پاسخ به پرسش : روش ما براي رسيدن به جايي که ميخواهيم برسيم از اينجايي که الان هستيم؟ ايجاد دانش و اطلاعات کافي در مورد زمينه و فضاي راهبردي متوازنسازي استراتژي آينده با واقعيتهاي موجود پاسخ به پرسش : الان در کجا قرار داريم؟

35 Strategy Implementation Annual Objectives Selection of Policies Employee Motivation Resource Allocation Strategy Implementation

36 Strategy Evaluation Internal Review External Review Performance Metrics Corrective Actions Strategy Evaluation

37 (c) Macmillan & Tampoe 2001 36 The Four Elements of Strategic Management Strategic Thinking The Strategy Formulation Process Strategic Action The Strategy Implementation Process Strategy Content CONTEXT

38 (c) Macmillan & Tampoe 2001 37 The Strategy Formulation Process Strategic Assessment Strategic Intent Strategic Choice

39 (c) Macmillan & Tampoe 2001 38 Programme & Project Management Change Leadership Culture Change Process Change Structure Change Transformed Enterprise The Strategy Implementation Process

40 (c) Macmillan & Tampoe 2001 39 complete model Strategy Content CONTEXT Strategic Action Strategic Thinking

41 Johnson, Scholes, Whittington model

42 Social Responsibility Social responsibility: the expectation that businesses or individuals will strive to improve the overall welfare of society Managers must take active steps to make society better Socially responsible behavior changes over time Triple bottom line (social,environmental,finantial) Organizational image social environmental financial

43 Strategic Management Perspective Integrative view of the organization Assess how functional areas and activities fit together to achieve goals and objectives All managers and employees must take and integrative, strategic perspective of issues facing the organization

44 ماهیت استراتژی: استراتژی گامی است در یک پیوستار منطقی که یک سازمان را از رسالتی سطح بالابه کارهای انجام شده توسط کارکنان خط مقدم آن می رساند.استراتژی گامی است در یک پیوستار منطقی که یک سازمان را از رسالتی سطح بالابه کارهای انجام شده توسط کارکنان خط مقدم آن می رساند. جوهره استراتژی عبارت است از گزینش اجرای متفاوت فعالیتهانسبت به رقبا، به طوری که موجب موقعیت ارزشی منحصر به فرد گردد.جوهره استراتژی عبارت است از گزینش اجرای متفاوت فعالیتهانسبت به رقبا، به طوری که موجب موقعیت ارزشی منحصر به فرد گردد. برنامه ها و اقدامات استراتژیک روش ارزیابی متوازن استراتژي چشم انداز ارزشهای محوری مأموریت

45 ارکان استراتژی ماموریت ارزش های کلیدی چشم انداز 44 رسالت سازمان آرمان های بلند سازمان معیارهای ارزیابی رفتار سازمان

46 Hierarchy of Goals Coherence in Strategic Direction Company vision Massively inspiring Overarching Long-term Driven by and evokes passion Fundamental statement of the organizations Values Aspiration Goals HP: without execution vision is just another word for hallucination. Strong sense of vision, strategy formulation skill Company vision

47 Vision fails reasons The walks doesn't match the talk. (sloganeering) irrelevance (employees reject visions that are not anchored in reality) Not the holly grail. (management fads) An ideal future irreconciled with the present.(rosy picture of the future)

48 Hierarchy of Goals Company vision Coherence in Strategic Direction Mission statements Purpose of the company Basis of competition and competitive advantages More specific than vision Focused on the means by which the firm will compete Mission statements

49 Purpose Why the business exists Values What management Believes in Standards & Behaviors The rules that guide How the business operates Strategy & Scope What business and how A clear business mission should have each of the following elements:

50 49 اجزاي تشکيل دهنده مأموريت سازمان مشتريان مشتريان شرکت چه کساني هستند؟ محصولات يا خدمات محصولات و خدمات عمده شرکت چيست؟ بازارها از نظر جغرافيايي، شرکت در کجا رقابت مي کند؟ فن آوري آيا شرکت از پيشرفته ترين فن آوري ها استفاده مي کند؟ توجه به بقاء، رشد و سودآوري آيا شرکت براي رشد و سلامت مالي از تعهد لازم برخوردار است؟ فلسفه باورها، ارزش ها، آرزوها و اولويت هاي اخلاقي اصلي شرکت چيست؟ ويژگي ممتاز شرکت داراي چه مزيت رقابتي يا شايستگي ممتاز است؟ توجه به تصور مردم آيا شرکت نسبت به مسائل اجتماعي، جامعه و محيطي واکنش مناسب نشان مي دهد؟ توجه به کارکنان آيا کارکنان به عنوان يک قلم دارايي ارزشمند براي شرکت به حساب مي آيند؟

51 Google's mission is to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful.

52 Hierarchy of Goals Company vision Mission statements Coherence in Strategic Direction Strategic objectives Operationalize the mission statement Provide guidance on how the organization can fulfill or move toward the higher goals More specific Cover a more well-defined time frame Strategic objectives

53 Coherence in Strategic Direction Measurable Specific Appropriate / Attainable Realistic Timely Challenging Resolve conflicts that arise Yardstick for rewards and incentives Strategic objectives Hierarchy of Goals Company vision Mission statements Strategic objectives

54 Nonlinear nature of org. strategic change 53 launch Change goals Estimated time to reach change goals Rate of progress toward change goals

55 Changing corporation Age of continuity (65 years): turnover rate 1.5% Discontinuity age ( 10 years) : turnover rate 10%. change in corporations external environment. Capital market changed ( buyers, sellers, investor,…).economic exchange. Risk of loaning. Power of capital market determine the fate of corporation. Customer :Baseball cards.(investment) Discontinuity for capital market & continuity for corporation. Cultural lock-in 54

56 Changing government agencies NASA,Daniel Goldin mantra : faster, better, cheaper. Phoenix : its forte : e-learning Nonprofit organization. 55

57 مأموريت و چشم انداز سازمان

58 57 کار يا فعاليت ما چيست؟ دراکر مي گويد که طرح اين پرسش : « فعاليت ما چيست؟ » مترادف با پرسش اين سؤال است : « مأموريت ما چيست؟ » « بيانيه مأموريت سازمان » جمله يا عبارتي است که بدان وسيله مقصود يک سازمان از مقصود سازمان مشابه متمايز مي شود و آن بيان کننده « علت وجودي » سازمان است.

59 Mission The organizations reason for existence

60 ماموريت تعريف در واژهنامه : دليل وجودي و مقصود نهایی هويت و شخصيت سازمان را نشان ميدهد به ندرت و در بلندمدت تغيير ميکند محدوده کسب و کار را روشن ميکند اهداف بلندمدت و استراتژي براساس آن ساخته ميشود

61 رسالت (Mission ) چيست ؟ فلسفه وجودي سازمان ( چرائي ) را رسالت سازمان مي نامند هر سازمان در پاسخ به يك سري نياز ايجاد ميشود و هدف آن رفع آن نياز مي باشد بنابراين قبل از هر اقدام بايد مشخص شود كه چه نيازهائي منجر به تشكيل سازمان گرديده است.

62 سوالات اساسي در طراحي ماموريت ما کي هستيم؟ (اسم شرکت يا واحد) چرا وجود داريم؟ مقصود نهايي (رسالت) شرکت يا واحد سازماني چيست؟ چه کاري انجام ميدهيم و در چه کسب و کاري فعاليت ميکنيم؟ مزيت و برتري اصلي ما در چيست؟ چه ارزشهايي براي ذينفعان خود ايجاد ميکنيم؟ چه تعهداتي در برابر ذينفعان خود داريم؟ سهامداران / سازمانهاي بالا دستي مشتريان و تامين کنندگان کارکنان جامعه

63 مولفههاي مهم در تدوین بيانيه ماموريت اسم و مشخصه شرکت رسالت و دليل وجودي شرکت مشتريان شرکت ارزشهايي که بوسيله شرکت ارائه ميشود فرايند ارائه ارزش (مزيت رقابتي شرکت) بيان وظيفه شرکت در قبال ذينفعان اصلي شرکت سهامداران کارکنان مشتريان تامين کنندگان و... اولويتهاي اخلاقي، باورها و ارزشهاي شرکت بيانيهاي که در صورت بيان درست، امکان طراحي اهداف و استراتژيها را بخوبي فراهم ميسازد و تفکر خلاق را در کارکنان تقويت ميکند. اگر محدود نوشته شود مانع خلاقيت ميشود و اگر بسيار کلي نوشته شود، کارايي نخواهد داشت. بيانيه ماموريت سند مکتوبي است که بصورت روشن و با جملاتي واضح، دقيق و با معني ماموريت سازمان را بيان ميكند.

64 ويژگيهاي يک بيانيه ماموريت خوب کوتاه و متمرکز شفاف و قابل فهم تعريف چرايي وجود سازمان و دليل اينکه چرا سازمان اين کار را انجام ميدهد گستردگي به اندازه کافي ايجاد مسير براي انجام کارهاي درست تاکيد و توجه به فرصتهاي سازمان انطباق و سازگاري با توانمنديهاي سازمان

65 64 اهميت مأموريت سازمان شرکتها، به دلايل زير مأموريت خود را به صورت سند کتبي درمي آورند: هدف سازمان را با اتفاق آراء مورد تأييد قرار دهند. براي تخصيص منابع سازماني، مبنا يا معياري ارائه نمايند. جوي شناخته شده بر سازمان حاکم کنند. نقطه اتکاي به وجود آورند تا افراد بر آن اساس هدف و مسير سازمان را معرف و رهنمود کارهاي خود بدانند. هدف هاي سازماني را مشخص کنند و براي جامه عمل پوشانيدن به اين هدف ها، هزينه ها، زمان و معيارهاي عملکرد را مورد ارزيابي و کنترل قرار دهند.

66 عبارت ماموريت : فراهم كردن راه حل هاي امن،مطمئن و با صرفه براي نگه داري و تحت نظر داشتن سيستم ها و دستگاه هاي كنترل هادي ABB

67 Our knowledge and our solutions are helping to create a better world. We have a responsibility to the wider community and we are committed to environmental protection. دانش و راه حل های ما برای کمک به خلق جهانی بهتر هستند. ما در قبال مجموعه ای گسترده تر مسئوليت داريم و متعهد به حفظ محيط زيست ميباشيم. Siemens

68 ماموريت شركت ايران خودرو : ايجاد سازمان مبتني بر فطرت انساني با موقعيت رهبري صنعت در كشور با كيفيت كلاس جهاني در راستاي تحقق سودآوري بلند مدت در فعاليتهاي صنعتي ، تجاري و خدماتي و رهبري بازار كشور در بخش وسايل حمل و نقل از طريق رقابت و كسب رضايت مشتري

69 چشمانداز (Vision) تعريف در واژهنامهاي : تصويري از آينده که در جستجوي خلق آن هستيم تعريف آينده ايدال يا مطلوبي که شرکت تلاش ميکند تا به آن دست پيدا نمايد؟ ديدگاه ما از آينده صنعتي که در آن فعال هستیم، نقش ما در ايجاد آينده جايگاه و شرط کلیدی موفقیت ما در آینده

70 چشم انداز سازمان آينده واقع گرايانه ، قابل تحقق و جذاب براي سازمان بيان صريح سرنوشتي كه سازمان بايد بسوي آن حركت كند هنر ديدن ناديدني ها

71 كاركردهاي چشم انداز 1- تعهد ايجاد مي كند و انرژي مي دهد 2- به زندگي كاركنان معني مي بخشد 3- استاندارد برتر را شناسايي مي كند 4- حال و آينده را بهم پيوند مي دهد

72 ويژگيهاي يک چشمانداز خوب شفافيت و عدم وجود ابهام خلق تصويري روشن از آينده تعريف آيندهاي روشن و اميدبخش به ياد ماندني آرزويي منطقي و قابل دستيابي همراستا با ارزشهاي کليدي و فرهنگ سازماني

73 ارزشهاي کليدي ارزشها نشاندهنده اولويتهاي اصلي در فرهنگ سازمان هستند که اولويت افراد و نحوه عمل آنها را در شرايط واقعي در سازمان شکل ميدهند. اصول و اعتقاداتي که رفتار واقعي را شکل ميدهند ديگران بايد به راحتي و در برخوردهاي اوليه با سازمان ما اين ارزشها را در رفتار ما مشاهده نمايند. مثال خلق ثروت مشتريمداري ارزشمندي کارکنان راستي و درستکاري خلاقيت و نوآوري انسجام کار تيمي...

74 نمونه اي از چند چشم انداز Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta ما نمادي از نقطه كمال در انسجام ، مسئوليت پذيري و پاسخگويي خواهيم بودكه شايسته اعتماد عمومي باشد.

75 ما تلاش ميكنيم تا روياهاي مشتريانمان تحقق يابد Citibank

76 دانشگاه سانفرانسيسكو بعنوان اولين دانشگاه بين المللي ، با چشم اندازي جهاني ، به آموزش افرادي مي پردازد كه ميتوانند دنيايي انساني تر و عادلانه تر را بوجود آورند. University of San Francisco

77 آرمان دانشگاه كمبريج تاثير گذاري در جامعه از طريق تعقيب برنامه هاي آموزشي ، يادگيري و تحقيقاتي در بالاترين سطوح بين المللي است. University of Cambridge

78 Bill Gates Vision A computer on every desk and in every home يک کامپيوتر بر روی هرميز ودر هر خانه

79 Apples Vision To bring Computer power to men

80 Our vision is to be the world leader in transportation products and related services. قصد داريم در محصولات و خدمات صنعت حمل و نقل پيشتاز باشيم. جنرال موتورز

81 چشم انداز گروه ايران خودرو : بزرگترين و موفق ترين شركت ايـراني با قابليـت هاي رقابتي كلاس جهاني در توليد و تامين وسايل نقليه با اولويت و محوريت خودرو.

82 چشم انداز سایپا دیزل : چشم انداز سایپا دیزل : توليد خودروهاي تجاري با فناوري روز با تاكيد بر تامين خشنودي مشتري

83 چشم انداز/ ماموريت شركت PETRONAS شركت چند مليتي پيشرو و برتر در صنعت نفت وگاز و مورد انتخاب در عرصه بين المللي Source: Petronas website

84 چشم انداز/ ماموريت شركت PETROBRAS فعاليت در صنعت نفت وگاز بصورت ايمن و سودآوربا حفظ مسئوليت پذيري اجتماعي و زيست محيطي درداخل وخارج از كشور برزيل و ارائه خدمات ومحصولاتي كه نيازهاي مشتريان را برآورده ساخته و در نهايت به توسعه كشور برزيل كمك نموده كشورهاي همكار را براي رسيدن به اهدافشان حمايت ميكند. منبع : وب سايت شركت PETROBRAS

85 چشم انداز شركت STATOIL منبع : وب سايت شركت STATOIL STATOILيك شركت نفت وگازيكپارچه است كه قسمت اعظم فعاليتهاي آن در عرصه بين المللي ميباشد.

86 چشم انداز و ماموريت شركت ملي نفت ايران شركت ملي نفت ايران شركتي است ملي با فعاليتهاي تجاري و پيشرو در صنعت نفت وگاز با مديريت يكپارچه وعمليات هماهنگ شده در بخشهاي اكتشاف، توسعه، توليد، پالايش وپخش وفعال در بازارهاي داخلي و بين المللي. شركت ملي نفت تعهدات خود را نسبت به نيازهاي كشور ونيازهاي تجاري مشتريان داخلي و بين المللي بنحو احسن انجام ميدهد

87 Most firms consider six areas of their business to include in their mission statement: 1. products or services 2. customers 3. markets 4. employees 5. philosophy of doing business 6. achievement

88 چشم انداز استراتژيك در برابر ماموريت استراتژيك ماموريت استراتژيكچشم انداز استراتژيك ماموريت استراتژيك بر فعاليت هاي جاري سازمان تاكيد دارد. چه سازماني هستيم؟ چه كارهايي انجام مي دهيم؟ به چه مخاطباني پاسخ مي دهيم؟ چه نيازهايي از مخاطبان را در حال حاضر پاسخ دهيم؟ چشم انداز استراتژيك بر مسير سازماني آينده تاكيد دارد. به چه سازماني مي توانيم تبديل شويم؟ چه كارهايي را در آينده مي توانيم انجام دهيم ؟ به چه مخاطباني در آينده مي توانيم پاسخ دهيم؟ چه نيازهايي از مخاطبان را در آينده مي توانيم پاسخ دهيم؟

89 در جستجوي رقابتي شدن و تعالی تجديد ساختار و كوچك سازي ٌ Restructuring تجديد ساختار و كوچك سازي ٌ Restructuring فرآيند هاي مهندسي مجدد و بهبود مستمر Re-engineering فرآيند هاي مهندسي مجدد و بهبود مستمر Re-engineering تجديد بنا و خلق استراتژي هاي جديد Reinventing تجديد بنا و خلق استراتژي هاي جديد Reinventing چابکی متفاوت بهتر

90 Transformational Leadership Communicating the visionCreating a vision Modeling the vision Building commitment to the vision خلق چشم اندازتبيين چشم انداز الگوسازی چشم اندازايجاد تعهد نسبت به چشم انداز رهبری تحول آفرين

91 Goal Setting: The First Step in Strategy if you dont know where you want to go, then it doesnt matter which way you go. in order to plan an approach to being successful, you must define success! the objective of a business is to maximize the value of the firm to the shareholders. Based upon Adam Smiths famous invisible hand concept, maximizing shareholder wealth

92

93 for many organizations vision statements remain just that: statements, some words on a page. But successful organizations : by testing every decision against the achievement of the vision, there can be real shareholder value in creating a structured vision. The goal, mission, and principles or values provide a clear blueprint for the direction and operation of the company

94 Three components are really necessary to create a powerful corporate vision 1. The first component is big, long-term goals. 2. The second component of vision is defining a companys purpose. Many firms call this their mission statement. 3. The final component of vision is this notion of valueshow the company wants to act and the principles it believes in.

95 Managers Checklist We cannot even begin to think of strategy until we have objectives. A corporate vision is a picture of the organization in 10-20 years. Vision is composed of goals, purpose, and values. Goals need to be prioritized based on our business, markets, and how value is created. Our mission statement captures our organizations purpose. We should consider products, customers, markets, philosophy of doing business, and achievement in this important document. Firms with formal acknowledgment of their vision do better than those without such a written statement. Of course, successful firms actually live their vision in their actions. Companies tend to be financially driven, customer-focused, or employee- focused.

96 Vision and Mission Goals and Objectives Goals and Objectives Implementation and Strategic Leadership Implementation and Strategic Leadership Strategic Analysis Strategic Analysis Strategy The Strategic Management Process

97 فرايند کلان طراحي / برنامهريزي استراتژي ماموريت چشمانداز ارزشهاي کليدي محدوده استراتژی فرصتها/ تهديدات/الزامات تحليل محيط داخلي تحليل محيط خارجي قوتها/ ضعفها/داراييها جهت راهبردي اهداف راهبردي سازمان (نقشه اهداف/ نقشه استراتژي) اقدامات و طرحهاي راهبردي شاخصهاي کنترل استراتژي (نقشه شاخصهاي راهبردي) برنامه اجرايي راهبردي

98 The External Environment Strategies are not & should not be developed in a vacuum.

99 98 Strategic management Meta Process Vision & Mission External Audit Internal Audit Long Term Objectives Strategy formulation Implement ation Evaluation and Control Strategic PlanningStrategic ExecutionStrategic Control

100 99 تحولات : اتحاد كشورها، جنگها، جهاني شدن اقتصاد و بازار و... پيشرفتها: اطلاعات، دانش، ارتباطات و تكنولوژي اطلاعات (IT) جهاني شدن اقتصاد و بازار، شدت گرفتن رقابت، بقاء، رشد و سودآوري و... كسب توان رقابت جهاني و... نيازمند: برخورداري از كاركنان دانشي، دانش و تكنولوژي اطلاعات ايجاد مزيت رقابتي و شايستگي متمايز، گرايش به محيط و مشتري مديريت دانش، يادگيري سازماني، توجه به خود، مشتريان، رقبا و جامعه مديريت استراتژيك

101 100 هدف از بررسي عوامل خارجي تهيه فهرستي از عوامل استراتژيك خارجي جهت: شناسايي عوامل اولويتدار (فرصتها و تهديدها) براي: نشان دادن واكنش برنامهريزي شده (پيش فعال بودن - Proactive ) از طريق: تدوين و اجراي استراتژيهاي كارساز به گونهاي که: از فرصتها بهرهبرداري شود تهديدات دور شوند يا از آنها دوري شود

102 101 فرايند بررسي عوامل خارجي تشكيل کميتهاي از مديران و افراد كليدي سازمان جمعآوري اطلاعات از منابع مختلف

103 102 منابع اطلاعات خارجي منابع اطلاعاتي انتشار نيافته: تحقيقات پيمايشي بر روي مشتريان تحقيقات بازار سخنراني ها در نشست هاي سهامداران با افراد حرفه اي و متخصص برنامه هاي تلويزيوني مصاحبه ها و بحث ها يا گفنگوها با گروه هاي ذي نفع منابع اطلاعاتي منتشر شده: مجله های ادواري روزنامه ها گزارش هاي مالي اسناد دولتي چکيده مقاله کتب راهنماي شرکت روزنامه ها و دفترچه هاي راهنماي سازمان ها و شرکت ها

104 103 محيط خارجي محيط خارجي براي سازمانها اهميت زيادي دارد: با نگرش سيستمي تامين منابع (انساني و غير انساني) يا ورودي سيستم سازمان از محيط فرايندهاي داخلي سازمان تحت تاثير محيط ارائه توليدات يا ستاندههاي سازمان به محيط بروز تغييرات و تحولات عمقي در محيط كلان و خرد محيط متشكل از ذينفعان (مشتريان، رقبا، سهامداران و...) كه موثر بر كل سازمان

105 104 External Environment Analysis Identify & Evaluate factors beyond the control of a single firm. General (Macro) environment Dimensions in the broader society that influence an industry and the firms within it Industry/Operational (Micro) environment The set of factors directly influencing a firm and its competitive actions and competitive responses Competitor Analysis Gathering and interpreting information about all of the companies that the firm competes against.

106 Creating the Environmentally Aware Organization

107 Environmental Scanning Surveillance of a firms external environment Predict environmental changes to come Detect changes already under way Proactive mode

108 Environmental Monitoring Track evolution of Environmental trends Sequences of events Streams of activities

109 Competitive Intelligence Define and understand a firms industry Identify rivals strengths and weaknesses Intelligence gathering (data) Interpretation of intelligence data Helps a firm avoid surprises

110 What Competitive Intelligence Is and Is Not Competitive Intelligence Is … 1. Information that has been analyzed to the point where you can make a decision. 2. A tool to alert management to early recognition of both threats and opportunities. 3. A means to deliver reasonable assessments. 4. A way of life, a process. Competitive Intelligence Is Not … 1. Spying. Spying implies illegal or unethical activities. It is a rare activity. 2. A crystal ball. CI is good approximation of reality, it does not predict the future. 3. Database search. Data by itself is not good intelligence. 4. A job for one smart person.

111 Environmental Forecasting projections about Direction of environmental change Scope of environmental change Speed of environmental change Intensity of environmental change Scenario analysis

112 SWOT Analysis Managers need to analyze The general environment The firms industry and competitive environment SWOT analysis Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats Basic technique for analyzing firm and industry conditions

113 112 محيط عمومي ) كلان ( General Environment ) ( نيروهاي اقتصادي نيروهاي اجتماعي – فرهنگي نيروهاي نيروهاي جهاني جهاني نيروهاي تكنولوژيكي نيروهاي سياسي – قانوني / حقوقي محيط تخصصي ( خرد ) ( Task Environment ) مشتريان سهامداران عرضه كنندگان اتحاديه هاي تجاري كارگري رقبا نهاد هاي دولتي واسطه هاي مالي ( مديران،مالكان و سهامداران ) سازمان ( ساختار، فرهنگ و منابع ) منبع : 1 - هانگر و ويلن ( 1381 ) ، « مديريت استراتژيك » ، ترجمه دكتر اعرابي و ايزدي، دفتر پژوهش هاي فرهنگي، 62 2 - هريسون و جان ( 1380 ) ، « مديريت استراتژيك » ، ترجمه دكتر بهروز قاسمي، انتشارات آبتين شماي كلي فضاي كاري يك شركت

114 The General Environment General environmental trends and events Little ability to predict them Even less ability to control them Can vary across industries General Environment Demographic Sociocultural Political/Legal Technological Economic Global

115 Demographic Segment Aging population Rising affluence Changes in ethnic composition Geographic distribution of population Greater disparities in income levels General Environment Demographic Sociocultural Political/Legal Technological Economic Global

116 Sociocultural Segment More women in the workforce Increase in temporary workers Greater concern for fitness Greater concern for environment Postponement of family formation Divorce rate Population growth rate General Environment Demographic Sociocultural Political/Legal Technological Economic Global

117 Political/Legal Segment Tort reform Revolution/ strict Deregulation of utility and other industries sanctions Taxation at local, state, federal levels War/joints. Government stability Free/economic zone law General Environment Demographic Sociocultural Political/Legal Technological Economic Global

118 Technological Segment Genetic engineering Emergence of Internet technology Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing systems (CAD/CAM) Pollution/global warming Miniaturization of computing technologies Wireless technology General Environment Demographic Sociocultural Political/Legal Technological Economic Global

119 Economic Segment Interest rates Inflation rates Unemployment Trends in GDP Changes in stock market valuations Energy saving/ subsidies General Environment Demographic Sociocultural Political/Legal Technological Economic Global

120 Global Segment Increasing global trade Currency exchange rates Emergence of the Indian and Chinese economies Trade agreements among regional blocs (NAFTA, EU, ASEAN) Creation of WTO (decreasing tariffs/free trade in services) General Environment Demographic Sociocultural Political/Legal Technological Economic Global

121 The Competitive Environment Sometimes called the task or industry environment Includes Competitors (existing and potential) Customers Suppliers Porters five-forces model Competitive Environment Competitors Customers Suppliers

122 Porters Five Forces Model of Industry Competition Threat of new entrants Bargaining power of buyers Bargaining power of suppliers Threat of Substitute products and services Adapted from Exhibit 2.2 Porters Five Forces Model of Industry Competition

123 The Threat of New Entrants Profits of established firms in the industry may be eroded by new competitors High entry barriers lead to low threat of new entries Economies of scale Product differentiation Capital requirements Switching costs Access to distribution channels

124 The Bargaining Power of Buyers Buyers threaten an industry Force down prices Bargain for higher quality or more services Play competitors against each other

125 The Bargaining Power of Buyers A buyer group is powerful when It is concentrated or purchases large volumes relative to seller sales The products it purchases from the industry are standard or undifferentiated The buyer faces few switching costs The industrys product is unimportant to the quality of the buyers products or services

126 The Bargaining Power of Suppliers Suppliers can exert power by threatening to raise prices or reduce the quality of purchased goods and services

127 The Bargaining Power of Suppliers A supplier group will be powerful when The supplier group is dominated by a few companies The supplier group is not obliged to contend with substitute products for sale to the industry The industry is not an important customer of the supplier group

128 The Bargaining Power of Suppliers A supplier group will be powerful when The suppliers product is an important input to the buyers business The supplier groups products are differentiated or it has built up switching costs for the buyer

129 The Threat of Substitute Products and Services Substitutes limit the potential returns of an industry Ceiling on the prices that firms in that industry can profitably charge Price/performance ratio

130 The Intensity of Rivalry among Competitors in an Industry Jockeying for position Price competition Advertising battles Product introductions Increased customer service or warranties

131 The Intensity of Rivalry among Competitors in an Industry Interacting factors lead to intense rivalry Numerous or equally balanced competitors Slow industry growth High fixed or storage costs Lack of differentiation or switching costs High exit barriers

132 Using Industry Analyses: A Few Caveats Five-forces analysis implicitly assumes a zero-sum game Five-forces analysis is essentially a static analysis Value net Suppliers and customers (the vertical net) Substitutes and complements (the horizontal net)

133 The Value Net Interactions Transactions Adapted from Exhibit 2.7 The Value Net

134 Strategic Groups within Industries Two unassailable assumptions in industry analysis No two firms are totally different No two firms are exactly the same Strategic groups Cluster of firms that share similar strategies Breadth of product and geographic scope Price/quality Degree of vertical integration Type of distribution system

135 Strategic Groups within Industries Value of strategic groups as an analytical tool Identify barriers to mobility that protect a group from attacks by other groups Identify groups competitive position Chart the future direction of firms strategies Thinking through the implications of each industry trend for the strategic group as a whole

136 The World Automobile Industry: Strategic Groups Adapted from Exhibit 2.8 The World Automobile Industry: Strategic Groups

137 McGraw-Hill/Irwin STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Chapter 3 Assessing the Internal Environment of the Firm Strategic Management: creating competitive advantages Gregory G. Dess Part 1: Strategic Analysis Part 1: Strategic Analysis

138 The Value Chain Adapted from Exhibit 3.1 The Value Chain: Primary and Support Activities Source: Adapted with permission of The Free Press, a division of Simon & Schuster, Inc., from Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance by Michael E. Porter. General administration Human resource management Technology development Procurement Inbound logistics Operations Outbound logistics Marketing and sales Service

139 Value-Chain Analysis Sequential process of value-creating activities The amount that buyers are willing to pay for what a firm provides them Value is measured by total revenue Firm is profitable to the extent the value it receives exceeds the total costs involved in creating its product or service

140 Primary Activities Associated with receiving, storing and distributing inputs to the product Location of distribution facilities Material and inventory control systems Systems to reduce time to send returns to suppliers Warehouse layout and designs Inbound Logistics Adapted from Exhibit 3.2 The Value Chain: Some Factors to Consider in Assessing a Firms Primary Activities

141 Primary Activities Associated with transforming inputs into the final product form Efficient plant operations Appropriate level of automation in manufacturing Quality production control systems Efficient plant layout and workflow design Inbound LogisticsOperations Adapted from Exhibit 3.2 The Value Chain: Some Factors to Consider in Assessing a Firms Primary Activities

142 Primary Activities Associated with collecting, storing, and distributing the product or service to buyers Effective shipping processes Efficient finished goods warehousing processes Shipping of goods in large lot sizes Quality material handling equipment Inbound LogisticsOperationsOutbound Logistics Adapted from Exhibit 3.2 The Value Chain: Some Factors to Consider in Assessing a Firms Primary Activities

143 Primary Activities Associated with purchases of products and services by end users and the inducements used to get them to make purchases Highly motivated and competent sales force Innovative approaches to promotion and advertising Selection of most appropriate distribution channels Proper identification of customer segments and needs Effective pricing strategies Inbound LogisticsOperationsOutbound LogisticsMarketing and Sales Adapted from Exhibit 3.2 The Value Chain: Some Factors to Consider in Assessing a Firms Primary Activities

144 Primary Activities Associated with providing service to enhance or maintain the value of the product Effective use of procedures to solicit customer feedback and to act on information Quick response to customer needs and emergencies Ability to furnish replacement parts Effective management of parts and equipment inventory Quality of service personnel and ongoing training Warranty and guarantee policies Inbound LogisticsOperationsOutbound LogisticsMarketing and SalesService Adapted from Exhibit 3.2 The Value Chain: Some Factors to Consider in Assessing a Firms Primary Activities

145 Support Activities Typically supports the entire value chain and not individual activities Effective planning systems Ability of top management to anticipate and act on key environmental trends and events Ability to obtain low-cost funds for capital expenditures and working capital Excellent relationships with diverse stakeholder groups Ability to coordinate and integrate activities across the value chain Highly visible to inculcate organizational culture, reputation, and values General Administration Adapted from Exhibit 3.3 The Value Chain: Some Factors to Consider in Assessing a Firms Support Activities

146 Support Activities Activities involved in the recruiting, hiring, training, development, and compensation of all types of personnel Effective recruiting, development, and retention mechanisms for employees Quality relations with trade unions Quality work environment to maximize overall employee performance and minimize absenteeisn Reward and incentive programs to motivate all employees General Administration Human Resource Management Adapted from Exhibit 3.3 The Value Chain: Some Factors to Consider in Assessing a Firms Support Activities

147 Support Activities Related to a wide range of activities and those embodied in processes and equipment and the product itself Effective R&D activities for process and product initiatives Positive collaborative relationships between R&D and other departments State-of-the art facilities and equipment Culture to enhance creativity and innovation Excellent professional qualifications of personnel Ability to meet critical deadlines General Administration Human Resource Management Technology Development Adapted from Exhibit 3.3 The Value Chain: Some Factors to Consider in Assessing a Firms Support Activities

148 Support Activities Function of purchasing inputs used in the firms value chain Procurement of raw material inputs Development of collaborative win-win relationships with suppliers Effective procedures to purchase advertising and media services Analysis and selection of alternate sources of inputs to minimize dependence on one supplier Ability to make proper lease versus buy decisions General Administration Human Resource Management Technology Development Procurement Adapted from Exhibit 3.3 The Value Chain: Some Factors to Consider in Assessing a Firms Support Activities

149 Interrelationships among Value-Chain Activities within and across Organizations Importance of relationships among value activities Interrelationships among activities within the firm Relationships among activities within the firm and with other organizations (e.g., customers and suppliers)

150 Resource-Based View of the Firm Two perspectives The internal analysis of phenomena within a company An external analysis of the industry and its competitive environment Three key types of resources Tangible resources Intangible resources Organizational capabilities

151 Types of Resources Relatively easy to identify, and include physical and financial assets used to create value for customers Financial resources Firms cash accounts Firms capacity to raise equity Firms borrowing capacity Physical resources Modern plant and facilities Favorable manufacturing locations State-of-the-art machinery and equipment Tangible Resources Adapted from Exhibit 3.4 The Resource-Based View of the Firm: Resources and Capabilities

152 Technological resources Trade secrets Innovative production processes Patents, copyrights, trademarks Organizational resources Effective strategic planning processes Excellent evaluation and control systems Types of Resources Tangible Resources Adapted from Exhibit 3.4 The Resource-Based View of the Firm: Resources and Capabilities Relatively easy to identify, and include physical and financial assets used to create value for customers

153 Types of Resources Difficult for competitors (and the firm itself) to account for or imitate, typically embedded in unique routines and practices that have evolved over time Human Experience and capabilities of employees Trust Managerial skills Firm-specific practices and procedures Tangible Resources Intangible Resources Adapted from Exhibit 3.4 The Resource-Based View of the Firm: Resources and Capabilities

154 Types of Resources Innovation and creativity Technical and scientific skills Innovation capacities Reputation Effective strategic planning processes Excellent evaluation and control systems Tangible Resources Intangible Resources Adapted from Exhibit 3.4 The Resource-Based View of the Firm: Resources and Capabilities Difficult for competitors (and the firm itself) to account for or imitate, typically embedded in unique routines and practices that have evolved over time

155 Types of Resources Competencies or skills that a firm employs to transform inputs to outputs, and capacity to combine tangible and intangible resources to attain desired end Outstanding customer service Excellent product development capabilities Innovativeness of products and services Ability to hire, motivate, and retain human capital Tangible Resources Intangible Resources Organizational Capabilities Adapted from Exhibit 3.4 The Resource-Based View of the Firm: Resources and Capabilities

156 How Resources and Capabilities Lead to Advantages Adapted from Exhibit 3.5 Marks & Spencer: How Resources and Capabilities Lead to Advantages Source: Adapted with permission of Harvard Business Review: Exhibit from Competing on Resources: Strategy in the 1990s by D. J. Collis and C. Montgomery, 73, no. 4 (1995).

157 Firm Resources and Sustainable Competitive Advantages Is the resource or capability… Valuable Rare Difficult to imitate Difficult to substitute Implications Adapted from Exhibit 3.6 Four Criteria for Assessing Sustainability of Resources and Capabilities Neutralize threats and exploit opportunities Not many firms possess Physically unique Path dependency Causal ambiguity Social complexity No equivalent strategic resources or capabilities

158 Is the Resource Valuable? Organizational resources can be a source of competitive advantage only when they are valuable Enable a firm to formulate and implement strategies that improve its efficiency or effectiveness

159 Is the Resource Rare? Organizational resources also possessed by competitors are not sources of competitive advantage Common strategies based on similar resources give no one firm an advantage Competitive advantages are gained only from uncommon resources, resources that are rare to other competitors

160 Can the Resource be Imitated? Difficulty in imitating resources is key to value creation because it constrains competition Profits generated from inimitable resources are more likely to be sustainable Physical uniqueness Path dependency Causal ambiguity Social complexity

161 Are Substitutes Readily Available? There must be no strategically equivalent valuable resources that are themselves not rare or inimitable Substitutability may take at least two forms Competitor may be able to substitute a similar resource that enables it to develop and implement the same strategy Very different firm resources can become strategic substitutes (such as e-business as a substitute for physical retail facility)

162 Criteria for Sustainable Competitive Advantage and Strategic Implications ValuableRareDifficult WithoutImplications to ImitateSubstancefor Competitiveness NoNoNoNoCompetitive disadvantage YesNoNoNoCompetitive parity YesYesNoNoTemporary competitive advantage YesYesYesYesSustainable competitive advantage Is a resource or capability… Exhibit 3.7 Criteria for Sustainable Competitive Advantage and Strategic Implications Source; Adapted from J. Barney, Firm Resources a Sustained Competitive Advantage, Journal of Management 17 (1991), pp. 99-120.

163 Evaluating Firm Performance Two approaches for evaluating firm performance Financial ratio analysis Balance sheet Income statement Balanced scorecard (stakeholder perspective) Employees Customers Owners

164 Financial Ratio Analysis Five types of financial ratios Short-term solvency or liquidity Long-term solvency measures Asset management (or turnover) Profitability Market value Meaningful ratio analysis must include Analysis of how ratios change over time How ratios are interrelated

165 Financial Ratio Analysis: Historical Comparisons Exhibit 3.8 Historical Trends: Return on Sales (ROS) for a Hypothetical Company

166 Financial Ratio Analysis: Comparison with Industry Norms Exhibit 3.9 How Financial Ratios Differ across Industries Source: Dun & Bradstreet, Industry Norms and Key Business Ratios, 1999-2000, Desktop Edition, SIC #0100-8999 GrocerySkilled-Nursing Financial RatioSemiconductorsStoreFacilities Quick Ratio (times)1.50.51.1 Current ratio (times)3.21.61.9 Total liabilities to net worth (%)34.8114.093.0 Collection period (days)54.82.940.2 Assets to sales (%)98.121.2108.7 Return on sales (%)3.10.92.0

167 Financial Ratio Analysis: Comparison with Key Competitors Exhibit 3.10 Comparison of Procter & Gambles and Key Competitors Drug Revenues and R&D Expenditures Source: R. Berner, Procter & Gamble: Just Say No to Drugs, Business Week, October 9, 2000, p. 128; data courtesy of Lehman Brothers and Procter & Gamble. Sales*R&D budget Company (or division($ billions)($ billions) P&G Drug Division$ 0.8$ 0.38 Bristol-Myers Squibb20.21.80 Pfizer27.44.00 Merck32.72.10 *Most recently completed fiscal year. Data: Lehman Brothers, Procter & Gamble Co.

168 The Balanced Scorecard Provides a meaningful integration of many issues that come into evaluating a firms performance Four key perspectives How do customers see us? (customer perspective) What must we excel at? (internal perspective) Can we continue to improve and create value? (innovation and learning perspective) How do we look to shareholders? (financial perspective)

169 The Balanced Scorecard Time Quality Performance and service Cost Customer Perspective

170 The Balanced Scorecard Processes Cycle time Quality Employee skills productivity Decisions Actions Coordination Resources and capabilities Customer Perspective Internal Business Perspective

171 The Balanced Scorecard Introduction of new products and services Greater value for customers Increased operating efficiencies Customer Perspective Internal Business Perspective Innovation and Learning Perspective

172 The Balanced Scorecard Profitability Growth Shareholder value Increased market share Reduced operating expenses Higher asset turnover Customer Perspective Internal Business Perspective Innovation and Learning Perspective Financial Perspective

173 172 Opportunities and Threats Opportunity A condition in the environment that, if exploited, helps a company achieve strategic competitiveness. Threat A condition in the environment that may hinder a companys efforts to achieve strategic competitiveness.

174 173 سئوال

175 بلند همتان هيچ چيز هيجان انگيزتر هيچ چيز هيجان انگيزتر از ساختن آينده نيست... از ساختن آينده نيست...


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