Presentation on theme: "Introduction It is extremely important to know the English spelling rules. At least the basic rules. They will help you a lot in your writing and understanding."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction It is extremely important to know the English spelling rules. At least the basic rules. They will help you a lot in your writing and understanding.
Basic spelling rules
Spelling ie and ei Put i before e (Mischief believe field) Except after c (Receiver conceited) Or when it sounds like a As in neighbor or neigh. (eight weigh ) * Some Exceptions: Friend neither leisure foreign
Adding prefixes 1-Keep original spelling 2- if it ends with the same letter keep both letters Examples: Post + pone = postponeIr + regular = irregular Re + play = replayMis + spelt = misspelt
Suffixes and the silent e Adding suffixes to words with silent e ruleexamples begins with a constant to a word that ends in silent e, keep the e Place + ment = placement Rare + ly = rarely Common exceptionsJudge + ment = judgment Adding suffixes to words with silent e ruleexamples begins with a vowel or y to a word that ends in silent e, usually drop the e. Excite + able = excitable Shine + y = shiny Common exceptionsMile + age = mileage
Adding suffixes to words with silent e ruleexamples begins with a vowel or y to a word that ends in silent e, usually drop the e. Excite + able = excitable Shine + y = shiny Common exceptions begins with a or o to a word that ends in ce or ge, keep the e. begins with a vowel to a word that ends in ee or oe, keep the e Mile + age = mileage Change + able = changeable Trace + able = traceable Agree + able = agreeable Canoe + ing = canoeing
Suffixes and the final y Rule : When you add a suffix to a word which ends in a consonant followed by a 'y', change the 'y' to 'i'. e.g. The word 'happy' ends in 'py'. When you add the suffix 'ness', change the 'y' to 'i' to make the word happiness: happy + ness = happiness. Exceptions to the rule. If you are adding the suffix 'ing' to a word ending in 'y', keep the 'y'. e.g. The word 'copy' ends in 'py'. When you add 'ing' the 'y' doesn't change to an 'i' because you would have 2 'i's together: copy + ing = copying.
Adding -ly Ly is often added to base words to turn them into adverbs, adjectives or describing words Love + ly = lovely smart + ly = smartly Slow + ly = slowly loud + ly = loudly Main + ly = mainly quick + ly = quickly
Adding -ly Exceptions If the adjective ends in: Do this:And add:For example: -llDrop lAdd lyFull + ly = fully Constant + ledrop-e-yTerrible > terribly yChange y to i-lyEasy > easily enothing-lyExtreme > extremely Exception: True > truly icnothing-allyBasic + ly = basically Fantastic + ly= fantastically
Forming plurals General rules for plurals If the noun ends in:Do this:-examples Ch, s, sh, x or zAdd -esWish > wishes Constant + yChange y to I, add -esBaby > babies Lady > ladies Vowel + yAdd -sDay > days Key > keys Vowel + oAdd -sStereo > stereos Studio > studios Constant + o Common exceptions Generally Add –es Sometimes add -s Tomato > tomatoes Cargo > cargoes Silo > silos For ff Common exceptions add –s Change f to v and add es Reef > reefs Leaf > leaves lfChange f to v and add escalf > calves Wolf > wolves feChange f to v and add sLife > lives knife> knives
Mostly confused words Accept – to take something that is given to you Except – to leave out Altar – a raised place used in religious services Alter – to change Ascent – to climb Assent – to agree Brake – a device for stopping or slowing a vehicle Break – to come apart Cite – to document Site – a place Desert- vast part of land covered with sand Dessert- sweet
Coarse – rough Course – moving from one point to the next Complement - something that makes a thing whole or perfect Compliment – to praise Conscience – a sense of right and wrong Conscious – state of being awake Descent – coming from a higher place to a lower one Dissent – to disagree Desert – a dry, hot, sandy area Dessert – the sweet final part of a meal Device – something made for a certain purpose Devise – to invent something or develop a plan Elicit – to bring out Illicit – illegal
Eminent – famous or well respected Imminent – about to happen Faint – weak Feint – a movement meant to deceive Forth – forward Fourth – an ordinal number Here – at or in a place Hear – to receive sound through ones ears Hole – an opening through something Whole – an entire thing Peace – absence of fighting Piece – a portion of something Plain – clearly seen, heard, or understood Plane – a flat surface Stationary – to stand still Stationery – writing paper Weak – without strength Week – a period of seven days
References 1. Fuchs, Marjorie, and Margaret Honner. Focus On Grammar. United State o America: Pearson Longman, n.d. 2. Glencoe, Mcgraw Hill. Grammar and Composition (grade 10). America: McGraw - Hill company, 2005.