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1 What is a text type? The phrase text type is a way of classifying and defining different types of language interaction, both spoken and written. It refers.

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Presentation on theme: "1 What is a text type? The phrase text type is a way of classifying and defining different types of language interaction, both spoken and written. It refers."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 What is a text type? The phrase text type is a way of classifying and defining different types of language interaction, both spoken and written. It refers to the purpose of a text and the way it is written.

2 2 text type familiesmembers procedures instructions; procedures; protocols information texts descriptions; explanations; reports; directives; combination story texts recounts; narratives persuasive textsexpositions; discussion; opinions

3 3 How does the syllabus classify text types? Instructions Explanations Recounts - personal - factual Information reports Expositions Narratives

4 4 What does text form mean? Texts can also be defined or classified according to their form: the overall shape and structure they take or the context in which they are found.

5 5 text type and text form narrativeexplanationinstructionrecount diary short story letter recipe play essay t y p e f o r m

6 6 What are the key features of different kinds of texts? When considering a text we need to think about its: – text structure – grammatical features – vocabulary – topic (what about?) – purpose (why?) – audience/writer-reader relationship (who?) context language

7 7 features of a text type Topicwhat the text is about Purposewhat text producer wants to achieve Audiencewho the consumer is Relationship between P&C who producer and consumer are vis-à-vis one another example What might be a form of the text type in the example? What text type is the example? Singapores history to give information visitors to Singapore producer & consumer unknown to one another.

8 8 language features pattern of organisation tense, person, form of clauses etc etc words used - depends on topic and audience example chronological past tense; 3 rd person; declarative clauses conflict; resolution; government policies structure grammar vocabulary

9 9 Recount personal Recount factual narrativeexplanat -ion reportexpositionprocedure speaker (1 st person) specific 3 rd person or general class specific 1st or 3 rd person general class specific 3 rd person or general class addressee (2 nd person) past usually past timeless timeless, obligation future imperative + future temporal causalvariouscausaltemporal/ causal summary of text types: purpose & typical grammatical features retell or record reveal describe instruct persuade entertain nouns / pronouns tense / modalit y conjunctio n

10 10 text structure the way the text is shaped e.g. text type: narrative Orientation ^ Complication ^ Resolution

11 11 One day all his buttons had been ripped off so he had to hold his trousers up. The bell went to go home from school and Harry raced out of the classroom and his pants fell down. All the other children laughed. Orientation Complication Resolution Buttons In a small village called Columpton there was a boy called Harry. Harry was always fighting and during fights his buttons were ripped off. His mother always nagged him about sewing on his buttons but Harry never did. Now Harry sews his buttons on all the time, without even being asked.

12 12 5, Stamford Estate Dear Sir, As I was going to work yesterday I noticed 3 youths walking to school after 8 a.m. They were talking and laughing and seemed to be in no hurry to get there. It was reported in yesterdays Straits Times that todays young people had never worked harder at school. This was certainly not borne out by my observations. I believe that punctuality is a crucial aspect of working life. All young people need to learn this before they leave school. As parents, people must: –set a good example; –insist on punctuality; –support schools in their campaigns to promote punctuality. Yours faithfully Task c) personal recount factual recount exposition instruction

13 13 Task e) Topic text type text form Purpose Relationship between P&C Tone Structure Grammar Vocabulary Text B setting up an amplifier instruction (procedural) non-fiction manual tell how to set up amplifier writer = expert reader = novice impersonal; neither the writer nor the reader is referred to separate numbered paragraphs imperatives, infinitives, future tense when referring to results of actions subject-specific, technical, e.g., unmute

14 14 Topic text type text form Purpose Relationship between P&C Tone Structure Grammar Vocabulary Text C English in Singapore information report non-fiction information text give factual information writer = expert reader = novice impersonal; neither the writer nor the reader is referred to non-chronological, general to specific simple present tense, adjectives for classification, topic-specific & technical, e.g., syntactic; formal language, e.g., proficient

15 15 Topicball-point pens text typeexplanation text formnon-fiction, general interest book Purposeto inform the reader Relationship between P&C writer = expert; reader=novice Tonedistant, impersonal Structuremoving from the key element of the pen to those parts that connect to this element Grammarclear reference and cohesive links from one sentence to the next; passive voice; causal conjunctions Vocabularytechnical, e.g., brass housing Text F

16 16 Topica robbery text typefactual recount text formnewspaper article Purposeto provide information/sell newspapers Relationship between P&C writer and reader unknown to each other Tonebrisk and clear, not formal. Structuresummary followed by chronological report of the incident, paragraphs, columns, picture, caption GrammarConcise style, densely constructed sentences Vocabularysome colloquial phrases, e.g., made off, facts, figures, names, places Text G


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