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Video Production and Media Literacy. The First Rule of Video Production No matter how good your equipment, editing, and graphics… Garbage In! Garbage.

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Presentation on theme: "Video Production and Media Literacy. The First Rule of Video Production No matter how good your equipment, editing, and graphics… Garbage In! Garbage."— Presentation transcript:

1 Video Production and Media Literacy

2 The First Rule of Video Production No matter how good your equipment, editing, and graphics… Garbage In! Garbage Out! It takes quality audio/video to make a good production!

3 Important Things To Know about Video 1. TV productions all start as WRITING. 2. All programs are constructed. 4. TV producers must decide both the Purpose and Audience for any show they create

4 Important Things To Know about Video The purposes of TV shows can be to: n persuade viewers to buy products or accept certain ideas n Inform/ teach n entertain n express a point of view

5 Important Things To Know about Video TV producers target certain Audiences when making their shows and ads. They look at the audiences: n Background n Age n Wants / needs

6 Video Productions are created in three stages: Pre-Production Production Post - Production

7 Safety First! Use a tripod and make sure it is stable Use a tripod and make sure it is stable Make sure camera is tight on tripod Make sure camera is tight on tripod Watch out for cables Watch out for cables Dont point camera at bright light like the sun for long periods Dont point camera at bright light like the sun for long periods Dont try and force tape, cables, or attachments into place Dont try and force tape, cables, or attachments into place

8 ProductionProduction Scenes are rehearsed, performed by talent, and taped. Scenes are rehearsed, performed by talent, and taped. Supporting video (B-roll) is also shot to Supporting video (B-roll) is also shot to cover audio (the sound) and natural audio is captured. cover audio (the sound) and natural audio is captured. Video/audio clips are Video/audio clips are logged and labeled logged and labeled

9 Camera Tips Use a tripod Use a tripod Place camera so greatest light is at camera persons back Place camera so greatest light is at camera persons back Use focus and white balance controls Use focus and white balance controls Practice camera moves (blocking) Practice camera moves (blocking) Frame shots and moves with purpose Frame shots and moves with purpose

10 Camera Tips (continued) Vary shots Vary shots Dont overuse zoom Dont overuse zoom Be sure to lay down pre and post-roll Be sure to lay down pre and post-roll Correct roll-back (only on tape cameras) Correct roll-back (only on tape cameras)

11 Basic Shots Types Close-up (CU)Wide Shot (WS)Medium Shot (Med)

12 Using Angles Birds Eye (High angle) Birds Eye (High angle) shots make characters or objects look small or weak shots make characters or objects look small or weak Worms Eye (low angle) shots make characters look big or strong Worms Eye (low angle) shots make characters look big or strong

13 ZOOMING!ZOOMING! Zoom – Zooming out or in can be used to guide viewer through a scene but should not be overused to avoid viewer seasickness Zoom – Zooming out or in can be used to guide viewer through a scene but should not be overused to avoid viewer seasickness

14 Shot Purposes Close-up/Extreme CU shots- tell what characters look like, show emotions, point out details Close-up/Extreme CU shots- tell what characters look like, show emotions, point out details Medium shots- create comfortable talking distance Medium shots- create comfortable talking distance Wide Shots- Show setting or action. Wide Shots- Show setting or action. Point of View (POV) shot lets viewer Point of View (POV) shot lets viewer see through a characters eyes see through a characters eyes

15 Viewfinder Lens Assembly Auto Zoom Control Switch Wide Telephoto Inset Detail Auto/Manual Focus Controls W T Battery Compartment Power/ Record Controls Microphone Playback Controls Diagram of a Typical Camcorder

16 How To Frame A Shot (Subject Facing Camera) Subject can be centered Headroom

17 How to Frame A Shot (Subject looking to one side) How to Frame A Shot (Subject looking to one side) Headroom Give lead or talking room

18 How to Frame A Shot Using the Rule of Thirds How to Frame A Shot Using the Rule of Thirds Place most interesting part of subject where lines cross. Notice body and eyes lie along these lines instead of pictures center

19 Common Video Mistakes….. Too much headroom - bad framing Too much headroom - bad framing Subject in front of bright backlight Subject in front of bright backlight Shaky camera - no tripod Shaky camera - no tripod No shot variation - wide shot No shot variation - wide shot Insufficient planning - no script Insufficient planning - no script lack of pre and post roll lack of pre and post roll

20 Audio Track Parts Talking Talking Sound effects Sound effects Music Music Natural sound Natural sound

21 Audio Tips If possible use headphones to monitor If possible use headphones to monitor Select microphones based on project needs Select microphones based on project needs Place microphone right distance from source Place microphone right distance from source When using built-in microphone move closer and zoom out When using built-in microphone move closer and zoom out Listen for distracting background noises Listen for distracting background noises

22 Common Audio Mistakes….. using only cam mike using only cam mike mike too far from sound source mike too far from sound source not monitoring audio not monitoring audio

23 On-Air Tips for Talent n n Make sure ahead of time that you can read and properly pronounce words (especially peoples names) n n Wait for your cue before speaking n n Smile! (when appropriate)

24 On-Air Tips for Talent n n When addressing audience, look into camera when speaking as much as possible. Hold referred to objects close to face when possible so it is easy to frame shot spokesmodel pose n n Speak clearly, projecting your voice toward the microphone

25 Advertising Techniques (Production) Close-upMakes product look bigger. AnglesMake product or person look more or less important. LightingMakes product look pretty, scary, exciting, etc. Sound EffectsMake product seem more fun or exciting. Music/jingleSets mood and helps you remember product. Makeup/Uses makeup or styling tricks to food styling change the look of a person or product

26 Advertising Techniques (Persuasion Techniques) Sport or movie star uses product Sport or movie star uses product Using emotions such as fear or humor Using emotions such as fear or humor Person you want to be like sells product Person you want to be like sells product Bandwagon Bandwagon Cardstacking Cardstacking Statistics Statistics Fact vs. Opinion Fact vs. Opinion Public Good Public Good Sense Appeal Sense Appeal Word games (generalities, weasel words) Word games (generalities, weasel words)

27 Pre-ProductionPre-Production Decide on target audience and purpose Decide on target audience and purpose Have all props and materials in place Have all props and materials in place Write outline/ scripts /storyboards Write outline/ scripts /storyboards Plan for graphics and special effects Plan for graphics and special effects

28 Planning Your Production Two main ways of planning are scripts and storyboards Two main ways of planning are scripts and storyboards Scripts take many forms but should have a place for both audio (sound) and video (picture) Scripts take many forms but should have a place for both audio (sound) and video (picture) Storyboards are really comic strip versions of production where shots are drawn with the audio written as captions underneath Storyboards are really comic strip versions of production where shots are drawn with the audio written as captions underneath

29 Script Writing Process n Research- This involves not only looking for factual information but possible sources for stills, video segments, audio sources etc. n Content Outline- The framework for the script. which contains all the information the script will have. It's easier to edit, cut, or add to later. The outline is laid out in the sequence of the script. n Treatment- written in story format (in commercial world the treatment is used often to sell the production before actual script is written) n 1 st, 2 nd, and final draft process

30 Steps to a News Story 1.Research- this tells you whether you actually have a story 2.Focus Statement- Do people in school drink too much soda? 3.Brainstorm B-Roll 4.Shoot 5.Log Tapes (this is crucial!) 6A. Option- Re-shoot or shoot additional footage

31 Steps to a News Story 6B. Option- Scrap the story (if you dont have it by now, there may not be one. This happens!) 7. Write the script for audio and video. This is where the focus statement is proven or disproved and where anchors lead is written 8. Edit 9. Enjoy the fruits of your labor! Taken by permission from Steve Galyon, Henry Co. High School

32 Script Example Video Video EST. Shot -of school exterior Med. Shot- Student host pointing at building building WS. Shot – Student walks through door door Med. 2 shot- Host and school director CU- Directors face as he is talking EST. Shot- Scriptwriters office with her at her computer Audio Audio V.O- Welcome to the ACME School of Production Lets go inside and take a tour! Music This is the schools director, Mr. Doe What are you going to show us today? Well I thought we would start by talking with our scriptwriter, Ms. Smith. Director – Well hello Ms. Smith! We have a visitor with us, Mr. Host

33 Shot Abbreviations (ECU) Extreme Close-up Shot (ECU) Extreme Close-up Shot (CU) Close-up Shot (CU) Close-up Shot (Med) Medium Shot (Med) Medium Shot (WS) Wide Shot (WS) Wide Shot (POV) Point of View Shot (POV) Point of View Shot (EST) Establishing Shot (EST) Establishing Shot

34 Sample Storyboard The veterinarian will take a blood sample She will use a special needle to take the sample She will check the sample under a microscope

35 Interview Tips Write a focus sentence Write a focus sentence Research the subject Research the subject Target your audience correctly Target your audience correctly Prepare a complete list of questions Prepare a complete list of questions Describe the purpose to the subject before the interview Describe the purpose to the subject before the interview

36 Interview Tips Dont interview the subject without the camera before the actual interview Dont interview the subject without the camera before the actual interview LISTEN LISTEN Ask good follow-up questions Ask good follow-up questions Be polite and professional Be polite and professional

37 Interview No-Nos Yes and no questions Yes and no questions I see and Uh-huh I see and Uh-huh Two-part questions Two-part questions Obvious questions Obvious questions Questions in poor taste Questions in poor taste Questions that have already been answered Questions that have already been answered

38 When writing for a news broadcast… Some things stay the same You still need to be: n Clear n Fair n Balanced n Interesting Some things change n n Write the way you talk; you are telling a story n n Sesame Street Style – simple, slow easy on the ears n n Short sentences n n Listen to your story as well as watch it. n n Let your pictures tell the story. Avoid talking heads n n Let your subjects provide the drama

39 Dressing for Television Choose clothes with simple, clean lines Choose clothes with simple, clean lines Wear solid colors (blues and teals) Wear solid colors (blues and teals) Women should wear make-up that emphasizes eyes and lips and men and women should use powder to avoid shiny areas Women should wear make-up that emphasizes eyes and lips and men and women should use powder to avoid shiny areas Avoid white, black, shiny jewelry, and distracting patterns Avoid white, black, shiny jewelry, and distracting patterns

40 The Magic of TV (Special Effects and Post Production) Editing Editing Graphics Graphics Special Effects Special Effects Animation Animation Make-up Make-up

41 Post-ProductionPost-Production The best pieces of video and audio are picked and put in the right order. The best pieces of video and audio are picked and put in the right order. The video pieces are edited together. The video pieces are edited together. Graphics (words on screen) and computer effects are created and edited in. Graphics (words on screen) and computer effects are created and edited in. The audio track is edited (sweetened) with sound effects, music, and natural sounds placed where needed. The audio track is edited (sweetened) with sound effects, music, and natural sounds placed where needed.

42 Editing: In-Camera/Non-Linear In-Camera editing: Plan and shoot in order using record/pause feature. Little flexibility for later rearrangement. In-Camera editing: Plan and shoot in order using record/pause feature. Little flexibility for later rearrangement. Non-Linear: shoot video and then input into computer with non-linear editing software. Video and audio segments represented by icons placed on a desktop timeline in desired order. Segments can easily be rearranged and graphics, transitions, effects integrated to created finished product. Non-Linear: shoot video and then input into computer with non-linear editing software. Video and audio segments represented by icons placed on a desktop timeline in desired order. Segments can easily be rearranged and graphics, transitions, effects integrated to created finished product.

43 Roles in Production Producer – Oversees project, Producer – Oversees project, Guides idea, works with director Guides idea, works with director Director - Guides actual production (calls the shots!) Director - Guides actual production (calls the shots!) Assistant Producer/Assistant Director- finds resources, gets copyright okays, sets schedules, arrange interviews, locations Assistant Producer/Assistant Director- finds resources, gets copyright okays, sets schedules, arrange interviews, locations Talent - On-camera host, anchor, or actor delivers lines, acts in character, follows directors cues Talent - On-camera host, anchor, or actor delivers lines, acts in character, follows directors cues

44 Roles in Production Camera person - Operates camera, tells story visually as guided by director Camera person - Operates camera, tells story visually as guided by director Audio Engineer – Records and manages sound Audio Engineer – Records and manages sound Scriptwriter – writes scripts & storyboards Scriptwriter – writes scripts & storyboards Computer Generated Imaging (CGI) Designer- Creates text, still images, and animations for onscreen and web use. Computer Generated Imaging (CGI) Designer- Creates text, still images, and animations for onscreen and web use. Website Designer- Many programs have websites or are delivered as part of a website. Website Designer- Many programs have websites or are delivered as part of a website.

45 You may use this PowerPoint in whole or in part but please cite KET as the source!


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