Presentation on theme: "Video Production and Media Literacy"— Presentation transcript:
1 Video Production and Media Literacy Reading and Writing VideoVideo Production and Media Literacy
2 The First Rule of Video Production No matter how good your equipment, editing, and graphics…Garbage In!Garbage Out!It takes quality audio/video to make a good production!
3 Important Things To Know about Video 1. TV productions all start as WRITING.2. All programs are “constructed”.4. TV producers must decide both the Purpose and Audience for any show they create
4 Important Things To Know about Video The purposes of TV shows can be to:persuade viewers to buy products or accept certain ideasInform/ teachentertainexpress a point of view
5 Important Things To Know about Video TV producers “target” certainAudiences when making theirshows and ads. They look atthe audience’s:BackgroundAgeWants / needs
6 Video Productions are created in three stages: Pre-ProductionProductionPost - Production
7 Safety First! Use a tripod and make sure it is stable Make sure camera is tight on tripodWatch out for cablesDon’t point camera at bright light like the sun for long periodsDon’t try and force tape, cables, or attachments into place
8 Production Scenes are rehearsed, performed by talent, and taped. Supporting video (B-roll) is also shot to“cover” audio (the sound) and natural audio is captured.Video/audio clips arelogged and labeled
9 Camera Tips Use a tripod Place camera so greatest light is at camera person’s backUse focus and white balance controlsPractice camera moves (blocking)Frame shots and moves with purpose
10 Camera Tips (continued) Vary shotsDon’t overuse zoomBe sure to lay down pre and post-rollCorrect roll-back (only on tape cameras)
12 Using Angles Bird’s Eye (High angle) shots make characters or objects look small or weakWorm’s Eye (low angle) shots make characters look big or strong
13 ZOOMING!Zoom – Zooming out or in can be used to “guide” viewer through a scene but should not be overused to avoid viewer “seasickness”
14 Shot PurposesClose-up/Extreme CU shots- “tell” what characters look like, show emotions, point out detailsMedium shots- create comfortable “talking” distanceWide Shots- Show setting or action.Point of View (POV) shot lets viewer“see” through a character’s eyes
15 Diagram of a Typical Camcorder Inset DetailWWideAuto Zoom Control SwitchTTelephotoPower/ Record ControlsBattery CompartmentMicrophonePlayback ControlsLens AssemblyViewfinderAuto/Manual Focus Controls
16 How To Frame A Shot (Subject Facing Camera) HeadroomSubject can be centered
17 How to Frame A Shot (Subject looking to one side) HeadroomGive lead or “ talking” room
18 How to Frame A Shot Using the Rule of Thirds 123Place most interesting part of subject where lines cross. Notice body and eyes lie along these lines instead of picture’s center.
19 Common Video Mistakes….. Too much headroom - bad framingSubject in front of bright backlightShaky camera - no tripodNo shot variation - wide shotInsufficient planning - no scriptlack of pre and post roll
21 Audio Tips If possible use headphones to monitor Select microphones based on project needsPlace microphone right distance from sourceWhen using built-in microphone move closer and zoom outListen for distracting background noises`
22 Common Audio Mistakes….. using only cam mikemike too far from sound sourcenot monitoring audio
23 On-Air Tips for TalentMake sure ahead of time that you can read and properly pronounce words (especially people’s names)Wait for your cue before speakingSmile! (when appropriate)
24 On-Air Tips for TalentWhen addressing audience, look into camera when speaking as much as possible.Hold referred to objects closeto face when possible so it is easy to frame shot “spokesmodel pose”Speak clearly, projecting your voice toward the microphone
25 Advertising Techniques (Production) Close-up Makes product look bigger.Angles Make product or person look more or less important.Lighting Makes product look pretty, scary, exciting, etc.Sound Effects Make product seem more fun or exciting.Music/jingle Sets “mood” and helps youremember product.Makeup/ Uses makeup or styling “tricks” tofood styling change the look of a person or product
26 Advertising Techniques (Persuasion Techniques) Sport or movie star uses productUsing emotions such as fear or humorPerson you want to be like sells productBandwagonCardstackingStatisticsFact vs. OpinionPublic GoodSense AppealWord games (generalities, weasel words)
27 Pre-Production Decide on target audience and purpose Have all props and materials in placeWrite outline/ scripts /storyboardsPlan for graphics and special effects
28 Planning Your Production Two main ways of planning are scripts and storyboardsScripts take many forms but should have a place for both audio (sound) and video (picture)Storyboards are really comic strip versions of production where shots are drawn with the audio written as captions underneath
29 Script Writing Process Research- This involves not only looking for factual information but possible sources for stills, video segments, audio sources etc.Content Outline- The framework for the script. which contains all the information the script will have. It's easier to edit, cut, or add to later. The outline is laid out in the sequence of the script.Treatment- written in story format (in commercial world the treatment is used often to “sell” the production before actual script is written)1st, 2nd, and final draft process
30 Steps to a News StoryResearch- this tells you whether you actually have a storyFocus Statement- Do people in school drink too much soda?Brainstorm B-RollShootLog Tapes (this is crucial!)6A. Option- Re-shoot or shoot additional footage
31 Steps to a News Story6B. Option- Scrap the story (if you don’t have it by now, there may not be one. This happens!)7. Write the script for audio and video. This is where the focus statement is proven or disproved and where anchor’s lead is written8. Edit9. Enjoy the fruits of your labor!Taken by permission from Steve Galyon, Henry Co. High School
32 Script Example Video Audio EST. Shot -of school exterior Med. Shot- Student host pointing atbuildingWS. Shot – Student walks throughdoorMed. 2 shot- Host and school directorCU- Director’s face as he is talkingEST. Shot- Scriptwriter’s office with her at her computerAudioV.O- Welcome to the ACME School of ProductionLet’s go inside and take a tour!MusicThis is the school’s director, Mr. Doe What are you going to show us today?Well I thought we would start by talking with our scriptwriter, Ms. Smith.Director – Well hello Ms. Smith! We have a visitor with us, Mr. Host
33 Shot Abbreviations (ECU) Extreme Close-up Shot (CU) Close-up Shot (Med) Medium Shot(WS) Wide Shot(POV) Point of View Shot(EST) Establishing Shot
34 Sample Storyboard The veterinarian will take a blood sample She will use a special needle to take the sampleShe will check the sample under a microscope
35 Interview Tips Research the subject Target your audience correctly Write a focus sentenceResearch the subjectTarget your audience correctlyPrepare a complete list of questionsDescribe the purpose to the subject before the interview
36 Interview TipsDon’t interview the subject without the camera before the actual interviewLISTENAsk good follow-up questionsBe polite and professional
37 Interview No-No’s Yes and no questions “I see” and “Uh-huh” Two-part questionsObvious questionsQuestions in poor tasteQuestions that have already been answered
38 When writing for a news broadcast… Some things stay the sameYou still need to be:ClearFairBalancedInterestingSome things changeWrite the way you talk; you are telling a storySesame Street Style –simple, slow easy on the earsShort sentencesListen to your story as well as watch it.Let your pictures tell the story. Avoid talking headsLet your subjects provide the drama
39 Dressing for Television Choose clothes with simple, clean linesWear solid colors (blues and teals)Women should wear make-up that emphasizes eyes and lips and men and women should use powder to avoid “shiny” areasAvoid white, black, shiny jewelry, and distracting patterns
40 The “Magic” of TV (Special Effects and Post Production) EditingGraphicsSpecial EffectsAnimationMake-up
41 Post-ProductionThe best pieces of video and audio are picked and put in the right order.The video pieces are edited together.Graphics (words on screen) and computer effects are created and edited in.The audio track is edited (sweetened) with sound effects, music, and natural sounds placed where needed.
42 Editing: In-Camera/Non-Linear In-Camera editing: Plan and shoot in order using record/pause feature. Little flexibility for later rearrangement.Non-Linear: shoot video and then input into computer with non-linear editing software. Video and audio segments represented by icons placed on a desktop timeline in desired order. Segments can easily be rearranged and graphics, transitions, effects integrated to created finished product.
43 Roles in Production Producer – Oversees project, Guides idea, works with directorDirector - Guides actual production (calls the shots!)Assistant Producer/Assistant Director- finds resources, gets copyright okays, sets schedules, arrange interviews, locationsTalent - On-camera host, anchor, or actor delivers lines, acts in character, follows director’s cues
44 Roles in ProductionCamera person - Operates camera, tells story visually as guided by directorAudio Engineer – Records and manages soundScriptwriter – writes scripts & storyboardsComputer Generated Imaging (CGI) Designer- Creates text, still images, and animations for onscreen and web use.Website Designer- Many programs have websites or are delivered as part of a website.
45 You may use this PowerPoint in whole or in part but please cite KET as the source!