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Video Production and Media Literacy

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Presentation on theme: "Video Production and Media Literacy"— Presentation transcript:

1 Video Production and Media Literacy
Reading and Writing Video Video Production and Media Literacy

2 The First Rule of Video Production
No matter how good your equipment, editing, and graphics… Garbage In! Garbage Out! It takes quality audio/video to make a good production!

3 Important Things To Know about Video
1. TV productions all start as WRITING. 2. All programs are “constructed”. 4. TV producers must decide both the Purpose and Audience for any show they create

4 Important Things To Know about Video
The purposes of TV shows can be to: persuade viewers to buy products or accept certain ideas Inform/ teach entertain express a point of view

5 Important Things To Know about Video
TV producers “target” certain Audiences when making their shows and ads. They look at the audience’s: Background Age Wants / needs

6 Video Productions are created in three stages:
Pre-Production Production Post - Production

7 Safety First! Use a tripod and make sure it is stable
Make sure camera is tight on tripod Watch out for cables Don’t point camera at bright light like the sun for long periods Don’t try and force tape, cables, or attachments into place

8 Production Scenes are rehearsed, performed by talent, and taped.
Supporting video (B-roll) is also shot to “cover” audio (the sound) and natural audio is captured. Video/audio clips are logged and labeled

9 Camera Tips Use a tripod
Place camera so greatest light is at camera person’s back Use focus and white balance controls Practice camera moves (blocking) Frame shots and moves with purpose

10 Camera Tips (continued)
Vary shots Don’t overuse zoom Be sure to lay down pre and post-roll Correct roll-back (only on tape cameras)

11 Basic Shots Types Close-up (CU) Medium Shot (Med) Wide Shot (WS)

12 Using Angles Bird’s Eye (High angle)
shots make characters or objects look small or weak Worm’s Eye (low angle) shots make characters look big or strong

13 ZOOMING! Zoom – Zooming out or in can be used to “guide” viewer through a scene but should not be overused to avoid viewer “seasickness”

14 Shot Purposes Close-up/Extreme CU shots- “tell” what characters look like, show emotions, point out details Medium shots- create comfortable “talking” distance Wide Shots- Show setting or action. Point of View (POV) shot lets viewer “see” through a character’s eyes

15 Diagram of a Typical Camcorder
Inset Detail W Wide Auto Zoom Control Switch T Telephoto Power/ Record Controls Battery Compartment Microphone Playback Controls Lens Assembly Viewfinder Auto/Manual Focus Controls

16 How To Frame A Shot (Subject Facing Camera)
Headroom Subject can be centered

17 How to Frame A Shot (Subject looking to one side)
Headroom Give lead or “ talking” room

18 How to Frame A Shot Using the Rule of Thirds
1 2 3 Place most interesting part of subject where lines cross. Notice body and eyes lie along these lines instead of picture’s center.

19 Common Video Mistakes…..
Too much headroom - bad framing Subject in front of bright backlight Shaky camera - no tripod No shot variation - wide shot Insufficient planning - no script lack of pre and post roll

20 Audio Track Parts Talking Sound effects Music Natural sound

21 Audio Tips If possible use headphones to monitor
Select microphones based on project needs Place microphone right distance from source When using built-in microphone move closer and zoom out Listen for distracting background noises `

22 Common Audio Mistakes…..
using only cam mike mike too far from sound source not monitoring audio

23 On-Air Tips for Talent Make sure ahead of time that you can read and properly pronounce words (especially people’s names) Wait for your cue before speaking Smile! (when appropriate)

24 On-Air Tips for Talent When addressing audience, look into camera when speaking as much as possible. Hold referred to objects close to face when possible so it is easy to frame shot “spokesmodel pose” Speak clearly, projecting your voice toward the microphone

25 Advertising Techniques (Production)
Close-up Makes product look bigger. Angles Make product or person look more or less important. Lighting Makes product look pretty, scary, exciting, etc. Sound Effects Make product seem more fun or exciting. Music/jingle Sets “mood” and helps you remember product. Makeup/ Uses makeup or styling “tricks” to food styling change the look of a person or product

26 Advertising Techniques (Persuasion Techniques)
Sport or movie star uses product Using emotions such as fear or humor Person you want to be like sells product Bandwagon Cardstacking Statistics Fact vs. Opinion Public Good Sense Appeal Word games (generalities, weasel words)

27 Pre-Production Decide on target audience and purpose
Have all props and materials in place Write outline/ scripts /storyboards Plan for graphics and special effects

28 Planning Your Production
Two main ways of planning are scripts and storyboards Scripts take many forms but should have a place for both audio (sound) and video (picture) Storyboards are really comic strip versions of production where shots are drawn with the audio written as captions underneath

29 Script Writing Process
Research- This involves not only looking for factual information but possible sources for stills, video segments, audio sources etc. Content Outline- The framework for the script. which contains all the information the script will have. It's easier to edit, cut, or add to later. The outline is laid out in the sequence of the script. Treatment- written in story format (in commercial world the treatment is used often to “sell” the production before actual script is written) 1st, 2nd, and final draft process

30 Steps to a News Story Research- this tells you whether you actually have a story Focus Statement- Do people in school drink too much soda? Brainstorm B-Roll Shoot Log Tapes (this is crucial!) 6A. Option- Re-shoot or shoot additional footage

31 Steps to a News Story 6B. Option- Scrap the story (if you don’t have it by now, there may not be one. This happens!) 7. Write the script for audio and video. This is where the focus statement is proven or disproved and where anchor’s lead is written 8. Edit 9. Enjoy the fruits of your labor! Taken by permission from Steve Galyon, Henry Co. High School

32 Script Example Video Audio EST. Shot -of school exterior
Med. Shot- Student host pointing at building WS. Shot – Student walks through door Med. 2 shot- Host and school director CU- Director’s face as he is talking EST. Shot- Scriptwriter’s office with her at her computer Audio V.O- Welcome to the ACME School of Production Let’s go inside and take a tour! Music This is the school’s director, Mr. Doe What are you going to show us today? Well I thought we would start by talking with our scriptwriter, Ms. Smith. Director – Well hello Ms. Smith! We have a visitor with us, Mr. Host

33 Shot Abbreviations (ECU) Extreme Close-up Shot (CU) Close-up Shot
(Med) Medium Shot (WS) Wide Shot (POV) Point of View Shot (EST) Establishing Shot

34 Sample Storyboard The veterinarian will take a blood sample
She will use a special needle to take the sample She will check the sample under a microscope

35 Interview Tips Research the subject Target your audience correctly
Write a focus sentence Research the subject Target your audience correctly Prepare a complete list of questions Describe the purpose to the subject before the interview

36 Interview Tips Don’t interview the subject without the camera before the actual interview LISTEN Ask good follow-up questions Be polite and professional

37 Interview No-No’s Yes and no questions “I see” and “Uh-huh”
Two-part questions Obvious questions Questions in poor taste Questions that have already been answered

38 When writing for a news broadcast…
Some things stay the same You still need to be: Clear Fair Balanced Interesting Some things change Write the way you talk; you are telling a story Sesame Street Style –simple, slow easy on the ears Short sentences Listen to your story as well as watch it. Let your pictures tell the story. Avoid talking heads Let your subjects provide the drama

39 Dressing for Television
Choose clothes with simple, clean lines Wear solid colors (blues and teals) Women should wear make-up that emphasizes eyes and lips and men and women should use powder to avoid “shiny” areas Avoid white, black, shiny jewelry, and distracting patterns

40 The “Magic” of TV (Special Effects and Post Production)
Editing Graphics Special Effects Animation Make-up

41 Post-Production The best pieces of video and audio are picked and put in the right order. The video pieces are edited together. Graphics (words on screen) and computer effects are created and edited in. The audio track is edited (sweetened) with sound effects, music, and natural sounds placed where needed.

42 Editing: In-Camera/Non-Linear
In-Camera editing: Plan and shoot in order using record/pause feature. Little flexibility for later rearrangement. Non-Linear: shoot video and then input into computer with non-linear editing software. Video and audio segments represented by icons placed on a desktop timeline in desired order. Segments can easily be rearranged and graphics, transitions, effects integrated to created finished product.

43 Roles in Production Producer – Oversees project,
Guides idea, works with director Director - Guides actual production (calls the shots!) Assistant Producer/Assistant Director- finds resources, gets copyright okays, sets schedules, arrange interviews, locations Talent - On-camera host, anchor, or actor delivers lines, acts in character, follows director’s cues

44 Roles in Production Camera person - Operates camera, tells story visually as guided by director Audio Engineer – Records and manages sound Scriptwriter – writes scripts & storyboards Computer Generated Imaging (CGI) Designer- Creates text, still images, and animations for onscreen and web use. Website Designer- Many programs have websites or are delivered as part of a website.

45 You may use this PowerPoint in whole or in part but please cite KET
as the source!

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