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QWE March 13 2002© 2002 The authors, all rights reserved. Experiences in Testing the Pocket PC
QWE March 13 2002© 2002 The authors, all rights reserved. Overview Scope of the Project Introduction to Model Based testing Case Study: the Pocket Inbox Conclusions
QWE March 13 2002© 2002 The authors, all rights reserved. Project Scope Pocket PC : Operating platform developed by Microsoft for handheld devices. Contracted to develop software models for five applications: Contacts, Calendar, Inbox, Pocket Word and Connectivity Manager.
QWE March 13 2002© 2002 The authors, all rights reserved. Model Based Testing: The Big Picture
QWE March 13 2002© 2002 The authors, all rights reserved. Modeling with Finite State Machines A state is a condition of the software where a specific set of inputs can be applied. Two states are considered equal if the same inputs can be applied and they produce the same result.
QWE March 13 2002© 2002 The authors, all rights reserved. Building Models : An Example
QWE March 13 2002© 2002 The authors, all rights reserved. Case Study: the Pocket Inbox General Information 5,000 transitions 1,500 states Most complex application we tested Design choices Limited number of messages Input peculiarities
QWE March 13 2002© 2002 The authors, all rights reserved. Case Study: Exploration Explore the application in order to discover and build a mental representation of its functionality For demonstration purposes, we only use a partial model
QWE March 13 2002© 2002 The authors, all rights reserved. Case Study: Inputs Identify all user inputs 1. New: to go to a new message window 2. Ok: to leave the New Message screen and save the current message 3. Send: to leave the New Message screen and send the current message 4. Space: space character 5. AlphanumericChar: any alphanumeric character
QWE March 13 2002© 2002 The authors, all rights reserved. Case Study: Input Applicability Identify the individual characteristics used to define the states of the application? 1. New: this input is applicable at any time. The user can press the New button when the general inbox screen is showing, when the window is New Message and whether he/she has entered text inside a New Message window. 2. Ok: this input is applicable when the window is a New Message. Whether the To field is empty or not does not make a difference. 3. Send: this input is applicable only when the window is a New Message and the To field is not empty. 4. Space: this input is applicable when the window is a New Message. 5. AlphanumericChar: this input is applicable when the window is a New Message
QWE March 13 2002© 2002 The authors, all rights reserved. Case Study: State Variables Window = Inbox, NewMessage This operational mode records which window the user is on. For this model, only two windows are considered as possible. To Field = Empty, NotEmpty This operational mode records if the value of the To field is empty or not. It is useful to determine whether the Send is enabled or not.
QWE March 13 2002© 2002 The authors, all rights reserved. Case Study: Transitions
QWE March 13 2002© 2002 The authors, all rights reserved. Case Study: Test Cases
QWE March 13 2002© 2002 The authors, all rights reserved. Case Study: Test Cases BUG
QWE March 13 2002© 2002 The authors, all rights reserved. Conclusions Model-based testing needs to be coupled with exploratory techniques with the dual benefit of attaining a better, more current understanding of the system and harvesting many bugs along the way. Models are beneficial, not only as a point of reference for testing purposes, but also as a living specification of the functionality it represents and as a basis for test automation. Having a good automated test oracle is vital to the effectiveness of automated testing in general and model- based testing in particular.
QWE March 13 2002© 2002 The authors, all rights reserved. Conclusion As long as finite state machines are used, there are inescapable critical issues to be dealt with: model building and maintenance, state explosion, and model correctness. There is need for more practical pointers on how to work around, or at least reduce the impact of these factors. Finally, studies need to be performed on answering the question: is model-based testing worth the effort when it comes to finding faults? Our preliminary results show that, for a very good, close-to-release, stable product, the number of faults uncovered by model-based testing is slightly disappointing if we severely limit the time during which we can run tests. The strongpoint of model-based testing is that it finds bugs with different characteristics: those that require long complicated sequences of inputs to be exposed.
QWE March 13 2002© 2002 The authors, all rights reserved. Contact Information Email : firstname.lastname@example.org@testingresearch.com Web : http://www.testingresearch.comhttp://www.testingresearch.com Telephone : (321)-795-4531 Regular Old-Fashioned Mail : Herbert Thompson Department of Computer Sciences 150 W University Boulevard Melbourne, Florida 32901
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