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Modal verbs Done by: Ayesha

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1 Modal verbs Done by: Ayesha

2 Outlines What are modal verbs? When do we use modals?
Special verbs and normal verbs. Examples. Review Exercise.

3 What are modal verbs? In English language, a Modal “auxiliary” verb s are helping verbs. They can modify the grammatical mode of a verb. Can Could May Might Shall Should Will Would Must Have to Ought to Needn’t They express asocial function such as giving advice and logical possibilities such as making assumption. Example for an auxiliary verb in negative clauses: (I Can see) – ( I Can’t see) In certain tenses like present perfect (I have seen) – (I haven’t seen)

4 When do we use modals? To talk about:
Ability/inability Can/can’t Be able to She can/can’t act. She is/not able to act Necessary / not Necessary Must/ needn’t Have (got ) to You must study. You need not swim. They don’t have to go. He has got to go. Possible/ impossible May/Could/Might It may start at 8:00am Advice Should/ought to You should watch this TV show Assumptions May/Might/Could/Must/can’t Have (got) to They might not be good writers. He has got to be a star. Other like: Offers - Advices – Future possibility – Asking for permission – Request – Suggestion – prediction – Saying what’s right or wrong

5 Modal verbs are special verbs which behave differently from normal verbs.
1. Modal verbs do not take “-ed”, “-ing” or "-s“, in the third person. Examples: He can speak Chinese. NOT He cans speak Chinese She should be here by 9: You use "not" to make modal verbs negative, even in Simple Present and Simple Past. He should not write horrible things about others. They might not do well in the test.

6 Modal verbs are special verbs which behave differently from normal verbs.
3. Many modal verbs cannot be used in the past tenses or the future tenses. Examples: He will can go by the car. Not Correct She musted study very hard. Not Correct 4. Modal verbs come before the subject in questions: example: "May I come to your house to visit your mother?” 5. Negative forms: Modal verbs have n't or not after them in the negative. example: "mustn't" - "needn't". there is no does/doesn’t

7 Inability / Impossibility Could Could you repeat it again please?
Modal Example Uses Can We can’t do it. Inability / Impossibility Could Could you repeat it again please? Request May May I have another cup of tea? Asking for permission Might They might give us a 25% discount. Future possibility Must We must say good-bye now. Necessity / Obligation

8 I'll do that for you if you need any help. Offer Would
Modal Example Uses Will I'll do that for you if you need any help. Offer Would Would you like to play football this Saturday? Invitation Shall Shall we say 2.30 then? Suggestion Should Profits should increase next year. Uncertain prediction Ought to We ought to employ a professional marketing manager. Saying what’s right or correct

9 Remember: Modal Verbs do not normally have past forms. Could is used sometimes when talking about the past. e.g - He could play football in his youth. (Ability) They do not have infinitives or – ing forms or –s at the end. They are followed by an infinitive without to e.g – “She might record it” NOT “She might to record it”. They can be used with perfect infinitives to talk about the past. e.g - We should have gone the other way Always use Modal + base for of the verb

10 Exercises Find expressions: I have got to be at college by 8:00am.
Obligation Shall I help you. Suggestion Your wallet might be in the student services lost and found section. Possibility Find the write sentence: It couldn’t start at 1:00pm. Correct She mights record it. Not correct I couldn’t to believe what he said. Not correct Is she going to be in the show next week? Correct

11 Exercise

12 Bibliography
Fuchs, Marjorie, and Margaret Bonner. Focus on Grammar an Integrated Skills      Approach. New York: Pearson Education, Inc, 1995. Hurst, Lilliam. "Modal Verbs." English Exercises Online . 29 Oct Oct.      2008 <      welcome.html#int>. Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Grammer Dimensions. Boston: Heinle & Heinle, "Modal Verbs." Learn English. Aug Oct      < "Modal Verb Tutorial." - Free Online English Lessons & ESL / EFL      Resources . Language Dynamics. 3 Oct <      modals/modalintro.html>. Nelson. Grammar in Context. London: Hugh Gethin, 1992.

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