2CONTENTS Selecting your topic Reviewing existing Literature Areas to be addressed by the PaperWriting tipsFootnoting and referencing
3Selecting your topic The first step is choosing your topic. We have provided you with a list of researchable topics, which are areas of key concern to developing countries, as well as areas of current debate with respect to the multilateral trading system.
4Selecting your topicCarefully select a topic that is of interest to you, one that will sustain your interest and enthusiasm throughout the process.Jot down ideas that come to your mind regarding your topic,(however vague they may seem,) points that you wish to cover, relevant issues, etc.3. Read up on your selected topic to find out what previous studies have been conducted on it and identify possible gaps.
5Selecting your topic4. Discuss your topic of interest with your fellow colleagues or members of Trapca so as to pick their brains on the matter. 5. Do not select a topic that is too challenging. Keep it simple and focused. 6. Be flexible enough to revise/ change your ideas. Research is about reviewing, writing and re- writing.
6CONTENTS Selecting your topic Reviewing existing Literature Areas to be addressed by the PaperWriting tipsFootnoting and referencing
7Reviewing Literature Before coming up with a good idea of what to write about, one must firstread, read and read some more.Reviewing existing literature helps youdevelop a good understanding of theissues and debates.You can consult the internet forreading materials on your chosen area of interest.
8Why Review Literature? To build a context for your own project. To help you sharpen the issues relevant toyour topicTo introduce you to the present day debates/arguments on the topic of yourchoice.To provide a theoretical and historical framework for your own analysis.
9CONTENTS Selecting your topic Reviewing existing Literature Areas that should be encompassed by the PaperWriting tipsFootnoting and referencing
10Areas to be addressed by the Paper The outline reflects your careful planning of the paper and shows the relevance of the study you are going to take.We expect your paper to reflect the following:The titleConcise yet informative.Enticing enough to attract readers.Introduction/ BackgroundSummary of the larger questions and issues.What is the rationale of the paperWhat are the local/national/regional/international implications?
11Areas to be addressed by the Paper 3. What is the issue/problem you are tackling?Why does it matter?Be concise. (Not more than one paragraph)4. Purpose of the researchWhat is the overall purpose of the paper?What do you want to achieve at the end of the paper?What does the study hope to accomplish?5. Hypotheses/ Research Questions.What questions does the study hope to answer?6. ReferencesList of references that you have used in your research.
12CONTENTS Selecting your topic Reviewing existing Literature Areas to be addressed by the PaperWriting tipsFootnoting and referencing
13PlagiarismReproducing the words or presenting the ideas of other writers, without citing them by name.Referencing your sources, in effect, presenting work as if it was your own.This is EXTREMELY FORBIDDEN!!!!
14Writing TipsLook at existing work and literature for samples on writing papers.Use plain English and avoid unnecessary jargon.Use proper punctuation.Avoid too many long sentences. Keep it to one idea per sentence.Write a piece of work that is coherent/ flowing. We want to see a clear thought process, a logical flow of ideas.
15Writing Tips 5. Your work should follow some form of order. 6. When writing a direct quote from a source, be sure to put in in quotation marks, and indicate the source.7. Focus consistently on your topic. All issues discussed in your report should relate to your research topic.8. Aim for a balanced approach in the treatment of your topic. Look at all major perspectives and at both sides of an argument.
16Other Useful TipsWhen using a computer to type your work, make sure you save the work as often as possible and in multiple places.The process of paper writing is mostly a self directing process. Organise your time and set your own deadlines, as you plan your week.Consult, consult, consult.
17Other Useful TipsMake sure you follow the rules and regulations that govern the writing and presentation of papers.Revising and re-writing the paper is part and parcel of the research process.Think analytically and present well thought out issues.When taking notes, remember to jot down the full reference of the original source, including page numbers.
18And Finally…… Ensure that : There are no typographical or grammatical errors.Arguments flow in a logical fashion.You have provided evidence and arguments to support your assertions.Use font 12, single spacing, and justify your work.What distinguishes an “A” paper from a “C” is depth and analysis.
19CONTENTS Selecting your topic Reviewing existing Literature Areas to be addressed by the PaperWriting tipsFootnoting and referencing
20Footnoting and Referencing When citing, you can choose to use the “Harvard style” (in- text referencing) or the “Chicago style” (footnotes – bibliography) of referencing.Start the bibliography on a separate page, with the title “References”.References should be in alphabetical order, by author’s last name. If no author, by first significant word in title.Book/ Journal titles can be either italicised or underlined.
21Sample References… Journal Article Muchope, Oliver (1980), “The Measurement of Handwriting”, Quarterly Review of Biology, 55 (2): 231 – 249.Book by Single AuthorMama, Amina (1995), Beyond the Masks, London: Routledge.Book by two or more AuthorsOkello, Martin & Oscar Mukasa (2000), Measuring Intelligence, Cambridge, MA: The River Press.
22Sample References… Internet Sinabulya, Alex. (1997, February 2), “Poetry of Joseph”, (online). Available:(Accessed 09/01/04).A Government DocumentMinistry of Gender, Labour & Social Development (2000), The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Men; Third Country Status Report, Entebbe: Government Printers.