Presentation on theme: "S0001 Preparation for College Chemistry Let's Talk Chemistry"— Presentation transcript:
1 S0001 Preparation for College Chemistry Let's Talk Chemistry Luis AvilaRoom: Chandler 455Phone #: (212)
2 What Does a Chemist Do? What is Chemistry? “Take white lead, one part, and any glass you choose, two parts, fuse together in a crucible and then pour the mixture. To this crystal add the urine of an ass and after forty days you will find emeralds”Stillman, J. M. The story of Alchemy and Early Modern Chemistry;Dover: New York 1960, p. 160.Studies the atomic composition and structural features of substances.Investigates the varied interactions among substancesUtilizes natural substances and creates artificial ones.Comprehends the complex chemistry of living organisms.Provides a molecular interpretation of health and disease.
3 How Does She/He do it? Main Divisions of Chemistry Organic Chemistry Inorganic ChemistryPhysical ChemistryAnalytical ChemistryIndustrial Chemistry(Chemical Engineeringand Applied Chemistry)BiochemistryMaterials ChemistryEnvironmental ChemistryForensic Chemistry
4 What is Organic Chemistry? Largest area of specialization among the various fields of chemistrySynthetic Organic ChemistryPharmaceutical ChemistryPolymer ChemistryDye and Textile ChemistryPulp and Paper ChemistryAgricultural ChemistryFormulation Chemistry (paint, food, petroleum products, adhesives, etc.)Physical Organic ChemistryCorrelates the physical and chemical properties of compounds with their structural features.
5 Synthetic Organic Chemist: Professor Gilbert Stork We are interested in the multistep synthesis of natural products, as well as the development of newmethodology, particularly to address problems of regio- or stereocontrol. At present (1999), we are working on problems suggested by structures such as those of germine, taxol, cardenolides and codeineSynthetic Organic Chemist:Professor Gilbert Stork
6 2-acetylnerifolin (class Cardenolide) Natural Product with Antitumor ActivityTaxolNatural Product with Antitumor Activity
7 Synthetic Organic Chemist / Professor Samuel Danishefsky Among our areas of current interest in the anticancer field are epothilone and eleutherobin. While structurally diverse, these two compounds seem to function by a taxol-like mechanism in their ability to inhibit microtubule disassembly.Several projects are addressed to goal systems with immunochemical implications. Here we areparticularly concerned with the construction of a carbohydrate-based tumor antigen vaccine.Synthetic Organic Chemist /Bioorganic Chemist:Professor Samuel Danishefsky
8 Natural Products Chemist : Professor Koji Nakanishi We deal with structural aspects of bioactive compounds and elucidation of their mode of action.In most cases this involves investigating the interaction of small molecules with their biopolymeric receptors. The recent dramatic advancement in isolation, purification andmicrospectroscopic methods has made it possible for chemists to become involved in such studies on a molecular structural basisNatural Products Chemist :Professor Koji Nakanishi
9 Physical Organic Chemist / Photochemist Professor Nicholas Turro We view the photon as a reagent for initiating photoreactions and as a product of the deactivation of electronically excited molecules.Our group is developing a novel field termed "supramolecular" photochemistry, or photochemistry beyond the conventional intellectual and scientific constraints implied by the term "molecule". In supramolecular processes non-covalent bonds between molecules play a role analogous to that of covalent bonds between atoms.Physical Organic Chemist / PhotochemistMaterial Chemist:Professor Nicholas Turro
10 What is Inorganic Chemistry? Deals with the properties of elements ranging from metals to non metalsOrganometallic ChemistryBioinorganic ChemistryCeramics and GlassSemiconductors
11 Organometallic Chemist / X-ray Spectroscopist: Professor Gerard Parkin We have a continuing interest in exploring unusual artifacts resulting from X-ray diffraction experiments (e.g. "bond stretch" isomerism)One of our interests is concerned with compounds with metal-ligand multiple bonds, which are species of considerable current interest in terms of both their bonding and reactivity.Organometallic Chemist / X-ray Spectroscopist:Professor Gerard Parkin
12 Professor Ronald Breslow In our major effort we are trying to prepare artificial enzymes that can imitate the function of natural enzymes.A related study involves the synthesis of mimics of antibodies or of biological receptor sites, constructing molecules that will bind to polypeptides with sequence selectivity in water, using mainly hydrophobic interactions. These couldbe very useful in modulating the activity of peptide hormones, for instance.Bio-organic Chemist :Professor Ronald Breslow
13 What is Physical Chemistry? Measures, correlates, and explains the quantitative aspects of chemical processesTheoretical ChemistryDevoted to Quantum and Statistical Mechanics.Theoretical chemists use computers to help them solve complicatedmathematical equations that simulate specific chemical processes.Chemical ThermodynamicsDeals with the relationship between heat, work, temperature,and energy of Chemical systems.Chemical KineticsSeeks to measure and understand the rates of chemicalreactions.
14 Physical Chemistry Electrochemistry Investigates the interrelationship between electric current and chemical change.Photochemistry, SpectroscopyUses radiation energy to probe and induce change within matter.Surface ChemistryExamines the properties of chemical surfaces, using instruments that can provide a chemical profile of such surfaces.
15 My research is concerned with structural and dynamic processes in condensed phase systems and biomacromolecular systems.Because the systems studied are often complex many-body systems, it is necessary to utilize the powerful analytical methods of statistical mechanics as well as state-of-the-art methods of computer simulation involving molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo techniques.Theoretical Chemist: Professor Bruce Berne
16 My research is materials, surfaces and nanocrystals, especially in relation to optical and electronic properties. This work can include theoretical modeling, experimental chemical physics, and synthetic chemistry. We try to understand the evolution of solid state properties from molecular properties, and to create new materials with nanoscale structure by both kinetic and thermodynamic self-assembly methods.Materials Chemist:Professor Louis Brus
17 Near Field Microscopist Our research program involves the design, synthesis, and detailed physical investigation of novel molecular and nanoparticle materials which display unique self-organized hierarchical structures and specific optical, electronic, and/or magnetic properties. Emphasis is placed on materials with potential applications in light-emitting devices, optical memory devices, molecular level and single particle level switching devices, and chemosensory devices. Our research is necessarily interdisciplinary where students and post-doctoral researchers are exposed to modern aspects of inorganic, physical, and materials chemistry.Materials Chemist /Near Field MicroscopistProfessor David Adams
18 Experimental Physical Chemist / Surface Chemist Professor George Flynn We investigate molecularcollisions that lead either to chemical reaction or to the exchange of energy betweenmolecules. In particular, we have developed the infrared diode laser absorption probetechnique to investigate collisions between molecules.We also study the structure of molecules adsorbed on surfaces by using the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM).
19 What is Analytical Chemistry? QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS deals with the detection of elements or compounds (analytes) in different materials.QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS refers to the measurement of the actual amounts of the analyte present in the material investigated.Chemical and Biochemical MethodsGravimetryTitrimetric AnalysisEnzymic AnalysisInmunochemical Analysis
23 Biophysical Chemist / NMR Spectroscopist: Professor Ann McDermott We study enzyme mechanisms using NMR. A variety of experiments allow us to probe structural details,dynamics or chemical details such as protonation states.In photosynthetic reaction centers, light energy is converted to chemical potential energy through long-range electron transfer events. A wealth of crystallographic, mutagenic, and spectroscopic work on these centers still leaves important mechanistic questions unanswered.Biophysical Chemist / NMR Spectroscopist:Professor Ann McDermott
24 Molecular Biologist / Organic Chemist: Professor Virginia Cornish Our research interests center on the development of selectionstrategies for identifying enzymes from large pools of proteins.This research is interdisciplinary, bringing together the techniquesof small-molecule synthesis, molecular and cellular biology,computer modeling, and mechanistic enzymology and structural biology. The need for efficient catalysts is fundamental. Biological catalysts drive cellular processes, and the chemical industry relies on catalysts for the synthesis of compounds ranging from pharmaceuticals to materials.Molecular Biologist / Organic Chemist:Professor Virginia Cornish
25 The Tools of the Trade Periodic Table of the Elements Ag Na Li Fr Cs RbKBeCaMgRaBaSrScLaYAcTiHfZrRfVTaNbHaCrWMoSgMnReTcBhFeOsRuHsCoIrRhMtNiPtPdCuAuZnHgCdGaAlTlInPbSnBiPoBGeSiAsSbTeAtHCNPOSeSFBrClINeKrArRnXeHeCeThPrPaNdUPmNpSmPuEuAmGdCmTbBkDyCfHoEsErFmTmiMdYbNoLuLr47113875537194201288563821573989227240104237341105247442106257543107267644108277745109287846297930804831138l498250838453214335152851671583416935175310361886542589059916092619362946395649665976698679968100691017010271103Periodic Table of the Elements
26 Interesting Applications The KSC-ALS Breadboard ProjectHumans take in oxygen, food and water, and expel carbon dioxide and organic waste. Plants utilize carbon dioxide, produce food, release oxygen, and purify water. Inedible plant material and human waste are degraded by microorganisms to recycle nutrients for plants in a process termed resource recovery.
27 When humans establish permanent bases on the Lunar surface or travel to Space for exploration, they need to develop systems to:produce foodpurify their water supply andcreate oxygen from the carbon dioxide they expel.Physico-chemical processes can perform the two latter tasks, but only biological processes can perform all three.
28 A life support system that would perform these regenerative functions, whether strictly by biological means or by a combination of biological and physical-chemical methods, has been called a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS).Biological systems utilize plants and microorganismsto perform these life support tasks in a process termedbioregeneration.
29 A CELSS is a tightly controlled system, using crops to perform life support functions, under the restrictions of minimizing volume, mass, energy, and labor.
30 A career alternative for chemists, a multidisciplinary arena to prove the role of Chemistry as a "central science".