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1 Luis Avila Room: Chandler 455 Phone #: (212)854-8587.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Luis Avila Room: Chandler 455 Phone #: (212)854-8587."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Luis Avila Room: Chandler 455 Phone #: (212)

2 2 What is Chemistry? What Does a Chemist Do? Studies the atomic composition and structural features of substances. Investigates the varied interactions among substances Utilizes natural substances and creates artificial ones. Comprehends the complex chemistry of living organisms. Provides a molecular interpretation of health and disease. “Take white lead, one part, and any glass you choose, two parts, fuse together in a crucible and then pour the mixture. To this crystal add the urine of an ass and after forty days you will find emeralds” Stillman, J. M. The story of Alchemy and Early Modern Chemistry; Dover: New York 1960, p. 160.

3 3 Main Divisions of Chemistry Organic Chemistry Inorganic Chemistry Physical Chemistry Analytical Chemistry Industrial Chemistry (Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry) Biochemistry How Does She/He do it? Materials Chemistry Environmental Chemistry Forensic Chemistry

4 4 What is Organic Chemistry? Physical Organic Chemistry Largest area of specialization among the various fields of chemistry Synthetic Organic Chemistry  Pharmaceutical Chemistry  Pulp and Paper Chemistry  Dye and Textile Chemistry  Formulation Chemistry (paint, food, petroleum products, adhesives, etc.)  Agricultural Chemistry  Polymer Chemistry Correlates the physical and chemical properties of compounds with their structural features.

5 5 We are interested in the multistep synthesis of natural products, as well as the development of new methodology, particularly to address problems of regio- or stereocontrol. At present (1999), we are working on problems suggested by structures such as those of germine, taxol, cardenolides and codeine Synthetic Organic Chemist: Professor Gilbert Stork

6 6 2-acetylnerifolin (class Cardenolide) Natural Product with Antitumor Activity Taxol Natural Product with Antitumor Activity

7 7 Among our areas of current interest in the anticancer field are epothilone and eleutherobin. While structurally diverse, these two compounds seem to function by a taxol-like mechanism in their ability to inhibit microtubule disassembly. Several projects are addressed to goal systems with immunochemical implications. Here we are particularly concerned with the construction of a carbohydrate- based tumor antigen vaccine. Synthetic Organic Chemist / Bioorganic Chemist: Professor Samuel Danishefsky

8 8 In most cases this involves investigating the interaction of small molecules with their biopolymeric receptors. The recent dramatic advancement in isolation, purification and microspectroscopic methods has made it possible for chemists to become involved in such studies on a molecular structural basis Natural Products Chemist : Professor Koji Nakanishi We deal with structural aspects of bioactive compounds and elucidation of their mode of action.

9 9 We view the photon as a reagent for initiating photoreactions and as a product of the deactivation of electronically excited molecules. Physical Organic Chemist / Photochemist Material Chemist: Professor Nicholas Turro Our group is developing a novel field termed "supramolecular" photochemistry, or photochemistry beyond the conventional intellectual and scientific constraints implied by the term "molecule". In supramolecular processes non-covalent bonds between molecules play a role analogous to that of covalent bonds between atoms.

10 10 What is Inorganic Chemistry? Deals with the properties of elements ranging from metals to non metals Organometallic Chemistry Bioinorganic Chemistry Ceramics and Glass Semiconductors

11 11 Organometallic Chemist / X-ray Spectroscopist: Professor Gerard Parkin One of our interests is concerned with compounds with metal-ligand multiple bonds, which are species of considerable current interest in terms of both their bonding and reactivity. We have a continuing interest in exploring unusual artifacts resulting from X-ray diffraction experiments (e.g. "bond stretch" isomerism)

12 12 Bio-organic Chemist : Professor Ronald Breslow In our major effort we are trying to prepare artificial enzymes that can imitate the function of natural enzymes. A related study involves the synthesis of mimics of antibodies or of biological receptor sites, constructing molecules that will bind to polypeptides with sequence selectivity in water, using mainly hydrophobic interactions. These could be very useful in modulating the activity of peptide hormones, for instance.

13 13 Measures, correlates, and explains the quantitative aspects of chemical processes What is Physical Chemistry? l Theoretical Chemistry Devoted to Quantum and Statistical Mechanics. Theoretical chemists use computers to help them solve complicated mathematical equations that simulate specific chemical processes. l Chemical Thermodynamics Deals with the relationship between heat, work, temperature, and energy of Chemical systems. l Chemical Kinetics Seeks to measure and understand the rates of chemical reactions.

14 14 Physical Chemistry l Electrochemistry Investigates the interrelationship between electric current and chemical change. l Photochemistry, Spectroscopy Uses radiation energy to probe and induce change within matter. l Surface Chemistry Examines the properties of chemical surfaces, using instruments that can provide a chemical profile of such surfaces.

15 15 My research is concerned with structural and dynamic processes in condensed phase systems and biomacromolecular systems. Theoretical Chemist: Professor Bruce Berne Because the systems studied are often complex many-body systems, it is necessary to utilize the powerful analytical methods of statistical mechanics as well as state-of-the-art methods of computer simulation involving molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo techniques.

16 16 My research is materials, surfaces and nanocrystals, especially in relation to optical and electronic properties. This work can include theoretical modeling, experimental chemical physics, and synthetic chemistry. We try to understand the evolution of solid state properties from molecular properties, and to create new materials with nanoscale structure by both kinetic and thermodynamic self-assembly methods. Materials Chemist: Professor Louis Brus

17 17 Our research program involves the design, synthesis, and detailed physical investigation of novel molecular and nanoparticle materials which display unique self-organized hierarchical structures and specific optical, electronic, and/or magnetic properties. Emphasis is placed on materials with potential applications in light-emitting devices, optical memory devices, molecular level and single particle level switching devices, and chemosensory devices. Our research is necessarily interdisciplinary where students and post-doctoral researchers are exposed to modern aspects of inorganic, physical, and materials chemistry. Materials Chemist / Near Field Microscopist Professor David Adams

18 18 We investigate molecular collisions that lead either to chemical reaction or to the exchange of energy between molecules. In particular, we have developed the infrared diode laser absorption probe technique to investigate collisions between molecules. Experimental Physical Chemist / Surface Chemist Professor George Flynn We also study the structure of molecules adsorbed on surfaces by using the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM).

19 19 What is Analytical Chemistry? QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS deals with the detection of elements or compounds (analytes) in different materials. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS refers to the measurement of the actual amounts of the analyte present in the material investigated. l Chemical and Biochemical Methods Gravimetry Titrimetric Analysis Enzymic Analysis Inmunochemical Analysis

20 20 Analytical Chemistry Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Mass Spectrometry (MS) Vibrational Spectroscopy (IR, RAMAN) X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XPS) Electronic Spectroscopy (UV, VIS, Luminiscence) Atomic Spectroscopy (AA, ICP) Rotational Spectroscopy (Microwave, FIR) l Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopic Methods

21 21 Analytical Chemistry Chromatographic Methods (Partition equilibrium) Gas Chromatography (GC) High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) Ion Chromatography

22 22 Analytical Chemistry Electrogravimetry Electrophoresis Conductimetry,Potentiometry Polarography Voltammetry l Electrochemical Methods l Thermal Methods Thermogravimetry (TG) Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) Thermomechanic Analysis (TMA)

23 23 We study enzyme mechanisms using NMR. A variety of experiments allow us to probe structural details,dynamics or chemical details such as protonation states. Biophysical Chemist / NMR Spectroscopist: Professor Ann McDermott In photosynthetic reaction centers, light energy is converted to chemical potential energy through long-range electron transfer events. A wealth of crystallographic, mutagenic, and spectroscopic work on these centers still leaves important mechanistic questions unanswered.

24 24 Molecular Biologist / Organic Chemist: Professor Virginia Cornish This research is interdisciplinary, bringing together the techniques of small-molecule synthesis, molecular and cellular biology, computer modeling, and mechanistic enzymology and structural biology. The need for efficient catalysts is fundamental. Biological catalysts drive cellular processes, and the chemical industry relies on catalysts for the synthesis of compounds ranging from pharmaceuticals to materials. Our research interests center on the development of selection strategies for identifying enzymes from large pools of proteins.

25 25 The Tools of the Trade Periodic Table of the Elements Ag Na Li Fr Cs Rb K Be Ca Mg Ra Ba Sr Sc La Y Ac Ti Hf Zr Rf V Ta Nb Ha Cr W Mo Sg Mn Re Tc Bh Fe Os Ru Hs Co Ir Rh Mt Ni Pt Pd Cu Au Zn Hg Cd Ga Al Tl In Pb Sn BiPo B Ge Si As SbTe At H CN P O Se S F Br Cl I Ne Kr Ar Rn Xe He Ce Th Pr Pa Nd U Pm Np Sm Pu Eu Am Gd Cm Tb Bk Dy Cf Ho Es Er Fm Tmi Md Yb No Lu Lr l

26 26 Interesting Applications The KSC-ALS Breadboard Project Humans take in oxygen, food and water, and expel carbon dioxide and organic waste. Plants utilize carbon dioxide, produce food, release oxygen, and purify water. Inedible plant material and human waste are degraded by microorganisms to recycle nutrients for plants in a process termed resource recovery.

27 27 produce food purify their water supply and create oxygen from the carbon dioxide they expel. When humans establish permanent bases on the Lunar surface or travel to Space for exploration, they need to develop systems to: Physico-chemical processes can perform the two latter tasks, but only biological processes can perform all three.

28 28 A life support system that would perform these regenerative functions, whether strictly by biological means or by a combination of biological and physical-chemical methods, has been called a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). Biological systems utilize plants and microorganisms to perform these life support tasks in a process termed bioregeneration.

29 29 A CELSS is a tightly controlled system, using crops to perform life support functions, under the restrictions of minimizing volume, mass, energy, and labor.

30 30 A career alternative for chemists, a multidisciplinary arena to prove the role of Chemistry as a "central science".


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