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**Nuclear Binding Energy**

Btot(A,Z) = [ ZmH + Nmn - m(A,Z) ] c Bm Bave(A,Z) = Btot(A,Z) / A HW 9 Krane 3.9 Atomic masses from: HW 10 Krane 3.12 Separation Energy Neutron separation energy: (BE of last neutron) Sn = [ m(A-1,Z) + mn – m(A,Z) ] c2 = Btot(A,Z) - Btot(A-1,Z) HW 11 Show that HW 12 Similarly, find Sp and S. HW 13 Krane 3.13 HW 14 Krane 3.14 Magic numbers Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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**Nuclear Binding Energy**

Magic numbers Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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**Nuclear Binding Energy**

In general X Y + a Sa(X) = (ma + mY –mX) c2 = BX –BY –Ba The energy needed to remove a nucleon from a nucleus ~ 8 MeV average binding energy per nucleon (Exceptions???). Mass spectroscopy B. Nuclear reactions S. Nuclear reactions Q-value Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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**Nuclear Binding Energy**

Surface effect Coulomb effect ~200 MeV Fission HWc 4 Think of a computer program to reproduce this graph. Fusion Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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**Nuclear Binding Energy**

HW 15 A typical research reactor has power on the order of 10 MW. Estimate the number of 235U fission events that occur in the reactor per second. b) Estimate the fuel-burning rate in g/s. Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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**Nuclear Binding Energy**

Is the nucleon bounded equally to every other nucleon? C ≡ this presumed binding energy. Btot = C(A-1) A ½ Bave = ½ C(A-1) Linear ??!!! Directly proportional ??!!! Clearly wrong … ! wrong assumption finite range of strong force, and force saturation. Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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**Nuclear Binding Energy**

Lead isotopes Z = 82 For constant Z Sn (even N) > Sn (odd N) For constant N Sp (even Z) > Sp (odd Z) Remember HW 14 (Krane 3.14). 208Pb (doubly magic) can then easily remove the “extra” neutron in 209Pb. 208Pb Neutron Separation Energy Sn (MeV) Neutron Number N Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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**Nuclear Binding Energy**

Extra Binding between pairs of “identical” nucleons in the same state (Pauli … !) Stability (e.g. -particle, N=2, Z=2). Sn (A, Z, even N) – Sn (A-1, Z, N-1) This is the neutron pairing energy. even-even more stable than even-odd or odd-even and these are more tightly bound than odd-odd nuclei. Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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**Abundance Systematics**

Odd N Even N Total Odd Z Even Z HWc 1\ Compare: even Z to odd Z. even N to odd N. even A to odd A. even-even to even-odd to odd-even to odd-odd. Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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**Neutron Excess Asymmetry Remember HWc 1. Odd A Even A Z = N**

Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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**Neutron Excess Asymmetry Remember HWc 1.**

Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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**Abundance Systematics**

Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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**Abundance Systematics**

NEUTRON CAPTURE CROSS SECTION Formation process Abundance NEUTRON NUMBER ABUNDANCE r s r s MASS NUMBER Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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**Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed Dababneh).**

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**The Semi-empirical Mass Formula**

von Weizsäcker in 1935. Liquid drop. Shell structure. Main assumptions: Incompressible matter of the nucleus R A⅓. Nuclear force saturates. Binding energy is the sum of terms: Volume term. 4. Asymmetry term. Surface term. 5. Pairing term. Coulomb term. 6. Closed shell term. ….. Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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**The Semi-empirical Mass Formula**

Volume Term Bv = + av A Bv volume R3 A Bv / A is a constant i.e. number of neighbors of each nucleon is independent of the overall size of the nucleus. constant The other terms are “corrections” to this term. Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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**The Semi-empirical Mass Formula**

Surface Term Bs = - as A⅔ Binding energy of inner nucleons is higher than that at the surface. Light nuclei contain larger number (per total) at the surface. At the surface there are: Nucleons. Remember t/R A-1/3 Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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**The Semi-empirical Mass Formula**

Coulomb Term BC = - aC Z(Z-1) / A⅓ Charge density Z / R3. W 2 R5. Why ??? W Z2 / R. Actually: W Z(Z-1) / R. BC / A = - aC Z(Z-1) / A4/3 Remember HW 8 … ?! Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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**The Semi-empirical Mass Formula**

Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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**The Semi-empirical Mass Formula**

Quiz 1 From our information so far we can write: For A = 125, what value of Z makes M(A,Z) a minimum? Is this reasonable…??? So …..!!!! Nuclear and Radiation Physics, BAU, First Semester, (Saed Dababneh).

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